Баб ел Мандеб

Баб ел Мандеб (арап. باب المندبврата суза)[1] је мореуз који дели Африку од Азије и спаја Црвено море и Аденски залив (Индијски океан). На афричкој страни мореуза је држава Џибути, а на азијској Јемен. Мореуз је добио име (вратена суза) због опасне навигације или, по арапској легенди, по земљотресу који је раздвојио Африку и Азију и изазвао велики број жртава (утапање). Мореуз је стратешки врло важан, а представља и један од најпрометнијих пловних путева.

Баб ел Мандеб
Bab-el-Mandeb, outer space.jpg
The Bab-el-Mandeb as seen from space (top) and on a topographical map (bottom).
ЛокацијаBetween East Africa and West Asia
Координате12° 35′ 00″ С; 43° 20′ 00″ И / 12.583333° С; 43.333333° И / 12.583333; 43.333333 Координате: 12° 35′ 00″ С; 43° 20′ 00″ И / 12.583333° С; 43.333333° И / 12.583333; 43.333333
Макс. дужина31 mi (50 km) km
Макс. ширина16 mi (26 km) km
Прос. дубина609 ft (186 m) m
ОстрваSeven Brothers, Doumeira, Perim
Водена површина на Викимедијиној остави

Широк је око 30 km. На азијској страни се налази рт Рас Менхели, а на афричкој Рас Сиуан. Вулканско острво Перим дели мореуз у 2 канала - Баб Искендер (источни) и Дакт-ел-Маун (западни). Баб Искандер (Александров мореуз) је широк око 3 km, а дубок око 30 m, док је Дакт ел Маун широк око 25 km, а дубок око 300 m. Уз афричку обалу се налази острвски архипелаг француског назива Септ Фререс (Седмеро браће).

Источним (Баб Искендер) каналом тече јака површинска струја према Црвеном мору, а дубинска струја у супротном смеру тече западним каналом.


Баб ел Мандеб
Bathymetric map of the Red Sea with the Bab-el-Mandeb at the bottom right

The strait derives its name from the dangers attending its navigation or, according to an Arab legend, from the numbers who were drowned by an earthquake that separated the Arabian Peninsula from the Horn of Africa.[2]

In "Bab-el-Mandeb", "Bab" refers to "gate" while "Mandeb" refers to "lamentation" or "grief".


The Bab-el-Mandeb acts as a strategic link between the Indian Ocean and the Mediterranean Sea via the Red Sea and the Suez Canal. In 2006, an estimated 33 Mbbl (5.200.000 m3) of oil passed through the strait per day, out of a world total of about 43 Mbbl/d (6.800.000 m3/d) moved by tankers.[3]

The distance across is about 26 km (16 mi) from Ras Menheli in Yemen to Ras Siyyan in Djibouti. The island of Perim divides the strait into two channels, of which the eastern, known as the Bab Iskender (Alexander's Strait), is 537 km (334 mi) wide and 29 m; 96 ft (16 fathoms) deep, while the western, or Dact-el-Mayun, has a width of 203 km (126 mi) and a depth of 310 m; 1.020 ft (170 fathoms). Near the coast of Djibouti lies a group of smaller islands known as the "Seven Brothers". There is a surface current inwards in the eastern channel, but a strong undercurrent outwards in the western channel.[2]


Flows of petroleum products and liquefied natural gas through the strait, 2014–2018

Paleo-environmental and tectonic events in the Miocene epoch created the Danakil Isthmus, a land bridge forming a broad connection between Yemen and Ethiopia.[4] During the last 100,000 years, eustatic sea level fluctuations have led to alternate opening and closing of the straits.[5] According to the recent single origin hypothesis,[6][7][8] the straits of Bab-el-Mandeb were probably witness to the earliest migrations of modern humans. It is presumed that the oceans were then much lower and the straits were much shallower or dry, which allowed a series of emigrations along the southern coast of Asia.

According to Ethiopian Orthodox Tewahedo Church tradition,[9][10][11][12] the straits of Bab-el-Mandeb were witness to the earliest migrations of Semitic Ge'ez speakers into Africa, occurring ц 1900 BC, roughly around the same time as the Hebrew patriarch Jacob.[13] The Kingdom of Aksum was a major regional power in the Horn of Africa. It extended its rule across the strait with the conquest of the Himyarite Kingdom shortly before the rise of Islam.

The British East India Company unilaterally seized the island of Perim in 1799 on behalf of its Indian empire. The government of Britain asserted its ownership in 1857 and erected a lighthouse there in 1861, using it to command the Red Sea and the trade routes through the Suez Canal.[2] It was used as a coaling station to refuel steamships until 1935 when the reduced use of coal as fuel rendered the operation unprofitable.[14]

The British presence continued until 1967 when the island became part of the People's Republic of South Yemen. Before the handover, the British government had put forward before the United Nations a proposal for the island to be internationalized[15][16] as a way to ensure the continued security of passage and navigation in the Bab-el-Mandeb, but this was refused.

In 2008 a company owned by Tarek bin Laden[17] unveiled plans to build a bridge named Bridge of the Horns across the strait, linking Yemen with Djibouti.[18] Middle East Development LLC issued a notice to construct a bridge passing across the Red Sea that would be the longest suspended passing in the world.[19] The project was assigned to engineering company COWI[20][21] in collaboration with architect studio Dissing+Weitling,[22] both from Denmark. It was announced in 2010 that Phase 1 had been delayed; however, as of mid-2016, nothing more has been heard about the project.


The Bab-el-Mandeb is also a sub-region in the Arab League, which includes Djibouti, Yemen, and Eritrea.


Country Area
(2016 est.)
Population density
(per km2)
Capital GDP (PPP) $M USD GDP per capita (PPP) $ USD
  Yemen 527,829 27,392,779 44.7 Sana'a $58,202 $2,249
  Eritrea 117,600 6,380,803 51.8 Asmara $9.121 $1,314
  Djibouti 23,200 846,687 37.2 Djibouti City $3.327 $3,351
Total 668,629 34,620,269 29.3 / km2 Various $70,650 $1841


  1. ^ Wehr's Arabic-English Dictionary, 1960.
  2. ^ а б в   Baynes, T.S., ур. (1878). „Bab-el-Mandeb”. Encyclopaedia Britannica. 3 (9th изд.). стр. 179. 
  3. ^ World Oil Transit Chokepoints Архивирано фебруар 18, 2015 на сајту Wayback Machine, Energy Information Administration, US Department of Energy
  4. ^ Henri J. Dumont (2009). The Nile: Origin, Environments, Limnology and Human Use. Monographiae Biologicae. 89. Springer Science & Business Media. стр. 603. ISBN 9781402097263. 
  5. ^ Climate in Earth History. National Academies. 1982. стр. 124. ISBN 9780309033299. 
  6. ^ Jurmain R, Kilgore L, Trevathan W (2008). Essentials of Physical Anthropology. Cengage Learning. стр. 266—. ISBN 978-0495509394. Приступљено 14. 6. 2011. 
  7. ^ Mafessoni F (јануар 2019). „Encounters with archaic hominins”. Nature Ecology & Evolution. 3 (1): 14—15. PMID 30478304. S2CID 53783648. doi:10.1038/s41559-018-0729-6. 
  8. ^ Villanea FA, Schraiber JG (јануар 2019). „Multiple episodes of interbreeding between Neanderthal and modern humans”. Nature Ecology & Evolution. 3 (1): 39—44. PMC 6309227 . PMID 30478305. doi:10.1038/s41559-018-0735-8. 
  9. ^ Moore, Dale H. (1936). „Christianity in Ethiopia”. Church History. 5 (3): 271—284. ISSN 0009-6407. JSTOR 3160789. S2CID 162029676. doi:10.2307/3160789. 
  10. ^ „Orthodox Christianity in the 21st Century”. Pew Research Center's Religion & Public Life Project. 8. 11. 2017. »Ethiopian Orthodox Tewahedo Church has an estimated 36 million adherents, nearly 14% of the world's total Orthodox population.« 
  11. ^ „Ethiopia: An outlier in the Orthodox Christian world”. Pew Research Center. 
  12. ^ „Ethiopia”. The World Factbook. 12. 9. 2022. Приступљено 2022-09-16. »Population 113,656,596 (2022 est.)… Ethiopian Orthodox 43.8%« 
  13. ^ Official website of EOTC Архивирано јун 25, 2010 на сајту Wayback Machine
  14. ^ Gavin, p. 291.
  15. ^ Halliday, Fred (1990). Revolution and Foreign Policy, the Case of South Yemen, 1967–1987. Cambridge University Press. стр. 11. ISBN 0-521-32856-X. 
  16. ^ Hakim, pp. 17-18.
  17. ^ Kenneth C. Crowe (26. 5. 1976). „The Dichotomy of Saudi Arabia”. Архивирано из оригинала на датум 18. 3. 2010. 
  18. ^ „Tarek Bin Laden's Red Sea bridge”. BBC News. 
  19. ^ Tom Sawyer (1. 5. 2007). „Notice-to-Proceed Launches Ambitious Red Sea Crossing”. Engineering News-Record. 
  20. ^ „Facts and figures - the quick version”. COWI. Приступљено 2016-09-22. 
  21. ^ „1930 - 1940: A nightclub – the first step towards an international company”. COWI. Архивирано из оригинала на датум 2008-03-15. Приступљено 2009-02-03. 
  22. ^ „Dissing + Weitling Architects, Denmark”. e-architect. Приступљено 2009-07-20. 
  23. ^ „CIA World Factbook”. The World Factbook. Langley, Virginia: Central Intelligence Agency. 


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