Џејмс Медисон — разлика између измена

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{{Инфокутија Политичар
| име = Џејмс Медисон
'''Џејмс Медисон''' ({{јез-енг|James Madison}}; [[Порт Конвеј]], [[16. март]]а [[1751]] — [[Монтпилијер]], [[28. јун]]а [[1836]]) је био [[Сједињене Америчке Државе|амерички]] политичар и државник, најпознатији по томе што је служио као као четврти по реду [[списак председника Сједињених Америчких Држава|председник САД]] (1809—1817). Такође је познат по томе што је, заједно с [[Џон Џеј]]ем и [[Александар Хамилтон|Александром Хамилтоном]] написао ''[[Федералистички списи|Федералистичке списе]]'', једно од најславнијих дела у историји политичке мисли. Хамилтон такође ужива репутацију ''Оца [[устав Сједињених Америчких Држава|америчког устава]]''.
 
Медисон, син угледног земљопоседника из [[Вирџинија|Вирџиније]],<ref>{{harvnb|Ketcham|1990|p=12}}</ref> је учествовао у [[Амерички рат за независност|рату за независност]] као члан [[Континентални конгрес|Континенталног конгреса]] од 1780. до 1783. године. Поставши уверен како је конфедерални систем преслаб за потребе нове државе, заговарао је јачање централне власти у односу на државе-чланице.<ref>{{harvnb|Burstein|Isenberg|2010|pages=96–97, 128–130}}</ref> Био је једна од кључних особа на Уставној [[Конвенција у Филаделфији|конвенцији у Филаделфији]] на којој је [[1787]]. године донет нови Устав - који је и данас на снази.<ref>{{harvnb|Feldman|2017|page=107}}</ref><ref>{{harvnb|Burstein|Isenberg|2010|pages=150–151}}</ref> Након тога је учествовао у изради ''Федералистичких списа'' како би наговорио јавност држава да ратификују Устав.
 
Рад на изградњи Устава је Медисон наставио и као [[Дом заступника САД|заступник]] у првим сазивима америчког Конгреса. Године [[1790]]. су на његову иницијативу донети амандмани, који утемељују људска и грађанска права у САД, познати као ''[[Повеља о правима (Сједињене Америчке Државе)|Повеља о правима]]''.
 
Крај мандата је провео настојећи да спречи Конгрес да одобри изградњу путева, канала и других објеката те на тај начин установи федералну власт на рачун држава-чланица.
 
== Референце ==
{{reflist|}}
 
== Литература ==
{{refbegin|30em}}
* {{cite book|ref=harv|last=Banning|first=Lance|title=Jefferson & Madison: Three Conversations from the Founding|publisher=Madison House |year=1995 |url={{Google books|Q0f6_zc3AlMC|page=|keywords=|text=|plainurl=yes}}}}
* {{cite book|ref=harv|last=Banning|first=Lance|title=The Sacred Fire of Liberty: James Madison and the Founding of the Federal Republic|publisher=Cornell University Press|year=1995 |url={{Google books|6g8kLQj4SRQC|plainurl=yes}}}}
* {{cite book|ref=harv|first=Richard B.|last=Bernstein|title=Are We to be a Nation?; The Making of the Constitution|publisher=Harvard Univ. Press|year=1987 |url={{Google books|OAeQAAAAMAAJ|page=|keywords=|text=|plainurl=yes}}}}
* {{cite book|last1=Bordewich|first1=Fergus M.|title=The First Congress: How James Madison, George Washington, and a Group of Extraordinary Men Invented the Government|date=2016|publisher=Simon & Schuster|isbn=978-1-45169193-1|ref=harv}}
* {{cite book|last1=Burstein|first1=Andrew|last2=Isenberg|first2=Nancy|title=Madison and Jefferson|date=2010|publisher=Random House|ref=harv}}
* {{cite book|last1=Feldman|first1=Noah|title=The Three Lives of James Madison: Genius, Partisan, President|date=2017|publisher=Random House|isbn=9780812992755|ref=harv}}
* {{cite book|last1=Ferling|first1=John|title=A Leap in the Dark: The Struggle to Create the American Republic|date=2003|publisher=Oxford University Press|isbn=978-0195159240}}
* {{cite book|last1=Howe|first1=Daniel Walker|title=What Hath God Wrought: The Transformation of America 1815–1848|date=2007|publisher=Oxford University Press|isbn=9780195078947|ref=harv}}
* {{Cite book|ref=harv|last=Ketcham|first=Ralph|title=James Madison: A Biography|publisher=Univ. of Virginia Press|year=1990|url={{Google books|hCAjgs4mmQ4C|page=|keywords=|text=Brant The Fourth President|plainurl=yes}}|isbn=9780813912653|edition=paperback}}
* {{cite book|ref=harv|last=Keysaar|first=Alexander|title=The Right to Vote|publisher= Basic Books|year=2009|isbn=0-465-02969-8}}
* {{cite book|ref=harv|last=Labunski|first=Richard|title=James Madison and the Struggle for the Bill of Rights|publisher=Oxford Univ. Press|year=2006}}
* {{cite book|ref=harv|last=Matthews|first=Richard K.|title=If Men Were Angels : James Madison and the Heartless Empire of Reason|publisher=University Press of Kansas|year=1995}}
* {{cite book|ref=harv|last=McCoy|first=Drew R.|title=The Last of the Fathers: James Madison and the Republican Legacy|publisher=Cambridge University Press|year=1989}}
* {{cite book|last1=McDonald|first1=Forrest|title=The Presidency of Thomas Jefferson|date=1976|publisher=University Press of Kansas|isbn=978-0700603305|ref=harv}}
* {{cite book|ref=harv|last=Rosen|first=Gary|title=American Compact: James Madison and the Problem of Founding|publisher=University Press of Kansas|year=1999}}
* {{cite book|ref=harv|last=Rutland|first=Robert A.|title=James Madison: The Founding Father|url=https://books.google.com/books/about/The_Presidency_of_James_Madison.html?id=1pKyAAAAIAAJ|publisher=Macmillan Publishing Co.|year=1987|isbn=978-0-02-927601-3}}
* {{cite book|ref=harv|last=Rutland|first=Robert A.|title=The Presidency of James Madison|publisher=Univ. Press of Kansas|year=1990|isbn=978-0700604654}}
* {{cite book|ref=harv|editor-last=Rutland|editor-first=Robert A.|title=James Madison and the American Nation, 1751–1836: An Encyclopedia|publisher=Simon & Schuster|year=1994}}
* {{cite book|ref=harv|first=David|last=Stewart|title=The Summer of 1787: The Men Who Invented the Constitution|publisher=Simon and Schuster|year=2007}}
* {{cite book|ref=harv|last=Wills|first=Garry|title=James Madison|publisher=Times Books|year=2002|isbn=0-8050-6905-4}}
* {{cite book|ref=harv|last=Wood|first=Gordon S.|title=The Idea of America: Reflections on the Birth of the United States|publisher=The Penguin Press|year=2011}}
* {{cite book|last1=Wood|first1=Gordon S.|title=Empire of Liberty: A History of the Early Republic|date=2009|publisher=Oxford University Press|isbn=978-0-199-83246-0|ref=harv}}
* {{cite book|last=Brant|first=Irving|title=James Madison|others=6 volumes|year=1941–1961}}, the standard scholarly biography
* {{cite book|last=Brant|first=Irving|title=The Fourth President; a Life of James Madison|year=1970|publisher=Easton Press}} single volume condensation of 6-vol biography
* {{cite book|last=Broadwater|first=Jeff.|title=James Madison: A Son of Virginia and a Founder of a Nation|publisher=University of North Carolina Press|year=2012}}
* {{cite book|last=Brookhiser|first=Richard.|title=James Madison|publisher=Basic Books|year=2011}}
* {{cite book|last=Chadwick|first=Bruce.|title=James and Dolley Madison: America's First Power Couple|publisher=Prometheus Books|year=2014}} detailed popular history
* {{cite book|last=Cheney|first=Lynne|title=James Madison: A Life Reconsidered|publisher=Viking|year=2014}}
* {{cite book|last=Gutzman|first=Kevin|title=James Madison and the Making of America|publisher=St. Martin's Press|year=2012}}
* {{cite book|last1=Stewart|first1=David O.|title=Madison's Gift: Five Partnerships That Built America|date=2016|publisher=Simon & Schuster}}
* {{cite book|last=Rakove|first=Jack|title=James Madison and the Creation of the American Republic|edition=2nd|publisher=Longman|year=2002}}
* {{cite book|last=Wills|first=Garry|title=James Madison: The American Presidents Series: The 4th President, 1809–1817|publisher=Times Books|year=2015}}
* {{Cite journal | last1 = Dragu | first1 = Tiberiu | last2 = Fan | first2 = Xiaochen | last3 = Kuklinski | first3 = James | title = Designing checks and balances | journal = [[Quarterly Journal of Political Science]] | volume = 9 | issue = 1 | pages = 45–86 | doi = 10.1561/100.00013022 | date = March 2014 | ref = harv }}
* {{cite book|last1=Elkins|first1=Stanley M.|last2=McKitrick|first2=Eric.|title=The Age of Federalism|publisher=Oxford University Press|year=1995}}
* {{cite book|first=William|last=Everdell|title=The End of Kings: A History of Republics and Republicans|publisher=Univ. of Chicago Press|year=2000}}
* {{cite journal|last=Gabrielson|first=Teena|title=James Madison's Psychology of Public Opinion|journal=Political Research Quarterly|volume=62|date=September 2009|pages=431–44}}
* {{cite book|editor-last=Harbert|editor-first=Earl|title=Henry Adams: History of the United States during the Administrations of James Madison|publisher=Library of America|year=1986}}
* {{cite book|last=Kasper|first=Eric T.|title=To Secure the Liberty of the People: James Madison's Bill of Rights and the Supreme Court's Interpretation|publisher=Northern Illinois University Press|year=2010}}
* {{cite book|editor-last=Kernell|editor-first=Samuel|title=James Madison: the Theory and Practice of Republican Government|publisher=Stanford Univ. Press|year=2003}}
* {{cite book|last=Kester|first=Scott J.|title=The Haunted Philosophe: James Madison, Republicanism, and Slavery|publisher=Lexington Books|year=2008}}
* {{cite journal|last=Muñoz|first=Vincent Phillip.|title=James Madison's Principle of Religious Liberty|journal=American Political Science Review|volume=97|issue=1|date=February 2003|pages=17–32}}
* {{cite book|last=Read|first=James H.|title=Power Versus Liberty: Madison, Hamilton, Wilson and Jefferson|publisher=Univ. Press of Virginia|year=2000}}
* {{cite book|last=Riemer|first=Neal|title=James Madison: Creating the American Constitution|publisher=Congressional Quarterly|year=1986}}
* {{cite journal|first=Mark S.|last=Scarberry|title=John Leland and James Madison: Religious Influence on the Ratification of the Constitution and on the Proposal of the Bill of Rights|journal=Penn State Law Review|volume=113|issue=3|date=April 2009|pages=733–800}}
* {{cite journal|last=Sheehan|first=Colleen A.|title=The Politics of Public Opinion: James Madison's 'Notes on Government|journal=William and Mary Quarterly|volume=49|issue=3|date=October 1992}}
* {{cite journal|last=Sheehan|first=Colleen|title=Madison and the French Enlightenment|journal=William and Mary Quarterly|volume=59|issue=4|date=October 2002|pages=925–56}}
* {{cite journal|last=Sheehan|first=Colleen|title=Madison v. Hamilton: The Battle Over Republicanism and the Role of Public Opinion|journal=American Political Science Review|volume=98|issue=3|date=August 2004|pages=405–24}}
* {{cite book|last=Sheehan|first=Colleen|title=The Mind of James Madison: The Legacy of Classical Republicanism|publisher=Cambridge Univ. Press|year=2015}}
* {{cite book|editor-last1=Vile|editor-first1=John R.|editor-first2=William D.|editor-last2=Pederson|editor-first3=Frank J.|editor-last3=Williams|title=James Madison: Philosopher, Founder, and Statesman|publisher=Ohio Univ. Press|year= 2008}}
* {{cite book|last=Weiner|first=Greg.|title=Madison's Metronome: The Constitution, Majority Rule, and the Tempo of American Politics|publisher=Univ. Press of Kansas|year=2012}}
* {{cite journal|last1=Will|first1=George F.|title=Alumni who changed America, and the world: #1 – James Madison 1771|journal=Princeton Alumni Weekly|date=January 23, 2008}}
* {{cite book|last=Wills|first=Garry|title=Henry Adams and the Making of America|publisher=Houghton Mifflin|year=2005}}
* {{cite book|editor-last=Leibiger|editor-first=Stuart|title=A Companion to James Madison and James Monroe|publisher=John Wiley and Sons|year=2013}}
* {{cite book|last=Wood|first=Gordon S.|title=Is There a 'James Madison Problem'?|publisher=Penguin Press|year=2006}}
* {{cite book|first=James|last=Madison|editor-first=William T.|editor-last=Hutchinson|title=The Papers of James Madison|publisher=Univ. of Chicago Press|year=1962|url=http://www.virginia.edu/pjm/description1.htm|edition=30 volumes published and more planned|deadurl=yes|archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20111013211454/http://www.virginia.edu/pjm/description1.htm|archivedate=October 13, 2011|df=mdy-all}}; The main scholarly edition
** [https://founders.archives.gov/about "Founders Online," searchable edition]
* {{cite book|first=James|last=Madison|title=Letters & Other Writings Of James Madison Fourth President Of The United States|publisher=J.B. Lippincott & Co|year=1865|edition=called the ''Congress edition''|url={{Google books|pb2s8DG_2WUC|page=RA1-PR11|keywords=|text=|plainurl=yes}}}}
* {{cite book|first=James|last=Madison|editor-first=Gaillard|editor-last=Hunt|title=The Writings of James Madison|publisher=G. P. Putnam's Sons|year=1900–1910|url={{Google books|ri4fEe_y99kC|page=RA3-PR21|keywords=|text=|plainurl=yes}}}}
* {{cite book|first=James|last=Madison|editor-first=Jacob E.|editor-last=Cooke|title=The Federalist|publisher=Wesleyan Univ. Press|year=1982}}
* {{cite book|first=James|last=Madison|title=[[Notes of Debates in the Federal Convention of 1787]] Reported by James Madison|publisher=W.W. Norton|year=1987}}
* {{cite book|first=James|last=Madison|editor-first=Marvin|editor-last=Myers|title=Mind of the Founder: Sources of the Political Thought of James Madison|publisher=Univ. Press of New England|year=1995}}
* {{cite book|first=James|last=Madison|editor-first=James M.|editor-last=Smith|title=The Republic of Letters: The Correspondence Between Thomas Jefferson and James Madison, 1776–1826|publisher=W.W. Norton|year=1995}}
* {{cite book|first=James|last=Madison|editor-first=Jack N.|editor-last=Rakove|title=James Madison, Writings|publisher=[[Library of America]]|year=1999}}
* {{cite book|editor-last=Richardson|editor-first=James D.|title=A Compilation of the Messages and Papers of the Presidents, vol. xix|year=1897}} reprints his major messages and reports.
{{refend}}
 
== Спољашње везе ==
| wikinews =
}}
* [httphttps://www.whitehouse.gov/history1600/presidents/jm4.htmljamesmadison Званична биографија]
* -{[https://www.loc.gov/rr/program/bib/presidents/madison/ James Madison: A Resource Guide] at the [[Library of Congress]]}-
* -{[http://memory.loc.gov/ammem/collections/madison_papers/ The James Madison Papers, 1723–1836] at the Library of Congress}-
* -{[https://founders.archives.gov/about/Madison The Papers of James Madison], subset of [https://founders.archives.gov/ Founders Online] from the [[National Archives and Records Administration|National Archives]]}-
* -{[http://millercenter.org/president/madison American President: James Madison (1751–1836)] at the [[Miller Center of Public Affairs]], University of Virginia}-
* {{Gutenberg author |id=Madison,+James | name=James Madison}}
* {{Internet Archive author |sname=James Madison}}
* {{Librivox author |id=1973}}
* -{[http://www.shapell.org/Collection/Presidents/Madison-James James Madison Personal Manuscripts]}-
 
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{{DEFAULTSORT:Медисон, Џејмс}}