Вест

(преусмерено са Вијести)

Вест (ијек. вијест), најкраћи је, најједноставнији и најпопуларнији облик писане или говорне и визуелне информације о неком догађају, појави, друштвеном понашању или некој личности. Преувеличана или лажна вест у медијима назива се „новинска патка“.

Вест је главни жанр новинарског обликовања новости; отуда и назив многих дневних листова и информативних емисија. Сама реч вест потиче из језика старих Словена када је значила – „знање“. Под утицајем Словена пруска реч weist значи исто што и пољски облик wiešć. Тиме се вест дефинише као знање; ново – а постаје и комуниколошка дефиниција да је информација свако ново сазнање. Трећи српски лист штампан у Бечу 1792. имао је име „Славено-сербскија вједомости“.

ЗначењеУреди

ЕтимологијаУреди

Енглеска реч news развијена је у 14. веку као специјални вид употребе множине речи „new”. У средњоенглеском језику, еквивалентна реч је била newes, као што је у француском nouvelles и у немачком Neues. Слични развојни путеви присутни су у словенским језицима, чешка и словачка реч noviny (од nový, „ново”), што је когнат пољског nowiny, бугарског novini и руског новости - и у келстским језицима: велшко newyddion (од newydd) и корнско nowodhow (од nowydh).[1][2]

Џесики Гарецон Fинч се придају заслуге за формирање фразе „актуелни догађаји” (engl. current events) док је предавала на Барнард колеџу током 1890-их.[3]

НовостУреди

Као што произилази из имена, „вести” обично конотирају презентацију нових информација.[4][5] Новина вестима даје неизвестан квалитет који је разликује од пажљивијег истраживања историје или других научних дисциплина.[5][6][7] Док историчари имају тенденцију да догађаје посматрају као узрочно повезане манифестације основних процеса, вести углавном описују догађаје изоловано и искључују расправу о односима међу њима.[8] Вести типично описују свет у садашњости или у непосредној прошлости, чак и кад су се најважнији аспекти вести догодили давно у прошлости - или се очекује да ће се они појавити у будућности. Да би се оформила вест, процес који је у току мора да има неки „исказ”, догађај у времену који га усидрава на садашњи тренутак.[8][9] Слично томе, вести се често баве аспектима стварности који изгледају необично, девијантно или необично.[10] Отуда чувени изрека да „пас уједа човека” није вест, док „човек уједа пса” јесте.[11]

Још једна последица новости вести је да, како нова технологија омогућава новим медијима брже ширење вести, „споријим” облицима комуникације остаје могућност да се удаље од „вести” и усредсреде на „анализу”.[12]

РобаУреди

Према неким теоријама, „вести” су све што индустрија вести проје.[13] Новинарство, широко схваћено на исти начин, је чин или занимање прикупљања и пружања вести.[14][15] Са комерцијалне перспективе, вести су једноставно један улаз, заједно са папиром (или електронским сервером) неопходан за припрему коначног производа за дистрибуцију.[16] Новинска агенција овај ресурс испоручује „на велико”, а издавачи га побољшавају за малопродају.[17][18]

РеференцеУреди

  1. ^ "News", Oxford English Dictionary, accessed online, 5 March 2015. "Etymology: Spec. use of plural of new n., after Middle French nouvelles (see novel n.), or classical Latin nova new things, in post-classical Latin also news (from late 13th cent. in British sources), use as noun of neuter plural of novus new (compare classical Latin rēs nova (feminine singular) a new development, a fresh turn of events). Compare later novel n."
  2. ^ „Online Etymology Dictionary”. Приступљено 7. 7. 2012. 
  3. ^ „Mrs. John Cosgrave Is Dead Founded Finch Junior College: Was Institution's President Nearly 50 Years; Coined 'Current Events' Phrase”. New York Herald Tribune. 1. 11. 1949. 
  4. ^ Stephens, History of News (1988), p. 13.
  5. 5,0 5,1 Smith,The Newspaper: An International History (1979), p. 7. "In the information which [the newspaper] chose to supply, and in the many sources of information which it took over and reorganized, it contained a bias towards recency or newness; to its readers, it offered regularity of publication. It had to be filled with whatever was available, unable to wait until information of greater clarity or certainty or of wider perspective had accumulated."
  6. ^ Salmon, The Newspaper and the Historian (1923), p. 10. Salmon quotes Théophraste Renaudot: "History is the record of things accomplished. A Gazette is the reflection of feelings and rumors of the time which may or may not be true."
  7. ^ Pettegree, The Invention of News (2014), p. 3. "Even as news became more plentiful in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, the problem of establishing the veracity of news reports remained acute. The news market—and by the sixteenth century it was a real market—was humming with conflicting reports, some incredible, some all too plausible: lives, fortunes, even the fate of kingdoms could depend upon acting on the right information."
  8. 8,0 8,1 Park, "News as a Form of Knowledge" (1940), pp. 675–676. "News is not history because, for one thing among others, it deals, on the whole, with isolated events and does not seek to relate them to one another either in the form of causal or in the form of teleological sequences."
  9. ^ Schudson, "When? Deadlines, Datelines, and History"; in Reading The News (1986), ed. Manoff & Schudson; pp. 81–82.
  10. ^ Shoemaker & Cohen, News Around the World (2006), pp. 13–14.
  11. ^ Park, "News as a Form of Knowledge" (1940), p. 678.
  12. ^ Stephens, History of News (1988), p. 56. "It is axiomatic in journalism that the fastest medium with the largest potential audience will disseminate the bulk of a community's breaking news. Today that race is being won by television and radio. Consequently, daily newspapers are beginning to underplay breaking news about yesterday's events (already old news to much of their audience) in favor of more analytical perspectives on those events. In other words, dailies are now moving in the direction toward which weeklies retreated when dailies were introduced."
  13. ^ Heyd, Reading newspapers (2012), pp. 35, 82. "... newspapers were defining what news was, categorizing and expanding their domain on the fly. Indeed, Somerville argues that 'news' is not an objective 'historical' concept but one that is defined by the news industry as it creates a commodity sold by publishers to the public."
  14. ^ Stephens, History of News (1988), p. 3. "The term journalism is used broadly here and elsewhere in the book to refer to more than just the production of printed 'journals'; it is the most succinct term we have for the activity of gathering and disseminating news."
  15. ^ Shoemaker & Cohen, News Around the World (2006), p. 7. "[...] for the journalist the assessment of newsworthiness is an operationalization based on the aforementioned conditions. In other words, the practitioner typically constructs a method for fulfilling the daily job requirements. He or she rarely has an underlying theoretical understanding of what defining something or someone as newsworthy entails. To be sure, individual journalists may engage in more abstract musings about their work, but the profession as a whole is content to apply these conditions and does not care that the theory behind the application is not widely understood. Hall (1981, 147) calls news a 'slippery' concept, with journalists defining newsworthiness as those things that get into the news media."
  16. ^ Pettegree, The Invention of News (2014), p. 6. "News fitted ideally into the expanding market for cheap print, and it swiftly became an important commodity."
  17. ^ Boyd-Barrett & Rantanen, The Globalization of News (1998), p. 6. "News agency news is considered 'wholesale' resource material, something that has to be worked upon, smelted, reconfigured, for conversion into a news report that is suitable for consumption by ordinary readers. It has also suited the news agencies to be thus presented: they have needed to seem credible to extensive networks of 'retail' clients of many different political and cultural shades and hues. They have wanted to avoid controversy, to maintain an image of plain, almost dull, but completely dependable professionalism."
  18. ^ Phil MacGregor, "International News Agencies: Global eyes that never blink", in Fowler-Watt & Allan (eds.), Journalism (2013).

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