Ото фон Бизмарк — разлика између измена

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'''Ото Едуард Леополд фон Бизмарк-Шенхаузен''' ({{јез-нем|Otto Eduard Leopold von Bismarck-Schönhausen}}; [[Шенхаузен (Елбе)|Шенхаузен]], [[1. април]] [[1815]] — [[Аумиле|Фредрихсрух]], [[30. јул]] [[1898]]) је био [[војвода]] од [[Лауенбург (Елбе)|Лауенбурга]] и један од најважнијих вођа са друге половине [[19. век|деветнаестог века]].<ref name=Steinberg>{{Cite book|authorlink=| last=Steinberg| first=Jonathan| title=Bismarck: A Life| url=https://books.google.com/books?id=HAppAgAAQBAJ&pg=PA51&lpg=PA51&dq=Bismarck+studied+Agriculture+in+Greifswald+in+1838.&source=bl&ots=LZikJxculW&sig=btfxmgs1TRrm3bUCMEeXS5sJAsc&hl=en&sa=X&ei=DaeiVNSeMseBU5WSgKAD&redir_esc=y#v=onepage&q=Bismarck%20studied%20Agriculture%20in%20Greifswald%20in%201838.&f=false|isbn = 9780199782529|pages=51}}</ref><ref name=hull>{{Cite book|authorlink=| last=Hull| first=Isabel V.| title=The Entourage of Kaiser Wilhelm II, 1888–1918| url=http://books.google.com/books?id=pesmqV6vskkC&printsec=frontcover#v=onepage&q&f=false|year=2004|isbn = 9780521533218|pages=85}}</ref> Као премијер [[Пруско краљевство|пруског краљевства]] (1862—1890.) под геслом „крв и гвожђе“ серијом победоносних ратова ујединио је 25 немачких држава у [[Немачко царство]], основано [[1871]]. с [[Вилхелм I Немачки|Вилхелмом I Хоенцолерном]] као царем. После уједињења је постао први [[канцелар (Њемачка)|канцелар]] (1871—1890) Немачког царства.
 
У почетку је био јункерски политичар дубоко конзервативних, аристократских и монархистичких гледишта, који се борио против растућег социјал-демократског покрета у осмој деценији [[19. век]]а, ставио је ван закона више организација и увео је старосне пензије, здравствено осигурање, као и радничко осигурање у случају несреће. Постао је познат под надимком ''Челични канцелар'' и сматра се једном од најважнијих фигура у немачкој историји. Био је веома побожан хришћанин.
== Литература ==
{{refbegin|2}}
* {{Cite book|ref=harv|authorlink= | last=Hull| first=Isabel V.| title=The Entourage of Kaiser Wilhelm II, 1888–1918| url=http://books.google.com/books?id=pesmqV6vskkC&printsec=frontcover#v=onepage&q&f=false|year=2004|isbn = 9780521533218|pages=85}}
* {{Cite book|ref=harv|authorlink= | last=Steinberg| first=Jonathan| title=Bismarck: A Life| url=https://books.google.com/books?id=HAppAgAAQBAJ&pg=PA51&lpg=PA51&dq=Bismarck+studied+Agriculture+in+Greifswald+in+1838.&source=bl&ots=LZikJxculW&sig=btfxmgs1TRrm3bUCMEeXS5sJAsc&hl=en&sa=X&ei=DaeiVNSeMseBU5WSgKAD&redir_esc=y#v=onepage&q=Bismarck%20studied%20Agriculture%20in%20Greifswald%20in%201838.&f=false|isbn = 9780199782529|pages=51}}
 
 
* {{Cite book|ref=harv| last=Dawson| first = William Harbutt| title = The Evolution of Modern Germany| url = https://books.google.com/books?id=neRCAAAAIAAJ|year=1909| publisher = T. Fisher Unwin}}
* -{Engelberg, Ernst. ''Bismarck''; 2 vols., (1986–90); major academic study by an east-German historian (only in German)}-
* {{Cite book|ref=harv | last=Eyck| first = Erich | title = Bismarck and the German Empire |year=1964|isbn = 978-0-393-00235-5}} (excerpt and text search)
* {{Citation | last=Feuchtwanger | first = Edgar | title = Bismarck | publisher = Routledge | series = Historical Biographies |year=2002 | url = http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=108426285 | accessdate=09. 03. 2017 | archiveurl = https://web.archive.org/web/20100420055859/http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o | archivedate=20. 04. 2010 | deadurl = yes | df = }}, 276 pp., basic starting point.
* {{Citation | last=Gall| first = Lothar |authorlink = | title = Bismarck: The White Revolutionary |year=1986}}, 2 vol; major academic study
* {{Citation | last=Kent| first = George O | title = Bismarck and His Times |year=1978| url = http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=7561027}}.
* {{Citation | first = Henry A | last=Kissinger| title = Otto von Bismarck, Master Statesman | newspaper = The New York Times | url = http://www.nytimes.com/2011/04/03/books/review/book-review-bismarck-by-jonathan-steinberg.html?_r=1&nl=books&emc=booksupdateema1 |date=31. 03. 2011 | type = book review}}.
* {{Cite book|ref=harv|author = Lerman, Katharine Anne| title = Bismarck: Profiles in Power| location = | publisher = Longman|year=2004|isbn = 978-0-582-03740-3|pages=}}; 312pp
* {{Cite book|ref=harv | last=Ludwig| first = Emil | title = Wilhelm Hohenzollern: The last of the Kaisers | place = New York |year=1927a | url =https://books.google.com/?id=ghlSoo9pEUcC |isbn = 9780766143418}}, popular.
* {{Citation | last=Ludwig| first = Emil | title = Bismarck: The Story of a Fighter | publisher = Little, Brown |year=1927b}}, popular.
* {{Citation | last=Pflanze| first = Otto | title = Bismarck and the Development of Germany }}; 3 vols., 1963–90. [http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=33732682 vol 1 online, ''Bismarck and the Development of Germany: The Period of Unification, 1815–1871'']
* -{Hennock, E. P. ''The Origin of the Welfare State in England and Germany, 1850–1914: Social Policies Compared'' (Cambridge University Press, 2007) 381 pp.}-
* -{Hennock, E. P. "Social Policy in the Bismarck Era: A Progress Report," ''German History,'' (June 2003) 21#2 pp 229–238 [http://gh.oxfordjournals.org/content/21/2/229.extract online]}-
* {{Cite book|ref=harv| last=Howard| first = Michael| title = The Franco-Prussian War: The German Invasion of France 1870 1871| url = https://books.google.com/books?id=h2wEeRuei6AC|year=1981| publisher = Taylor & Francis|isbn = 978-0-203-99305-7}}
* {{Citation | first = Paul M | last=Kennedy| title = The Rise of the Anglo-German Antagonism, 1860–1914 |year=1988}}.
* -{Kissinger, Henry. "The White Revolutionary: Reflections on Bismarck," ''Daedalus'' Vol. 97, No. 3, (Summer, 1968). стр. 888–924 [http://www.jstor.org/stable/20023844 in JSTOR]}-
* -{Hans-Ulrich Wehler "Bismarck's Imperialism 1862–1890" ''Past and Present'', No. 48, August 1970. pp: 119–155 [http://past.oxfordjournals.org/cgi/reprint/48/1/119.pdf online edition]}-
* -{Wetzel, David. ''A Duel of Nations: Germany, France, and the Diplomacy of the War of 1870–1871'' (University of Wisconsin Press; 2012) 310 pages}-
* {{Cite book|ref=harv| last=Wetzel| first = David| title = A Duel of Giants: Bismarck, Napoleon III, and the Origins of the Franco-Prussian War| location = | publisher = (U of Wisconsin Press. 2001). 244 pp.|year=|isbn = 978-0-299-17490-3|pages=}}.
 
=== Историграфија и сећања ===
* {{Citation | last=Cowen| first = Ron| title = Restored Edison Records Revive Giants of 19th-Century Germany| url= http://www.nytimes.com/2012/01/31/science/bismarcks-voice-among-restored-edison-recordings.html | accessdate=31. 01. 2012| newspaper = New York Times |date=30. 01. 2012}}
* -{Frankel, Richard E. "From the Beer Halls to the Halls of Power: The Cult of Bismarck and the Legitimization of a New German Right, 1898–1945," ''German Studies Review,'' Vol. 26, No. 3 (Oct., 2003). стр. 543–560 [http://www.jstor.org/stable/1432746 in JSTOR]}-
* {{Cite book|ref=harv | last=Frankel| first = Richard E | title = Bismarck's Shadow. The Cult of Leadership and the Transformation of the German Right, 1898–1945 |year=2005|isbn = 978-1-84520-033-6}}, 222 pp.
* -{Gerwarth, Robert. "Inventing the Iron Chancellor," ''History Today'' 2007 57(6): 43–49, in EBSCO}-
* {{Cite book|ref=harv | last=Gerwarth| first = Robert |author-mask = 8 | title = The Bismarck Myth: Weimar Germany and the Legacy of the Iron Chancellor |year=2005|isbn = 978-0-19-928184-8}}, 216 pp.
* -{Hamerow, Theodore S. ed. ''Otto von Bismarck and Imperial Germany: A Historical Assessment'' (1993), excerpts from historians and primary sources}-
* {{cite journal|last=Müller| first = Frank Lorenz | title = Man, Myth and Monuments: The Legacy of Otto von Bismarck (1866–1998) | journal = European History Quarterly |year=2008| volume = 38 | issue = 4 | doi = 10.1177/0265691408094517|pages=626–36}}
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