Тјенцин — разлика између измена

9.387 бајтова додато ,  пре 2 године
.
(.)
| оснивање =
| површина = 11920 <!-- engleski nacin zapisivanja -->
| становништво = 366632012.491.300
| извор_становништво = <ref>{{Cite book|url=http://www.demographia.com/db-worldua.pdf|title=Demographia World Urban Areas. 14th Annual Edition|last=Cox|first=W|publisher=Demographia|year=2018|isbn=|location=St. Louis|pages=22}}</ref>
| извор_становништво =
| година_становништво = 20092018
| густина =
| агломерација = 1215.281621.600200
| извор_агломерација =
| година_агломерација = 2009
}}
 
'''Тјенђин'''<ref>[[Правопис српскога језика]] (2010), стр. 202, т.228. Ради се о изузетку од правила (по којима би било Тјенђин), тј. устаљеној транскрипцији коју не треба мењати.</ref> ({{јез-кин|天津, Tiānjīn}} - „царев газ“) је трећи највећи град у [[Кина|Народној Републици Кини]] после [[Шангај]]а и [[Пекинг]]а. Према процени из [[2009]]. у граду је живело 3.666.320 становника.<ref name=autogenerated1>{{Cite web |url= http://www.world-gazetteer.com/wg.php?x=&lng=de&des=wg&geo=-54&srt=npan&col=adhoq&msz=1500&men=gcis&lng=en|title= China: largest cities and towns and statistics of their population|accessdate= |last= |first= |coauthors= |date= 17. 12. 2012. |work= |publisher=www.world-gazetteer.com|archiveurl=https://archive.is/alFW|archivedate = 27. 12. 2012.}}</ref>, а у ширем подручју око 11.760.000 (подаци из [[2008]]. године). Налази се на северу Кине, 120 километара југоисточно од [[Пекинг]]а и 50 километара од [[Бохајско море|Бохајског мора]]. Кроз град протиче река [[Хај (река)|Хај]]. Водећа је лука у северној Кини и други по величини индустријски град у земљи.<ref>[[Енциклопедија Британика]], српско издање из 2005. године</ref> Битни су и универзитети, Тјенђин и Нанкај.
 
Налази се на северу Кине, 120 километара југоисточно од [[Пекинг]]а и 50 километара од [[Бохајско море|Бохајског мора]]. Кроз град протиче река [[Хај (река)|Хај]]. Водећа је лука у северној Кини и други по величини индустријски град у земљи.<ref>[[Енциклопедија Британика]], српско издање из 2005. године</ref> Битни су и универзитети, Тјенђин и Нанкај.
 
== Географија ==
[[File:Hai River Basin EN.svg|thumb|left|250px|Мапа слива реке [[Hai River|Хај]]]]
[[File:天津夜景航拍20110419.JPG|thumb|left|250px|Сателитски снимак Тјенђина из 2011.]]
{{рут}}
Тјенђин је лоциран дуж западне обале [[Бохајско море|Бохајског залива]], looking out to the provinces [[Shandong]] and [[Liaoning]] across those waters, bordered by [[Beijing]] {{convert|120|km}} to the northwest, and except for the east, is surrounded on all sides by [[Hebei]]. With a latitude ranging from 38° 34' to 40° 15' N, and longitude ranging from 116° 43' to 118° 04' E, the total area is {{convert|11,860.63|km2|sqmi|2|abbr=off}}. There is {{convert|153|km|abbr=on}} of coastline and {{convert|1,137.48|km|mi|2|abbr=off}} of land border.<ref>{{cite web
|url = http://cn.chinagate.cn/ECONOMIC/2007-11/30/content_9328447.htm
|script-title=zh:天津地理位置、行政区划、人口民族概况
|publisher = Chinagate
| language = zh-hans
|date = 30 November 2007
|accessdate = 2012-07-17}}</ref> It lies at the northern end of the [[Grand Canal of China]], which connects with the [[Yellow River]] and [[Yangtze River]]. The municipality is generally flat, and swampy near the coast, but hilly in the far north, where the [[Yan Mountains]] intrude into northern Tianjin. The highest point in the municipality is Jiuding Peak ({{lang|zh-hans|九顶山}}) in [[Ji County, Tianjin|Ji County]] on the northern border with Hebei, at an altitude of {{convert|1078.5|m|abbr=on}}.
 
The [[Hai River]] forms within Tianjin Municipality at the confluence of the Ziya River ({{lang|zh|子牙河}}), [[Daqing River]] ({{lang|zh|大清河}}), Yongding River, North Grand Canal, and South Grand Canal, and enters the Pacific Ocean within the municipality as well, in [[Tanggu District]]. Major reservoirs include the [[Beidagang Reservoir]] in the extreme south (in [[Dagang District]]) and the [[Yuqiao Reservoir]] in the extreme north in Ji County.
 
=== Клима ===
 
{{Клима града
Тјенђин features a four-season, [[monsoon]]-influenced climate, typical of East Asia ([[Köppen climate classification|Köppen]] ''BSk'' bordering on ''Dwa''), with cold, windy, very dry winters reflecting the influence of the vast [[Siberian anticyclone]], and hot, humid summers, due to the monsoon. Spring in the city is dry and windy, occasionally seeing [[Dust storm|sandstorms]] blowing in from the [[Gobi Desert]], capable of lasting for several days. The monthly 24-hour average temperature ranges from {{convert|−3.4|°C|1}} in January to {{convert|26.8|°C|1}} in July, with an annual mean of {{convert|12.90|°C|1}}. With monthly percent possible sunshine ranging from 48% in July to 61% in October, the city receives 2,522 hours of bright sunshine annually. Having a low annual total precipitation of {{convert|511|mm|1}}, and nearly three-fifths of it occurring in July and August alone, the city lies within the [[semi-arid]] zone, with parts of the municipality being [[humid continental]] ([[Köppen climate classification|Köppen]] ''BSk''/''Dwa'', respectively).<ref>Peel, M. C. and Finlayson, B. L. and McMahon, T. A. (2007). [//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/f/f0/Asia_K%C3%B6ppen_Map.png "Updated world map of the Köppen-Geiger climate classification"]. ''Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci.'' 11: 1633–1644.</ref>
|Град_генитив=
 
|Извор=
Extreme temperatures have ranged from {{convert|−22.9|°C|0}} to {{convert|40.5|°C|0}}.<ref name = "Extremes" >{{cite web
| Јан_ср=-2.9 | Јан_ср_пад=3.3
| url = http://www.mherrera.org/temp.htm
| Феб_ср=0.1 | Феб_ср_пад=4.0
| title = Extreme Temperatures Around the World
| Мар_ср=6.5 | Мар_ср_пад=7.7
| accessdate =2010-08-28
| Апр_ср=14.7 | Апр_ср_пад=20.9
}}</ref>
| Мај_ср=20.4 | Мај_ср_пад=37.7
{{Clear}}
| Јун_ср=24.9 | Јун_ср_пад=71.1
 
| Јул_ср=26.9 | Јул_ср_пад=170.6
{{Weather box|location = Тјенђинa (1981–2010)
| Авг_ср=26.1 | Авг_ср_пад=145.7
|metric first = Y
| Сеп_ср=21.4 | Сеп_ср_пад=46.1
|single line = Y
| Окт_ср=14.5 | Окт_ср_пад=22.7
|collapsed =
| Нов_ср=6.0 | Нов_ср_пад=10.4
|Jan record high C= 14.3
| Дец_ср=-0.5 | Дец_ср_пад=4.1
|Feb record high C= 20.8
| Год_ср=13.2 | Год_ср_пад=544.3
|Mar record high C= 30.5
| Јан_ср_мин=-7.5 | Јан_ср_макс=1.8
|Apr record high C= 33.1
| Феб_ср_мин=-4.9 | Феб_ср_макс=5.0
|May record high C= 40.5
| Мар_ср_мин=1.3 | Мар_ср_макс=11.7
|Jun record high C= 39.6
| Апр_ср_мин=8.9 | Апр_ср_макс=20.5
|Jul record high C= 40.5
| Мај_ср_мин=14.6 | Мај_ср_макс=26.1
|Aug record high C= 37.4
| Јун_ср_мин=19.7 | Јун_ср_макс=30.1
|Sep record high C= 34.9
| Јул_ср_мин=22.7 | Јул_ср_макс=31.0
|Oct record high C= 30.8
| Авг_ср_мин=21.9 | Авг_ср_макс=30.2
|Nov record high C= 23.1
| Сеп_ср_мин=16.4 | Сеп_ср_макс=26.3
|Dec record high C= 14.4
| Окт_ср_мин=9.3 | Окт_ср_макс=19.7
|Jan high C = 2.0
| Нов_ср_мин=1.3 | Нов_ср_макс=10.6
|Feb high C = 5.7
| Дец_ср_мин=-4.9 | Дец_ср_макс=3.9
|Mar high C = 12.2
| Год_ср_мин=8.2 | Год_ср_макс=18.1
|Apr high C = 20.9
| Јан_а_макс= |tmax-record-date-jan= | Јан_а_мин=
|May high C = 26.5
| Феб_а_макс= |tmax-record-date-fev= | Феб_а_мин=
|Jun high C = 30.2
| Мар_а_макс= |tmax-record-date-mar= | Мар_а_мин=
|Jul high C = 31.3
| Апр_а_макс= |tmax-record-date-avr= | Апр_а_мин=
|Aug high C = 30.5
| Мај_а_макс= |tmax-record-date-mai= | Мај_а_мин=
|Sep high C = 26.6
| Јун_а_макс= |tmax-record-date-jui= | Јун_а_мин=
|Oct high C = 19.9
| Јул_а_макс= |tmax-record-date-jul= | Јул_а_мин=
|Nov high C = 10.6
| Авг_а_макс= |tmax-record-date-aou= | Авг_а_мин=
|Dec high C = 3.8
| Сеп_а_макс= |tmax-record-date-sep= | Сеп_а_мин=
|Jan mean C = −3.4
| Окт_а_макс= |tmax-record-date-oct= | Окт_а_мин=
|Feb mean C = −0.1
| Нов_а_макс= |tmax-record-date-nov= | Нов_а_мин=
|Mar mean C = 6.4
| Дец_а_макс= |tmax-record-date-dec= | Дец_а_мин=
|Apr mean C = 14.7
| Год_а_макс= |tmax-record-date-ann= | Год_а_мин=
|May mean C = 20.5
}}
|Jun mean C = 24.8
|Jul mean C = 26.8
|Aug mean C = 25.9
|Sep mean C = 21.1
|Oct mean C = 14.1
|Nov mean C = 5.2
|Dec mean C = −1.2
|year mean C =
|Jan low C = −7.4
|Feb low C = −4.4
|Mar low C = 1.7
|Apr low C = 9.3
|May low C = 15.1
|Jun low C = 20.0
|Jul low C = 22.9
|Aug low C = 22.2
|Sep low C = 16.7
|Oct low C = 9.4
|Nov low C = 1.1
|Dec low C = −5.0
|Jan record low C = −18.1
|Feb record low C = −22.9
|Mar record low C = −17.7
|Apr record low C = −2.8
|May record low C = 4.5
|Jun record low C = 10.1
|Jul record low C = 16.2
|Aug record low C = 13.7
|Sep record low C = 6.2
|Oct record low C = −2.2
|Nov record low C = −11.4
|Dec record low C = −16.2
 
|precipitation colour = green
|Jan precipitation mm = 2.5
|Feb precipitation mm = 3.6
|Mar precipitation mm = 8.1
|Apr precipitation mm = 22.1
|May precipitation mm = 36.8
|Jun precipitation mm = 79.7
|Jul precipitation mm = 149.8
|Aug precipitation mm = 124.1
|Sep precipitation mm = 44.7
|Oct precipitation mm = 26.5
|Nov precipitation mm = 10.8
|Dec precipitation mm = 2.8
|Jan humidity = 57
|Feb humidity = 54
|Mar humidity = 51
|Apr humidity = 50
|May humidity = 55
|Jun humidity = 64
|Jul humidity = 75
|Aug humidity = 76
|Sep humidity = 69
|Oct humidity = 64
|Nov humidity = 61
|Dec humidity = 59
|unit precipitation days = 0.1 mm
|Jan precipitation days = 1.6
|Feb precipitation days = 2.0
|Mar precipitation days = 3.1
|Apr precipitation days = 4.5
|May precipitation days = 5.9
|Jun precipitation days = 7.8
|Jul precipitation days = 11.1
|Aug precipitation days = 9.4
|Sep precipitation days = 6.0
|Oct precipitation days = 4.7
|Nov precipitation days = 2.9
|Dec precipitation days = 2.0
|Jan sun = 170.1 |Jan percentsun = 59
|Feb sun = 170.2 |Feb percentsun = 59
|Mar sun = 202.4 |Mar percentsun = 56
|Apr sun = 223.8 |Apr percentsun = 58
|May sun = 249.0 |May percentsun = 60
|Jun sun = 226.9 |Jun percentsun = 57
|Jul sun = 206.4 |Jul percentsun = 48
|Aug sun = 204.4 |Aug percentsun = 53
|Sep sun = 205.3 |Sep percentsun = 60
|Oct sun = 196.1 |Oct percentsun = 61
|Nov sun = 163.0 |Nov percentsun = 57
|Dec sun = 157.6 |Dec percentsun = 57
|source 1 = China Meteorological Administration<ref name=CMA>{{cite web|url=http://cdc.cma.gov.cn/dataSetLogger.do?changeFlag=dataLogger |script-title=zh:中国气象局 国家气象信息中心 |publisher=[[China Meteorological Administration]] | language = zh-hans |accessdate=2010-11-20 |date=June 2011 |deadurl=yes |archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20140710164442/http://cdc.cma.gov.cn/dataSetLogger.do?changeFlag=dataLogger |archivedate=July 10, 2014 }}</ref><ref name="cma graphical">{{cite web
|url=http://data.cma.cn/data/weatherBk.html
|script-title=zh:中国气象数据网 - WeatherBk Data
|publisher=[[China Meteorological Administration]]
|accessdate=2018-11-09}}</ref>
|date=January 2011}}
 
== Историја ==
 
== Партнерски градови ==
{{colbegin|4}}
* {{зас|САД}} [[Филаделфија]]
* {{зас|Северна Кореја}} [[Пјонгјанг]]<ref name="Corfield2013">{{cite book|last=Corfield|first=Justin|title=Historical Dictionary of Pyongyang|chapter-url=https://books.google.com/books?id=a46gFDWr3aMC&pg=PA196|year=2013|publisher=Anthem Press|location=London|isbn=978-0-85728-234-7|page=196|chapter=Sister Cities}}</ref>
* {{зас|Северна Кореја}} [[Пјонгјанг]]
* {{зас|}} [[Лођ]]
* {{зас|}} [[Абиџан]]
* {{зас|}} [[Миколајив]]
* {{зас|Аргентина}} [[Мар дел Плата]]
* {{зас|Јапан}} [[Чиба (град)|Чиба]]<ref name=International>{{cite web|url=http://www.clair.or.jp/cgi-bin/simai/e/03.cgi?p=12&n=Chiba%20Prefecture|title=International Exchange|work=List of Affiliation Partners within Prefectures|publisher=Council of Local Authorities for International Relations (CLAIR)|language=English|accessdate=21 November 2015|deadurl=yes|archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20160304204202/http://www.clair.or.jp/cgi-bin/simai/e/03.cgi?p=12&n=Chiba%20Prefecture|archivedate=March 4, 2016|df=mdy-all}}</ref>
* {{зас|Јапан}} [[Чиба (град)|Чиба]]
* {{зас|}} [[Фичбург]]
* {{зас|Тајланд}} [[Бангкок]]
* {{зас|}} [[Хакодате]]
* {{зас|}} [[Харков]]
* {{зас|Кипар}} [[Ларнака]]<ref>{{Cite web|url=http://www.larnaka.org.cy/en/page/adelfopoiiseis#.WOflptLyvIU |title=Twinnings |website=www.larnaka.org.cy |language=en|access-date=2017-04-07}}</ref>
* {{зас|Кипар}} [[Ларнака]]
* {{зас|}} [[Кутаиси]]
* {{зас|Израел}} [[Ришон Лецион]]
* {{зас|}} [[Улан Батор]]
* {{зас|}} [[Јокаичи]]
* {{flagdeco|SWE}} [[Јенћепинг]], (од 1993)<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.jonkoping.se/kommunpolitik/internationelltarbete/sistercitytianjinikina.4.74fef9ab15548f0b8001a7c.html|title=jonkoping.se|last=|first=|date=|website=|publisher=|access-date=|deadurl=yes|archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20160822195615/http://www.jonkoping.se/kommunpolitik/internationelltarbete/sistercitytianjinikina.4.74fef9ab15548f0b8001a7c.html|archivedate=August 22, 2016|df=mdy-all}}</ref>
{{colend}}
 
== Види још ==
== Референце ==
{{reflist}}
 
== Литература ==
{{refbegin|30em}}
* ''Miscellaneous series, Issues 7-11''. [[United States Department of Commerce]], [[Bureau of Foreign and Domestic Commerce]], 1912.
* Walravens, Hartmut. "German Influence on the Press in China." - In: ''Newspapers in International Librarianship: Papers Presented by the Newspaper Section at IFLA General Conferences''. [[Walter de Gruyter]], January 1, 2003. {{ISBN|3110962799}}, 9783110962796.
* [https://web.archive.org/web/20030617073505/http://ifla.queenslibrary.org/IV/ifla62/62-walh.htm Also available at] ([https://www.webcitation.org/6BorMkdPv?url=http://ifla.queenslibrary.org/IV/ifla62/62-walh.htm Archive]) the website of the [[Queens Library]] - This version does not include the footnotes visible in the Walter de Gruyter version
* Also available in Walravens, Hartmut and Edmund King. ''Newspapers in international librarianship: papers presented by the newspapers section at IFLA General Conferences''. [[K.G. Saur]], 2003. {{ISBN|3598218370}}, 9783598218378.
* Mathieu Gotteland, ''Les forces de l'ordre japonaises à Tientsin, 1914-1940 : Un point de vue français'', Éditions universitaires européennes, 2015.
* {{cite book |title=Tientsin: An Illustrated Outline History |author=O. D. Rasmussen |oclc=2594229 |location=University of Michigan|publisher=Tientsin Press |year=1925 |url=https://books.google.com/books?id=E7w5AAAAMAAJ}}
* {{cite journal|url=http://journals.cambridge.org/action/displayAbstract?fromPage=online&aid=10208830&fileId=S0018246X15000461|doi=10.1017/S0018246X15000461|title=Italy's Informal Imperialism in Tianjin During the Liberal Epoch, 1902–1922|journal=The Historical Journal|volume=59|issue=2|pages=447–468|date=June 2016|last1=Donati|first1=Sabina}}
* Maurizio Marinelli, Giovanni Andornino, ''Italy's Encounter with Modern China: Imperial dreams, strategic ambitions'', New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2014.
* Maurizio Marinelli, "The Triumph of the Uncanny: Italians and Italian Architecture in Tianjin", In ''Cultural Studies Review'', Vol. 19, 2, 2013, 70-98.
* Maurizio Marinelli, "The Genesis of the Italian Concession in Tianjin: A Combination of Wishful Thinking and Realpolitik". ''Journal of Modern Italian Studies'', 15 (4), 2010: 536-556.
{{refend}}
 
== Спољашње везе ==
{{Commonscat|Tianjin}}
* -{[https://web.archive.org/web/20130921054614/http://www.tj.gov.cn/english/ Tianjin Government website]}-
* {{званични веб-сајт|http://www.tj.gov.cn}}
* -{[http://en.china-tjftz.gov.cn/ China (Tianjin) Pilot Free Trade Zone]}-
* -{[http://info.hktdc.com/mktprof/china/mptij.htm Economic profile for Tianjin] at [[Hong Kong Trade Development Council|HKTDC]]}-
* -{[http://english.enorth.com.cn/ Official Tianjin Media Gateway]}-
* -{[http://www.lib.utexas.edu/maps/ams/china_city_plans/txu-oclc-6567184.jpg Historic US Army map of Tianjin, 1945]}-
* -{[https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=gKt1PodYyvE Official promotional video of Tianjin City]}-
 
{{Народна Република Кина}}
{{Authority control}}
 
{{клица-град-Кина}}
 
[[Категорија:Градови у Кини]]