Летње рачунање времена — разлика између измена

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{{legend|#c00000|Земље које никад нису прелазиле на летње рачунање времена}}
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'''Летње рачунање времена''' ({{Јез-енгл|daylight saving time – DST}}; или само '''летње време''') или '''летње указно време''', је договор по којем се преко лета часовник помера да би послеподнева имала више дневног светла него преподнева. Спроводи се тако што се службено време помери унапред у позну зиму или рано пролеће, а врати назад у јесен. Време се обично помера за један сат, али тачан број часова и датуми измена се одређују локално, и подложни су променама. Овакво подешавање доприноси бољем прилагођавању и већем искоришћавању дана и штедње енергије.<ref>{{cite web |title=Daylight Saving Time "fall back" doesn't equal sleep gain |url=https://www.health.harvard.edu/blog/daylight-saving-time-fall-back-doesnt-equal-sleep-gain-201311016836 |website=Harvard Health Publishing |publisher=Harvard Health Publishing |accessdate=October 14, 2018|date=November 2013 }}</ref><ref>{{Cite web|url=http://www.medicalwesthospital.org/daylight-savings-time.php|title=Adjusting to Daylight Savings Time|website=www.medicalwesthospital.org|access-date=February 3, 2019}}</ref> Летње указно време се најчешће користи у умереном појасу, због значајније разлике између дужине обданице (дневног светла) у различитим годишњим добима, док се у тропско-екваторском региону и поларним подручјима мање користи.<ref>{{cite web |title=Decretos sobre o Horário de Verão no Brasil |url=http://pcdsh01.on.br/DecHV.html |date=September 16, 2008 |language=Portuguese |publisher=Time Service Dept., National Observatory, Brazil }}</ref> Мањина светске популације користи ДСТ, јер га Азија и Африка генерално не поштују.
 
Датум и време почетка и престанка летњег рачунања времена није стандардизован на нивоу света и начелно се разликује од државе до државе (мада је ЕУ ово регулисала а већина земаља Европе укљ. Србију је то преузела). Померање времена се у већини случајева врши у ноћи између суботе и недеље и то у 2 ч. - како би се умањио негативан утицај додатног или недостајућег сата на радно становништво, редове вожње и сл. На северној хемисфери, летње време почиње на пролеће, а завршава се на јесен. На јужној хемисфери, почетак и крај летњег времена је обрнут од северне. Већина модерних рачунарских [[Оперативни систем|оперативних система]] има могућност аутоматског преласка на летње рачунање времена.
Летње указно време се најчешће користи у умереном појасу, због значајније разлике између дужине обданице (дневног светла) у различитим годишњим добима, док се у тропско-екваторском региону и поларним подручјима мање користи.
 
== Образложење ==
Датум и време почетка и престанка летњег рачунања времена није стандардизован на нивоу света и начелно се разликује од државе до државе (мада је ЕУ ово регулисала а већина земаља Европе укљ. Србију је то преузела). Померање времена се у већини случајева врши у ноћи између суботе и недеље и то у 2 ч. - како би се умањио негативан утицај додатног или недостајућег сата на радно становништво, редове вожње и сл.
{{рут}}
[[Индустријско друштво|Индустријализирана друштва]] обично прате распоред који се заснива на сату за дневне активности које се не мењају током године. The time of day that individuals begin and end work or school, and the coordination of [[Public transport|mass transit]], for example, usually remain constant year-round. In contrast, an [[agrarian society]]'s daily routines for work and personal conduct are more likely governed by the length of daylight hours<ref name=Minnesota>{{cite news |title= Daylight savings time |url= http://www.house.leg.state.mn.us/hinfo/swkly/1995-96/select/time.txt |work= Session Weekly |publisher= Minnesota House Public Information Office |year= 1991 |accessdate= August 7, 2013 }}</ref><ref name=RoSPA>{{cite web |title= Single/Double Summer Time policy paper |date= October 2006 |publisher= Royal Society for the Prevention of Accidents |archiveurl= https://web.archive.org/web/20120913125519/http://www.rospa.com/RoadSafety/info/summertime_paper2006v2.pdf|archivedate=September 13, 2012 |url= http://www.rospa.com/roadsafety/info/summertime_paper2006v2.pdf}}</ref> and by [[solar time]], which change [[season]]ally because of the Earth's [[axial tilt]]. North and south of the tropics daylight lasts longer in summer and shorter in winter, with the effect becoming greater the further one moves away from the tropics.
 
By synchronously resetting all clocks in a region to one hour ahead of [[standard time]], individuals who follow such a year-round schedule will wake an hour earlier than they would have otherwise; they will begin and complete daily work routines an hour earlier, and they will have available to them an extra hour of daylight after their workday activities.<ref name=Hudson_1895_p734>{{cite journal |author= G. V. Hudson |title= On seasonal time-adjustment in countries south of lat. 30° |journal= Transactions and Proceedings of the New Zealand Institute |year= 1895 |volume= 28 |page= 734 |url= http://rsnz.natlib.govt.nz/volume/rsnz_28/rsnz_28_00_006110.html }}</ref><ref name="Prerau-115-118">{{cite book |title= Seize the Daylight |pages= 115–118 |title-link= #Seize }}</ref> However, they will have one less hour of daylight at the start of each day, making the policy less practical during winter.<ref name=CRS>{{cite journal |author= Mark Gurevitz |url= http://opencrs.com/document/RS22284/ |title= Daylight saving time |publisher= Congressional Research Service |version= Order Code RS22284 |date= March 7, 2007 |deadurl= yes |archiveurl= https://web.archive.org/web/20140831225402/https://opencrs.com/document/RS22284/ |archivedate= August 31, 2014 |df= mdy-all }}</ref><ref name=Handwerk>{{cite web|last= Handwerk|first= Brian|title= Permanent Daylight Saving Time? Might Boost Tourism, Efficiency|url= http://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/travelnews/2011/11/111104-daylight-saving-time-science-travel/|publisher=National Geographic|accessdate= January 5, 2012|date= November 6, 2011}}</ref>
На северној хемисфери, летње време почиње на пролеће, а завршава се на јесен. На јужној хемисфери, почетак и крај летњег времена је обрнут од северне.
 
While the times of sunrise and sunset change at roughly equal rates as the seasons change, proponents of Daylight Saving Time argue that most people prefer a greater increase in daylight hours after the typical [[Working time#Workweek structure|"nine to five"]] workday.<ref>{{cite web|url= http://www.snopes.com/science/daylight.asp|last= Mikkelson|first= David|title= Daylight Saving Time|website= Snopes|date= March 13, 2016|accessdate= October 17, 2016}}</ref><ref name=Willett100>{{cite web |title= 100 years of British Summer Time |url= http://www.nmm.ac.uk/explore/astronomy-and-time/time-facts/british-summer-time/ |year= 2008 |publisher= National Maritime Museum |deadurl= yes |archiveurl= https://web.archive.org/web/20141228021630/http://www.nmm.ac.uk/explore/astronomy-and-time/time-facts/british-summer-time |archivedate= December 28, 2014 |df= mdy-all }}</ref> Supporters have also argued that DST decreases [[energy consumption]] by reducing the need for lighting and heating, but the actual effect on overall energy use is [[#Dispute over benefits and drawbacks|heavily disputed]].
Већина модерних рачунарских [[Оперативни систем|оперативних система]] има могућност аутоматског преласка на летње рачунање времена.
 
The manipulation of time at higher latitudes (for example [[Iceland]], [[Nunavut]], [[Scandinavia]] or [[Alaska]]) has little impact on daily life, because the length of day and night changes more extremely throughout the seasons (in comparison to other latitudes), and thus sunrise and sunset times are significantly out of phase with standard working hours regardless of manipulations of the clock.<ref>{{cite news|title= Bill would do away with daylight savings time in Alaska|url= http://peninsulaclarion.com/stories/031702/leg_031702ala0060001.shtml|accessdate= January 5, 2013|newspaper= Peninsula Clarion|date= March 17, 2002|quote= "Because of our high latitudinal location, the extremities in times for sunrise and sunset are more exaggerated for Alaska than anywhere else in the country," Lancaster said. "This makes Alaska less affected by savings from daylight-saving time."|deadurl= yes|archiveurl= https://web.archive.org/web/20131102172846/http://peninsulaclarion.com/stories/031702/leg_031702ala0060001.shtml|archivedate= November 2, 2013|df= mdy-all}}</ref> DST is also of little use for locations near the equator, because these regions see only a small variation in daylight in the course of the year.<ref>{{cite web|last= Rosenberg|first= Matt|title= Daylight Saving Time (Also Known as Daylight Savings Time)|url=http://geography.about.com/cs/daylightsavings/a/dst.htm|publisher= About|date= 2016|accessdate= October 17, 2016}}</ref> The effect also varies according to how far east or west the location is within its [[time zone]], with locations farther east inside the time zone benefiting more from DST than locations farther west in the same time zone.<ref>{{Cite news|url=https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/wonk/wp/2016/03/11/why-daylight-saving-time-isnt-as-terrible-as-people-think/|title=Why daylight saving time isn't as terrible as people think|last=Swanson|first=Anna|date=March 11, 2016|work=The Washington Post|access-date=|via=|accessdate=March 27, 2018}}</ref>
 
== Историја ==
[[File:Clepsydra-Diagram-Fancy.jpeg|thumb|upright|alt=A water clock. A small human figurine holds a pointer to a cylinder marked by the hours. The cylinder is connected by gears to a water wheel driven by water that also floats, a part that supports the figurine.|Древни [[водени сат]] који дозвољава да дужина сата варира са сезоном]]
 
Древне цивилизације су прилагођавале дневне распореде сунцу флексибилније него што то ДСТ чини, често делећи дневну светлост на 12 сати, без обзира на дневно време, тако да је сваки дан у пролеће постајао све дужи и краћи током јесени.<ref>{{cite journal |title= Daylight saving in ancient Rome |author= Berthold |journal= The Classical Journal |volume= 13 |issue= 6 |pages= 450–451 |year= 1918 }}</ref> На пример, [[Roman timekeeping|Romans kept time]] with [[water clock]]s that had different scales for different months of the year; at Rome's latitude, the third hour from sunrise ([[terce|''hora tertia'']]) started at 09:02 [[solar time]] and lasted 44 minutes at the winter [[solstice]], but at the summer solstice it started at 06:58 and lasted 75 minutes.<ref>{{cite book |title =Daily Life in Ancient Rome: The People and the City at the Height of the Empire |author =Jérôme Carcopino |publisher =Yale University Press |chapter =The days and hours of the Roman calendar |isbn =978-0-300-00031-3 |year =1968 |authorlink =Jérôme Carcopino }}</ref> From the 14th century onwards, equal-length civil hours supplanted unequal ones, so [[civil time]] no longer varies by season. Unequal hours are still used in a few traditional settings, such as some monasteries of [[Mount Athos]]<ref>{{cite journal |journal =The Atlantic |year =2003 |volume =292 |issue =5 |pages =138–141 |title =The holy mountain |author =Robert Kaplan |authorlink =Robert D. Kaplan}}</ref> and all Jewish ceremonies.<ref>{{cite book |author =Hertzel Hillel Yitzhak |year =2006 |title =Tzel HeHarim: Tzitzit |chapter =When to recite the blessing |pages =53–58 |isbn =978-1-58330-292-7 |publisher =Feldheim |location =Nanuet, NY }}</ref>
 
[[Бенџамин Френклин]] је објавио пословицу "early to bed and early to rise makes a man healthy, wealthy, and wise",<ref>{{cite book |url = https://books.google.com/books?id=fgaUQc8NbTYC&pg=PA70 |title = The Facts on File dictionary of proverbs |page = 70 |first = Martin H. |last = Manser | publisher = [[Infobase Publishing]] |year = 2007 |accessdate = October 26, 2011|isbn = 9780816066735 }}</ref><ref>{{cite book |url = https://books.google.com/books?id=EYiyAAAAIAAJ&pg=PA477 |title =Memoirs of Benjamin Franklin |author1 =Benjamin Franklin |author2 =William Temple Franklin |author3 =William Duane |publisher =McCarty & Davis|year = 1834|page =477|accessdate =October 20, 2016}}</ref> and he published a letter in the ''[[Journal de Paris]]'' during his time as an American envoy to France (1776–1785) suggesting that Parisians economize on candles by rising earlier to use morning sunlight.<ref>{{cite journal |author =Seymour Stanton Block |title =Benjamin Franklin: America's inventor |journal =American History |year =2006 |url =http://www.historynet.com/benjamin-franklin-americas-inventor.htm }}</ref> This 1784 satire proposed taxing window shutters, rationing candles, and waking the public by ringing church bells and firing cannons at sunrise.<ref name=Franklin>{{cite journal |author =Benjamin Franklin, writing anonymously |title =Aux auteurs du Journal |journal =Journal de Paris |date =April 26, 1784 |issue =117 |pages =511–513 |language =French }} Its first publication was in the journal's "Économie" section in a French translation. The [http://www.webexhibits.org/daylightsaving/franklin3.html revised English version] [cited February 13, 2009] is commonly called "An Economical Project", a title that is not Franklin's; see {{cite journal |author =A.O. Aldridge |title =Franklin's essay on daylight saving |journal =American Literature |volume =28 |issue =1 |pages =23–29 |year =1956 |doi =10.2307/2922719|jstor =2922719 }}</ref> Despite common misconception, Franklin did not actually propose DST; 18th-century Europe did not even keep precise schedules. However, this changed as rail transport and communication networks required a standardization of time unknown in Franklin's day.<ref>{{cite journal |author =Eviatar Zerubavel |title =The standardization of time: a sociohistorical perspective |journal =The American Journal of Sociology |volume =88 |issue =1 |year =1982 |pages =1–23 |doi =10.1086/227631 |authorlink =Eviatar Zerubavel }}</ref>
 
== Европа и Америка ==
 
Србија је почела да користи летње рачунање времена први пут 27. 3. 1983.<ref>{{Cite web |url= http://www.rts.rs/page/stories/ci/story/124/%D0%94%D1%80%D1%83%D1%88%D1%82%D0%B2%D0%BE/865106/%D0%9B%D0%B5%D1%82%D1%9A%D0%B5+%D1%80%D0%B0%D1%87%D1%83%D0%BD%D0%B0%D1%9A%D0%B5+%D0%B2%D1%80%D0%B5%D0%BC%D0%B5%D0%BD%D0%B0.html |title= РТС - Летње рачунање времена. |accessdate= 26. 03. 2011. |last= |first= |coauthors= |date= |work= |publisher=www.rts.rs}}</ref> Од 1995. године сатови су се враћали у последњој седмици септембра и то на основу одлука које је доносила Влада, а касније је донет закон којим је летње рачунање времена усклађено са Европском унијом.
 
== Извори ==
{{reflist}}
 
== Види још ==
* [[Временска зона]]
* [[UTC]]
 
== Извори ==
{{reflist}}
 
== Литература ==
{{refbegin|}}
* {{cite book |author=Ian R. Bartky |title= One Time Fits All: The Campaigns for Global Uniformity |publisher= Stanford University Press |year=2007 |isbn=978-0-8047-5642-6}}
{{refend}}
 
== Спољашње везе ==
{{Commons category|Daylight saving time}}
* {{en}} [http://www.seizethedaylight.com/dst/ Кратка историја летњег времена]
* [http://www.b92.net/zivot/vesti.php?yyyy=2015&mm=10&dd=24&nav_id=1055050 Зашто вечерас померамо казаљке на часовнику? (Б92, 24. октобар 2015)]
* -{[https://crsreports.congress.gov/product/pdf/R/R45208/3 Daylight Saving Time] [[Congressional Research Service]]}-
* -{[https://www.nist.gov/pml/div688/dst.cfm Information about the Current Daylight Saving Time (DST) Rules], [[National Institute of Standards and Technology|U.S. National Institute of Standards and Technology]]}-
* -{[http://www.itu.int/dms_pub/itu-t/opb/sp/T-SP-LT.1-2015-PDF-E.pdf "Legal Time 2015"], [[ITU-T|Telecommunications Standardization Bureau of the ITU]]}-
* -{[https://web.archive.org/web/20120623013511/http://www.twinsun.com/tz/tz-link.htm Sources for time zone and daylight saving time data]}-
 
{{Authority control}}
 
[[Категорија:Временске зоне]]