Oleinska kiselina — разлика између измена

56 бајтова уклоњено ,  пре 2 године
м
Разне исправке; козметичке измене
(Спашавам 0 извора и означавам 1 мртвим. #IABot (v2.0beta15))
м (Разне исправке; козметичке измене)
| SolubleOther = rastvorna
| Solvent = [[metanol]]
| MeltingPt = 13-14  °-{C}- (286 -{K}-)
| BoilingPt = 360 &nbsp;°-{C}- (633 -{K}-) (760-{mm Hg}-)<ref>[http://membership.acs.org/c/ccs/pubs/CLIPS/JCE20020024.pdf -{Oleic acid}-], -{Chemical Laboratory Information Profile, American Chemical Society}-</ref>
| pKa =
| pKb =
}}
 
'''Oleinska kiselina''' je [[mononezasićena]] [[omega-9 masna kiselina|omega-9]] [[masna kiselina]] nađena u raznim životinjskim i biljnim mastima. Njena formula je -{CH<sub>3</sub>(CH<sub>2</sub>)<sub>7</sub>CH=CH(CH<sub>2</sub>)<sub>7</sub>COOH.}-<ref name=Ullmann>{{cite encyclopedia|authorlast=Alfred Thomas |first=Alfred|title=Fats and Fatty Oils|encyclopedia=Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry|publisher=Wiley-VCH|place=Weinheim|year=2002|doi=10.1002/14356007.a10_173}}</ref> Ona je ulje bez boje i mirisa, mada komercijalni uzorci mogu da budu žuti. [[cis-trans izomerizam|''Trans'' izomer]] oleinske kiseline je [[elaidinska kiselina]] (stoga se [[elaidinizacija|elaidinizacijom]] naziva reakcija kojom se menjaju ''cis'' izomeri u ''trans'' izomere). Termin "oleinski" znači srodan sa, ili izveden iz, [[ulje|ulja]] ili [[maslina|masline]].
 
== Zastupljenost ==
Trigliceridni esteri oleinske kiseline sačinjavaju najveći deo [[maslinovo ulje|maslinovog ulja]], mada ima manje od 2,0% slobodne kiseline. Veće koncentracije čine maslinovo ulja nejestivim. Oleinska kiselina takođe sačinjava do 59-75% orahovog ulja,<ref>{{cite journal| author = Villarreal, J.E., L. Lombardini, and L. Cisneros-Zevallos| title = Phytochemical constituents and antioxidant capacity of different pecan [Carya illinoinensis (Wangenh.) K. Koch] cultivars| journal = Food Chemistry| volume = 102| issue = 4| pages = 1241–1249| year = 2007| doi = 10.1016/j.foodchem.2006.07.024| url = http://www.sciencedirect.com/science?_ob=ArticleURL&_udi=B6T6R-4M1DB79-2&_user=952835&_coverDate=12%2F31%2F2007&_rdoc=1&_fmt=high&_orig=search&_sort=d&_docanchor=&view=c&_searchStrId=1412335994&_rerunOrigin=google&_acct=C000049198&_version=1&_urlVersion=0&_userid=952835&md5=589de1e394ce2412a09767a3b5f542be}}{{Мртва веза|date=06. 2019. |bot=InternetArchiveBot |fix-attempted=yes }}</ref> 36-67% ulja kikirikija,<ref>{{cite web |url=http://jhered.oxfordjournals.org/cgi/pdf_extract/80/3/252 |title=The inheritance of high oleic acid in peanut}}</ref> 15-20% ulje semenki grožđa, ulja morske pasjakovine, i susamovog ulja,<ref name=Ullmann /> i 14% ulja maka.<ref name="pmid17093176">{{cite journal |vauthors=Untoro J, Schultink W, West CE, Gross R, Hautvast JG | title = Efficacy of oral iodized peanut oil is greater than that of iodized poppy seed oil among Indonesian schoolchildren | journal = The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition | volume = 84 | issue = 5 | pages = 1208–14 | year = 2006 | pmid = 17093176 | doi = | url = | issn = }}</ref> Ona je u izobilju prisutna u mnogim životinjskim mastima. Ona sačinjava 37 do 56% pileće i ćureće masnoće,<ref>{{cite journal |url=http://www.springerlink.com/content/0837289583682243/ |journal=Chemistry and Materials Science |volume=20 |issue=11 |doi=10.1007/BF02630880 |title=The chemical composition of depot fats in chickens and turkeys |authorlast=Nutter,|first=Mary K. Nutter, Ernest E. Lockhart and Robert S. Harris|pages=231-234 }}</ref> i 44 do 47% sala, etc.
 
Oleinska kiselina je najrasprostanjenija masna kiselina u ljudskom [[masno tkivo|masnom tkivu]].<ref>{{cite journal |journal=American Journal of Clinical Nutrition |title=Fatty acid composition of human adipose tissue from two anatomical sites in a biracial community |author=MG Kokatnur, MC Oalmann, WD Johnson, GT Malcom and JP Strong |volume=32 |pages=2198–22052198-2205 |url=http://www.ajcn.org/cgi/content/abstract/32/11/2198 |pmid=495536 |issue=11 |pages=2198–2052198-205 |date= November 1,. 11. 1979 }}</ref>
 
=== Kao insektni feromon ===
Oleinsku kiselinu emituju raspadajući leševi brojnih insekata, kao što su [[pčela|pčele]] i -{''[[Pogonomyrmex]]''}- [[mrav]]i, i ona podstiče instikte živih radnika da uklone mrtvo telo iz [[košnica|košnice]]. Ako su živa pčela<ref name=Anies2005>{{cite journal
|author1last=Purnamadjaja|first=Anies Hannawati Purnamadjaja |author2=R. Andrew Russell | year = 2005
| title = Pheromone communication in a robot swarm: necrophoric bee behaviour and its replication
| journal = Robotica
| volume = 23
| issue = 6
| pages = 731–742
| doi = 10.1017/S0263574704001225
}}</ref> ili mrav<ref name="BroodProt">{{Cite book |last=Ayasse |first=M. |last2=Paxton |first2=R. |year=2002 |chapter=Brood protection in social insects |editor1-last=Hilker |editor1-first=M. |editor2-last=Meiners |editor2-first=T. |title=Chemoecology of Insect Eggs and Egg Deposition |publisher=Blackwell |location=Berlin |pages=117–148 |isbn=978-1-4051-0694-8|pages=117-148 }}</ref><ref name="imdead">{{cite web |last=Krulwich |first=Robert |year=2009 |title=Hey I'm Dead! The Story Of The Very Lively Ant |url=http://www.npr.org/templates/story/story.php?storyId=102601823 |work=National Public Radio}}</ref> namazani oleinskom kiselinom, oni bivaju odvučeni na otpad kao da su mrtvi. Miris oleinske kiseline isto tako može da indicira opasnost za žive insekte, navodeći ih da se izbegavaju druge koji su podlegli bolesti ili mesta gde vrebaju predatori.<ref>{{Cite web | last = Walker | first = Matt | date = 9. 9. 2009. | title = Ancient 'smell of death' revealed | work = BBC - Earth News | accessdate = 13. 9. 2009. | url = http://news.bbc.co.uk/earth/hi/earth_news/newsid_8232000/8232607.stm }}</ref>
 
== Reference ==
 
== Literatura ==
* {{Cite book |ref= harv|last=Ayasse |first=M. |last2=Paxton |first2=R. |year=2002 |chapter=Brood protection in social insects |editor1-last=Hilker |editor1-first=M. |editor2-last=Meiners |editor2-first=T. |title=Chemoecology of Insect Eggs and Egg Deposition |publisher=Blackwell |location=Berlin |pages=117–148 |isbn=978-1-4051-0694-8|pages=117-148 }}
 
== Spoljašnje veze ==
363.220

измена