Воз — разлика између измена

13.610 бајтова додато ,  пре 1 године
.
(Спашавам 1 извора и означавам 0 мртвим. #IABot (v2.0beta9))
(.)
 
Неки путнички возови, на дугим и кратким релацијама, користе кола на [[Bilevel rail car|два дека]] да би могли да превезу више путника по возу.<ref>{{cite news|url=http://www.montrealgazette.com/technology/green+trains+know+says/4084097/story.html|archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20110114214213/http://www.montrealgazette.com/technology/green%2Btrains%2Bknow%2Bsays/4084097/story.html|dead-url=yes|archive-date = 14. 01. 2011.|accessdate = 11. 01. 2011.|newspaper=The Montreal Gazette|date = 10. 01. 2011.|title=How green are our trains? We don't know, AMT says|df=dmy-all}}</ref><ref name="EXPERIMENT">{{cite news|title=Via Rail begins experiment with Amtrak bi-level train|url=https://news.google.com/newspapers?id=7URgAAAAIBAJ&sjid=tXANAAAAIBAJ&pg=6050,1291356|accessdate = 11. 01. 2011.|newspaper=The Phoenix|date = 21. 09. 1984.}}</ref> Дизајн кола и њихова општа безбедност за путнике су драстично еволуирали током времена, што чини превоз возом релативно безбедним.
{{рут}}
=== Возови на даљину ===
Long-distance trains travel between many cities and/or regions of a country, and sometimes cross several countries. They often have a [[dining car]] or restaurant car to allow passengers to have a meal during the course of their journey. Trains travelling overnight may also have [[sleeping car]]s. Currently much of travel on these distances of over {{convert|500|miles}} is done by air in many countries but in others long-distance travel by rail is a popular or the only cheap way to travel long distances.
 
==== Брза пруга ====
[[Датотека:Shinkansen 500 Kyoto 2005-03-19.jpg|thumb|250px|Japanese [[Shinkansen]] [[500 Series Shinkansen|500 Series]] train]]
{{Main|High-speed rail}}One notable and growing long-distance train category is high-speed rail. Generally, high speed rail runs at speeds above {{convert|200|km/h|mph|-1|abbr=on}} and often operates on dedicated track that is surveyed and prepared to accommodate high speeds. Japan's [[Shinkansen]] popularly known as ("bullet-train") commenced operation in 1964, and was the first successful example of a high speed passenger rail system.
 
The fastest wheeled train running on rails is France's [[TGV]] (Train à Grande Vitesse, literally "high speed train"), which achieved a speed of {{convert|574.8|km/h|mph|1|abbr=on}}, twice the takeoff speed of a [[Boeing 727]] [[jet airliner|jetliner]], under test conditions in 2007. The highest speed currently attained in scheduled revenue operation is {{convert|350|km/h|mph|-1|abbr=on}} on the [[Beijing–Tianjin Intercity Rail]] and [[Wuhan–Guangzhou High-Speed Railway]] systems in China. The TGV runs at a maximum revenue speed of {{convert|300|-|320|km/h|mph|-1|abbr=on}}, as does Germany's [[InterCityExpress|Inter-City Express]] and Spain's [[AVE]] (Alta Velocidad Española).
 
In most cases, high-speed rail travel is time- and cost-competitive with air travel when distances do not exceed {{convert|500|to|600|km|mi|-1|abbr=on}}, as airport [[check-in]] and boarding procedures may add as many as two hours to the actual transit time.<ref>{{cite book|author=Central Japan Railway |title=Central Japan Railway Data Book 2006 |year=2006 |pages=16}}</ref> Also, rail operating costs over these distances may be lower when the amount of [[jet fuel|fuel]] consumed by an [[airliner]] during [[takeoff]] and climbout is considered. As travel distance increases, the latter consideration becomes less of the total cost of operating an airliner and air travel becomes more cost-competitive.
 
Some high speed rail equipment employs [[tilting train|tilting technology]] to improve stability in curves. Examples of such equipment are the [[Advanced Passenger Train]] (APT), the [[Pendolino]], the [[N700 Series Shinkansen]], [[Amtrak]]'s [[Acela Express]] and the [[Talgo]]. Tilting is a dynamic form of [[superelevation]], allowing both low- and high-speed traffic to use the same trackage (though not simultaneously), as well as producing a more comfortable ride for passengers.
 
==== Међуградски возови ====
[[Датотека:City of Rockhampton train (Sunshine railway station, Brisbane).jpg|thumb|250px|The [[Electric Tilt Train]], the fastest train in Australia, travelling between [[Brisbane]] and [[Rockhampton]] in [[Queensland]], a distance of 615km.]]
{{Main|Inter-city rail}}
 
Trains can be divided into three major groups:
* [[Inter-city rail|Inter-city]] trains: connecting cities in the fastest time possible, bypassing all intermediate stations
* [[Express train|Express]] trains: calling at larger intermediate stations between cities, serving large urban [[communities]]
* [[Regional rail|Regional]] trains: calling at all intermediate stations between cities, serving all lineside [[communities]]
 
The distinction between the types can be thin or even non-existent. Trains can run as inter-city services between major cities, then revert to a fast or even regional train service to serve communities at the [[wikt:extremity|extremity]] of their journey. This practice allows [[marginalization|marginal]] communities remaining to be served while saving money at the expense of a longer journey time for those wishing to travel to the [[Train station#Terminus|terminus]] station.
 
==== Регионални возови ====
{{Main|Regional rail}}
 
Regional trains usually connect between towns and cities, rather than purely linking major population hubs like inter-city trains, and serve local traffic demand in relatively [[Rural|rural areas]].
 
==== Жељезничка пруга већа брзина ====
{{Main|Жељезничка пруга већа брзина}
 
Higher-speed rail is a special category of trains. The trains for higher-speed rail services can operate at top speeds that are higher than conventional inter-city trains but the speeds are not as high as those in the high-speed rail services. These services are provided after improvements to the conventional rail infrastructure in order to support trains that can operate safely at higher speeds.
 
=== Возови на кратке раздаљине ===
 
==== Приградски возови ====
[[Датотека:Mumbai Train.JPG|thumb|250px|[[Mumbai Suburban Railway|Mumbai's suburban trains]] handle 7.24 million commuters daily.<ref>{{cite web |url=http://www.mrvc.indianrail.gov.in/overview.htm |work=Official webpage of Mumbai Railway Vikas Corporation |title=Overview Of the existing Mumbai Suburban Railway |accessdate=2008-12-11 |archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20080620033027/http://www.mrvc.indianrail.gov.in/overview.htm <!-- Bot retrieved archive --> |archivedate=2008-06-20}}</ref>]]
 
For shorter distances many cities have networks of [[commuter train]]s (also known as suburban trains) serving the city and its suburbs. Trains are a very efficient [[mode of transport]] to cope with large traffic demand in a [[metropolis]]. Compared with road transport, it carries many people with much smaller land area and little air pollution. Commuter rail also travels longer ranges compared to rapid transit systems with comparatively less frequency and may share tracks with other trains.<ref>{{Cite web|url=http://www.differencebetween.info/difference-between-metro-and-local-train|title=Difference between Metro and Local Train|last=Sangeeta|date=2013-06-24|website=www.differencebetween.info|access-date=2018-02-09}}</ref>
 
Some carriages may be laid out to have more standing room than seats, or to facilitate the carrying of [[Baby transport#Pushable vehicles|prams]], [[bicycle|cycles]] or [[wheelchair]]s. Some countries have [[Bilevel car|double-decked passenger trains]] for use in conurbations. Double deck high speed and sleeper trains are becoming more common in mainland Europe.
 
Sometimes extreme congestion of commuter trains becomes a problem. For example, an estimated 3.5 million passengers ride every day on [[Yamanote Line]] in Tokyo, Japan, with its 29 stations. For comparison, the [[New York City Subway]] carries 5.7 million passengers per day on {{NYCS const|routes}} services serving {{NYCS const|number|total}} stations. To cope with large traffic, special cars in which the bench seats fold up to provide standing room only during the morning rush hour (until 10 a.m.) are operated in Tokyo ([[E231 series]] train). In the past this train has included 2 cars with six doors on each side to shorten the time for passengers to get on and off at station.
 
Passenger trains usually have [[Emergency brake (train)|emergency brake]] handles (or a "communication cord") that the public can operate. Misuse is punished by a heavy fine.
 
Various commuter and suburban train operators (e.g. [[Sydney Trains]], [[NJ Transit Rail Operations|NJ Transit]], [[Réseau Express Régional|Paris RER]]) use [[Bilevel rail car|double-decker trains]]. Double-decker trains offer increased capacity even when running less services.<ref>{{Cite news|url=http://www.abc.net.au/news/2014-04-11/barry-ofarrell-sydney-trains-claim-doubtful/5371446|title=Single-decker v double-decker trains: Barry O'Farrell's claim doubtful|date=2014-04-11|work=ABC News|access-date=2018-03-29|language=en-AU}}</ref>
 
=== Унутар градова ===
 
==== Брзи транзит ====
{{Main|Метро}}
[[Датотека:Lancaster Gate tube.jpg|thumbnail|right|250px|A metro train in London]]
Large cities often have a [[rapid transit|metro]] system, also called underground, subway or tube. The trains are electrically powered, usually by [[third rail]], and their railroads are separate from other traffic, usually without [[level crossing]]s. Usually they run in tunnels in the city center and sometimes on elevated structures in the outer parts of the city. They can accelerate and decelerate faster than heavier, long-distance trains.
 
The term '''[[rapid transit]]''' is used for public transport such as commuter trains, metro and light rail. However, services on the New York City Subway have been referred to as "trains".
 
==== Трамвај ====
{{Main|Трамвај}}
[[Датотека:Karlikwbytomiu.jpg|thumb|left|250px|An [[Alstom Citadis]] 100 articulated tram in [[Bytom]], [[Poland]]]]
 
In the United Kingdom, the distinction between a tramway and a railway is precise and defined in law. In the U.S. and Canada, such street railways are referred to as [[tram|trolleys]] or [[streetcar]]s. The key physical difference between a railroad and a trolley system is that the latter runs primarily on public streets, whereas trains have a [[Right of way (transportation)|right-of-way]] separated from the public streets. Often the U.S.-style [[interurban]] and modern [[light rail]] are confused with a trolley system, as it too may run on the street for short or medium-length sections. In some languages, the word ''tram'' also refers to interurban and light rail-style networks, in particular Dutch.
 
The length of a tram or trolley may be determined by national regulations. Germany has the so-called Bo-Strab standard, restricting the length of a tram to 75 meters, while in the U.S., vehicle length is normally restricted by local authorities, often allowing only a single type of vehicle to operate on the network.
 
==== Лаки шински систем ====
{{main|Лаки шински систем}}
 
The term light rail is sometimes used for a modern tram system, despite light rail lines commonly having a mostly exclusive right-of-way, more similar to that of a heavy-rail line and less alike to that of a tramway. It may also mean an intermediate form between a tram and a train, similar to a [[Rapid transit|subway]] except that it may have level crossings. These are then usually protected with crossing gates. In U.S. terminology these systems are often referred to as interurban, as they connect larger urban areas in the vicinity of a major city to that city. Modern light rail systems often use abandoned heavy rail rights of way (e.g. former railway lines) to revitalize deprived areas and [[redevelopment]] sites in and around large [[agglomerations]].
 
==== Једноколосечна железница ====
[[Датотека:Mono-shibaura.jpg|thumb|250px|[[Tokyo Monorail|Токијски Монорејл]]]]
{{Main|Једноколосечна железница}}
 
Monorails were developed to meet medium-demand traffic in urban transit, and consist of a train running on a single rail, typically elevated. Monorails represent a relatively small part of the overall railway field.Almost all monorail trains are using linear induction motors.<ref>{{Cite web|url=http://www.hitachi-rail.com/products/rolling_stock/linear/index.html|title=Linear Motor Driven System : Hitachi-Rail.com|last=Ltd.|first=Hitachi|website=www.hitachi-rail.com|language=en|access-date=2018-09-26}}</ref>
 
==== МАГЛЕВ воз ====
 
{{Main|МАГЛЕВ воз}}
In order to achieve much faster operation over {{convert|500|km/h|mph|abbr=on}}, innovative maglev technology has been researched since the early 20th century. The technology uses magnets to levitate the train above the track, reducing friction and allowing higher speeds. An early prototype was demonstrated in 1913, and the first commercial maglev train was an [[airport shuttle]] introduced in 1984.
 
The [[Shanghai Maglev Train]], opened in 2003, is the fastest commercial train service of any kind, operating at speeds of up to {{convert|430|km/h|mph|abbr=on}}. Maglev has not yet been used for inter-city [[Public transport|mass transit]] routes.
 
[[Датотека:Neue Mühle 3.jpg|right|thumb|250px|The [[Bombardier Talent]] articulated regional railcar.]]
=== Моторни воз ===
 
A railcar, in [[British English]] and [[Australian English]], is a self-propelled [[Rail transport|railway]] [[vehicle]] designed to [[transport]] passengers. The term "railcar" is usually used in reference to a train consisting of a single [[Coach (rail)|coach]] (carriage, car), with a driver's cab at one or both ends. Some railways, e.g., the [[Great Western Railway]], used the term [[Railmotor]]. If it is able to pull a full train, it is rather called a [[Rail motor coach|motor coach]] or a motor car.<ref>[http://www.parrypeoplemovers.com/ppm35-feature.htm www.parrypeoplemovers.com] {{webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20090106103408/http://www.parrypeoplemovers.com/ppm35-feature.htm |date=6. January 2009 }} Light Railcars and Railbuses - Retrieved on 2008-06-09</ref> The term is sometimes also used as an alternative name for the small types of [[multiple unit]] which consist of more than one coach.
 
== Галерија ==