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'''Ото Едуард Леополд фон Бизмарк-Шенхаузен''' ({{јез-нем|Otto Eduard Leopold von Bismarck-Schönhausen}}; [[Шенхаузен (Елбе)|Шенхаузен]], [[1. април]] [[1815]] — [[Аумиле|Фредрихсрух]], [[30. јул]] [[1898]]) је био [[војвода]] од [[Лауенбург (Елбе)|Лауенбурга]] и један од најважнијих вођа са друге половине [[19. век|деветнаестог века]].<ref name=Steinberg>{{Cite book| authorlink= | last=Steinberg| first=Jonathan| title=Bismarck: A Life| url=https://books.google.com/books?id=HAppAgAAQBAJ&pg=PA51&lpg=PA51&dq=Bismarck+studied+Agriculture+in+Greifswald+in+1838.&source=bl&ots=LZikJxculW&sig=btfxmgs1TRrm3bUCMEeXS5sJAsc&hl=en&sa=X&ei=DaeiVNSeMseBU5WSgKAD&redir_esc=y#v=onepage&q=Bismarck%20studied%20Agriculture%20in%20Greifswald%20in%201838.&f=false| isbn = 9780199782529| pages = 51}}</ref><ref name=hull>{{Cite book| authorlink= | last=Hull| first=Isabel V.| title=The Entourage of Kaiser Wilhelm II, 1888–1918| url=http://books.google.com/books?id=pesmqV6vskkC&printsec=frontcover#v=onepage&q&f=false| year = 2004| isbn = 9780521533218| pages = 85}}</ref> Као премијер [[Пруско краљевство|пруског краљевства]] (1862—1890.) под геслом „крв и гвожђе“ серијом победоносних ратова ујединио је 25 немачких држава у [[Немачко царство]], основано [[1871]]. с [[Вилхелм I Немачки|Вилхелмом I Хоенцолерном]] као царем. После уједињења је постао први [[канцелар (Њемачка)|канцелар]] (1871—1890) Немачког царства.
 
У почетку је био јункерски политичар дубоко конзервативних, аристократских и монархистичких гледишта, који се борио против растућег социјал-демократског покрета у осмој деценији [[19. век]]а, ставио је ван закона више организација и увео је старосне пензије, здравствено осигурање, као и радничко осигурање у случају несреће. Постао је познат под надимком ''Челични канцелар'' и сматра се једном од најважнијих фигура у немачкој историји. Био је веома побожан хришћанин.
 
== Завештање и сећање ==
Историчари су у знатној мери достигли консензус по питању садржаја, функције и важности Бизмарковог лика у немачкој политици током задњих 125 година.<ref>{{harvnbsfn|Müller|2008|pp=}}</ref><ref>{{harvnb|Urbach|1998|pp=}}</ref> Према Стеинберг, његова достигнућа током 1862–71 су била "највећа дипломатска и политичка остварења било којег лидера у задња два века."{{sfn|Steinberg|2011|p=184}}
 
Бизмаркова најважнија оставштина је уједињење Немачке. Немачка је постојала као колекција стотина засебних кнежевина и [[Империјални слободни град|слободних градова]] још од доба формирања [[Свето римско царство|Свете римске империје]]. Током векова разни владари су безуспешно покушавали да уједине немачке државе све до Бизмарковог времена. Разна немачка краљевства су се ујединила у једну државу углавном као резултат Бизмаркових напора.
== Литература ==
{{refbegin|2}}
* {{Cite book| ref=harv|authorlink= | last=Hull| first=Isabel V.| title=The Entourage of Kaiser Wilhelm II, 1888–1918| url=http://books.google.com/books?id=pesmqV6vskkC&printsec=frontcover#v=onepage&q&f=false| year = 2004| isbn = 9780521533218| pages = 85}}
* {{Cite book| ref=harv|authorlink= | last=Steinberg| first=Jonathan| title=Bismarck: A Life| url=https://books.google.com/books?id=HAppAgAAQBAJ&pg=PA51&lpg=PA51&dq=Bismarck+studied+Agriculture+in+Greifswald+in+1838.&source=bl&ots=LZikJxculW&sig=btfxmgs1TRrm3bUCMEeXS5sJAsc&hl=en&sa=X&ei=DaeiVNSeMseBU5WSgKAD&redir_esc=y#v=onepage&q=Bismarck%20studied%20Agriculture%20in%20Greifswald%20in%201838.&f=false| isbn = 9780199782529| pages = 51}}
 
* {{Cite book| authorlink= | last=Steinberg| first=Jonathan| title=Bismarck: A Life| url=https://books.google.com/books?id=HAppAgAAQBAJ&pg=PA51&lpg=PA51&dq=Bismarck+studied+Agriculture+in+Greifswald+in+1838.&source=bl&ots=LZikJxculW&sig=btfxmgs1TRrm3bUCMEeXS5sJAsc&hl=en&sa=X&ei=DaeiVNSeMseBU5WSgKAD&redir_esc=y#v=onepage&q=Bismarck%20studied%20Agriculture%20in%20Greifswald%20in%201838.&f=false| isbn = 9780199782529| pages = 51}}
 
 
=== Биографска литература ===
* {{Citation | last = Crankshaw| first = Edward | title = Bismarck | publisher = The Viking Press | year = 1981}}.
* -{Darmstaedter, Friedrich. '' Bismarck and the Creation of the Second Reich'' (2008)}-
* {{citeCite book| ref = harv| last = Dawson| first = William Harbutt| title = The Evolution of Modern Germany| url = https://books.google.com/books?id=neRCAAAAIAAJ| year = 1909| publisher = T. Fisher Unwin}}
* -{Engelberg, Ernst. ''Bismarck''; 2 vols., (1986–90); major academic study by an east-German historian (only in German)}-
* {{citeCite book | ref = harv | last = Eyck| first = Erich | title = Bismarck and the German Empire | year = 1964| isbn = 978-0-393-00235-5}} (excerpt and text search)
* {{Citation | last = Feuchtwanger | first = Edgar | title = Bismarck | publisher = Routledge | series = Historical Biographies | year = 2002 | url = http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=108426285 | accessdate = 09. 03. 2017 | archiveurl = https://web.archive.org/web/20100420055859/http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o | archivedate = 20. 04. 2010 | deadurl = yes | df = }}, 276 pp., basic starting point.
* {{Citation | last = Gall| first = Lothar | authorlink = | title = Bismarck: The White Revolutionary | year = 1986}}, 2 vol; major academic study
* {{citeCite book| ref = harv| last = Headlam| first = James Wycliffe| title = Bismarck and the Foundation of the German Empire| url = https://books.google.com/books?id=HFkbAAAAMAAJ| year = 1908| publisher = G.P. Putnam's Sons}}
* {{Citation | last = Heuston| first = Kimberley Burton | title = Otto von Bismarck: Iron Chancellor of Germany | publisher = Franklin Watts | year = 2010}}.
* {{Citation | last = Hollyday| first = FBM | title = Bismarck | series = Great Lives Observed | publisher = Prentice-Hall | year = 1970}}.
* {{Citation | last = Kent| first = George O | title = Bismarck and His Times | year = 1978| url = http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=7561027}}.
* {{Citation | first = Henry A | last = Kissinger| title = Otto von Bismarck, Master Statesman | newspaper = The New York Times | url = http://www.nytimes.com/2011/04/03/books/review/book-review-bismarck-by-jonathan-steinberg.html?_r=1&nl=books&emc=booksupdateema1 | date = 31. 303. 2011 | type = book review}}.
* {{citeCite book| ref=harv|author = Lerman, Katharine Anne| title = Bismarck: Profiles in Power| location = | publisher = Longman| year = 2004| isbn = 978-0-582-03740-3| pages = }}; 312pp
* {{citeCite book | ref = harv | last = Ludwig| first = Emil | title = Wilhelm Hohenzollern: The last of the Kaisers | place = New York | year = 1927a | url =https://books.google.com/?id=ghlSoo9pEUcC | isbn = 9780766143418}}, popular.
* {{Citation | last = Ludwig| first = Emil | title = Bismarck: The Story of a Fighter | publisher = Little, Brown | year = 1927b}}, popular.
* {{Citation | last = Pflanze| first = Otto | title = Bismarck and the Development of Germany }}; 3 vols., 1963–90. [http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=33732682 vol 1 online, ''Bismarck and the Development of Germany: The Period of Unification, 1815–1871'']
* {{Citation | last = Pflanze| first = Otto | title = Bismarck and German Nationalism | journal = American Historical Review | volume = 60 | number = 3 | year = 1955| jstor = 1845577 | doi=10.2307/1845577| pages = 548–66}}
* -{Jonathan Steinberg. ''Bismarck: A Life'' (Oxford University Press, 2011), 592 pp}-
* {{Citation | author-link = | last = Stern| first = Fritz | title = Gold and Iron: Bismarck, Bleichröder and the Building of the German Empire | publisher = Penguin | year = 1977}}.
* {{Citation | author-link = | last = Taylor| first = A.J.P. | title = Bismarck: the Man and the Statesman | publisher = Alfred A Knopf | place = New York | year = 1969| url = http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=14683010}}.
 
=== Анкете ===
* -{Berghahn, Volker. ''Imperial Germany, 1871–1914'' (1994)}-
* {{Citation | last = Blackbourn| first = David| title = The Long Nineteenth Century: A History of Germany, 1780–1918 | year = 1998}}.
* -{Clark, Christopher. ''Iron Kingdom: The Rise and Downfall of Prussia, 1600–1947'' (2009)}-
* -{Craig, Gordon A. ''Germany, 1866–1945'' (1978) [http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=30331035 online edition]}-
* {{Citation | last = Holborn| first = Hajo | contribution = The Constitutional Conflict in Prussia and the Early Years of the Bismarck Ministry | title = The History of Modern Germany 1840–1945 | publisher = Alfred A Knopf | year = 1969| pages = 131–72}}.
* {{Citation | last = Holborn| first = Hajo | author-mask = 8 | contribution = The Founding of the New German Empire, 1865–71 | title = The History of Modern Germany 1840–1945 | publisher = Alfred A Knopf | year = 1969| pages = 173–229}}.
* {{Citation | last = Holborn| first = Hajo | author-mask = 8 | contribution = Bismarck and the Consolidation of the German Empire, 1871–90 | title = The History of Modern Germany 1840–1945 | publisher = Alfred A Knopf | year = 1969| pages = 233–97}}.
* Langer, William L. ''European alliances and alignments, 1871–1890'' (1964)
* {{Citation | first = James N | last = Retallack| title = Imperial Germany, 1871–1918 | publisher = Oxford University Press | year = 2008}}.
* -{Robinson, Janet, and Joe Robinson. ''Handbook of Imperial Germany'' (2009) [http://www.amazon.com/dp/1449021131 excerpt and text search]}-
* -{Sheehan, James J. ''German History, 1770–1866'' (1989), dense, thorough political history}-
* {{Citation | last = Sheehan| first = James J | author-mask = 8 | title = German liberalism in the ninetury century | year = 1978| url = http://hdl.handle.net/2027/heb.01317.0001.001 | publisher = University of Chicago Press; ACLS | format = ebooks}}
 
=== Специјализоване студије ===
* {{Citation | last = Beck| first = Hermann| title = Origins of the Authoritarian Welfare State in Prussia, 1815–1870 | year = 1995}}.
* -{Clark, Chester Wells. ''Franz Joseph and Bismarck: The Diplomacy of Austria before the War of 1866'' (Harvard University Press, 1934).}-
* {{Citation | last = Field| first = WG| title= Bismarck's First School | journal = The Journal of Education| volume= 20| year = 1898| publisher=Oxford University Press| url = http://books.google.com/books?pg=PA603&id=MiwnAAAAMAAJ| pages = 603–4}}.
* Goddard, Stacie E. "When Right Makes Might: How Prussia Overturned the European Balance of Power," ''International Security,'' Volume 33, Number 3, Winter 2008/09. стр. 110–42 in [http://muse.jhu.edu/journals/international_security/v033/33.3.goddard.html Project MUSE], covers 1864–71
* {{Citation | first = Michael B | last = Gross| title = The War against Catholicism: Liberalism and the Anti-Catholic Imagination in Nineteenth-Century Germany | year = 2005}}.
* -{Hennock, E. P. ''The Origin of the Welfare State in England and Germany, 1850–1914: Social Policies Compared'' (Cambridge University Press, 2007) 381 pp.}-
* -{Hennock, E. P. "Social Policy in the Bismarck Era: A Progress Report," ''German History,'' (June 2003) 21#2 pp 229–238 [http://gh.oxfordjournals.org/content/21/2/229.extract online]}-
* {{citeCite book| ref = harv| last = Howard| first = Michael| title = The Franco-Prussian War: The German Invasion of France 1870 1871| url = https://books.google.com/books?id=h2wEeRuei6AC| year = 1981| publisher = Taylor & Francis| isbn = 978-0-203-99305-7}}
* {{Citation | first = Paul M | last = Kennedy| title = The Rise of the Anglo-German Antagonism, 1860–1914 | year = 1988}}.
* -{Kissinger, Henry. "The White Revolutionary: Reflections on Bismarck," ''Daedalus'' Vol. 97, No. 3, (Summer, 1968). стр. 888–924 [http://www.jstor.org/stable/20023844 in JSTOR]}-
* -{Lord, Robert H. "Bismarck and Russia in 1863," ''American Historical Review,'' Vol. 29, No. 1 (October 1923). стр. 2–48. [http://www.jstor.org/pss/1839273 in JSTOR]}-
* -{Mork, Gordon R. "Bismarck and the 'Capitulation' of German Liberalism," ''Journal of Modern History'' Vol. 43, No. 1 (Mar., 1971). стр. 59–75 [http://www.jstor.org/stable/1877926 in JSTOR]}-
* -{Paur, Philip. "The Corporatist Character of Bismarck's Social Policy," ''European History Quarterly'', Oct 1981; vol. 11: pp. 427–60.}-
* {{Citation | last = Ross| first = Ronald J | title = The Failure of Bismarck's Kulturkampf: Catholicism and State Power in Imperial Germany, 1871–1887 | publisher = The Catholic University of America Press | year = 1998}}, 219 pp.
* -{Stone, James. "Bismarck Ante Portas! Germany and the Seize Mai Crisis of 1877." ''Diplomacy & Statecraft'' (2012) 23#2 pp: 209-235.}-
* -{Stern, Fritz. ''Gold and Iron: Bismark, Bleichroder, and the Building of the German Empire'' (1979) economic and financial history; Bismark worked closely with this leading banker [http://www.amazon.com/Gold-Iron-Bismark-Bleichroder-Building/dp/0394740343/ excerpt and text search]}-
* {{Citation | last = Stone| first = James| title = Bismarck and the Containment of France, 1873–1877 | journal = Canadian Journal of History | year = 1994| volume= 29 | issue = 2}}
* -{Strandmann, Hartmut Pogge von, "Domestic Origins of Germany's Colonial Expansion under Bismarck," ''Past & Present'' No. 42 (Feb., 1969). стр. 140–59 [http://www.jstor.org/stable/650184 in JSTOR]}-
* -{Waller, Bruce. ''Bismarck at the Crossroads. The Reorientation of German Foreign Policy after the Congress of Berlin 1878–1880'' (1974)}-
* -{Hans-Ulrich Wehler "Bismarck's Imperialism 1862–1890" ''Past and Present'', No. 48, August 1970. pp: 119–155 [http://past.oxfordjournals.org/cgi/reprint/48/1/119.pdf online edition]}-
* -{Wetzel, David. ''A Duel of Nations: Germany, France, and the Diplomacy of the War of 1870–1871'' (University of Wisconsin Press; 2012) 310 pages}-
* {{citeCite book| ref = harv| last = Wetzel| first = David| title = A Duel of Giants: Bismarck, Napoleon III, and the Origins of the Franco-Prussian War| location = | publisher = (U of Wisconsin Press. 2001). 244 pp.| year = | isbn = 978-0-299-17490-3| pages = }}.
 
=== Историграфија и сећања ===
* {{Citation | last = Cowen| first = Ron| title = Restored Edison Records Revive Giants of 19th-Century Germany| url= http://www.nytimes.com/2012/01/31/science/bismarcks-voice-among-restored-edison-recordings.html | accessdate = 31. 101. 2012| newspaper = New York Times | date = 30. 101. 2012}}
* -{Frankel, Richard E. "From the Beer Halls to the Halls of Power: The Cult of Bismarck and the Legitimization of a New German Right, 1898–1945," ''German Studies Review,'' Vol. 26, No. 3 (Oct., 2003). стр. 543–560 [http://www.jstor.org/stable/1432746 in JSTOR]}-
* {{citeCite book | ref = harv | last = Frankel| first = Richard E | title = Bismarck's Shadow. The Cult of Leadership and the Transformation of the German Right, 1898–1945 | year = 2005| isbn = 978-1-84520-033-6}}, 222 pp.
* -{Gerwarth, Robert. "Inventing the Iron Chancellor," ''History Today'' 2007 57(6): 43–49, in EBSCO}-
* {{citeCite book | ref = harv | last = Gerwarth| first = Robert | author-mask = 8 | title = The Bismarck Myth: Weimar Germany and the Legacy of the Iron Chancellor | year = 2005| isbn = 978-0-19-928184-8}}, 216 pp.
* -{Hamerow, Theodore S. ed. ''Otto von Bismarck and Imperial Germany: A Historical Assessment'' (1993), excerpts from historians and primary sources}-
* {{cite journal | last1 last= Müller| first1first = Frank Lorenz | title = Man, Myth and Monuments: The Legacy of Otto von Bismarck (1866–1998) | journal = European History Quarterly | year = 2008| volume = 38 | issue = 4 | doi = 10.1177/0265691408094517| pages = 626–36}}
* -{O'Shea, John J. "Bismarck's Decline and Fall," ''The American Catholic Quarterly Review,'' Vol. XXIII, January/October 1898. [https://archive.org/stream/americancatholic23philuoft#page/836/mode/2up online]}-
* {{Citation | last = Pearce| first = Robert| title = The Austro-Prussian War | journal = History Review | year = 2010| issue = 66}}.
* -{Russell, Mark A. "The Building of Hamburg's Bismarck Memorial, 1898–1906," ''Historical Journal,'' Vol. 43, No. 1 (Mar., 2000). стр. 133–56 [http://www.jstor.org/stable/3021016 in JSTOR]}-
* -{Steefel, Lawrence D. "Bismarck," ''Journal of Modern History'', Vol. 2, No. 1 (Mar., 1930). стр. 74–95 [http://www.jstor.org/stable/1871140 in JSTOR]}-
 
=== Примарни извори ===
* {{Citation | last = Bismarck| first = Otto von | title = Bismarck, the Man & the Statesman: Being the Reflections and Reminiscences of Otto, Prince von Bismarck | volume = 1 | year = 1899| url = http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=77734130}}
* {{Citation | url =https://books.google.com/?id=dEgKAAAAIAAJ&pg=PA2&dq=inauthor:Otto+inauthor:von+inauthor:Bismarck#PPR3,M1 | title = Thoughts and Reminiscences | first = Otto von | last = Bismarck| author-mask = 8 | volume = I| year = 1898 }}
* {{Citation | url =https://books.google.com/?id=IkgKAAAAIAAJ&pg=PA1&dq=inauthor:Otto+inauthor:von+inauthor:Bismarck#PPR3,M1 | title = Thoughts and Reminiscences | first = Otto von | last = Bismarck| author-mask = 8 | volume = II | publisher = Google Books| year = 1898 }}.
* {{Citation | last = Bismarck| first = Otto von | author-mask = 8 | url = http://www.archive.org/details/bismarckmanstate02bismuoft | title = Memoirs | volume = II | publisher = Archive.org}}.
* {{Citation | last1 last= Hohenzollern| first1first = William I | last2 = Bismarck| first2 = Otto von| url = http://www.archive.org/details/correspondenceof00bismuoft | title = The correspondence of William I. and Bismarck: with other letters from and to Prince Bismarck | others = Translated by J. A. Ford | year = 1903}}
{{refend}}
 
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