Чунгкинг — разлика између измена

12.838 бајтова додато ,  пре 2 године
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(.)
| покрајина =
| оснивање =
| површина = 82403 <ref name=mofcom>{{cite web |title = Doing Business in China – Survey |url = http://english.mofcom.gov.cn/article/zt_business/lanmub/ |publisher = [[Ministry of Commerce of the People's Republic of China]] |accessdate=2013-08-05 |deadurl = yes |archiveurl = https://archive.today/20130805091244/http://english.mofcom.gov.cn/article/zt_business/lanmub/ |archivedate = 5 August 2013 |df = dmy }}</ref>
| површина = 82403 <!-- engleski nacin zapisivanja -->
| становништво = 4579725
| извор_становништво = <ref name="citypopulation.de">{{Cite web |url=https://citypopulation.de/php/china-chongqing-admin.php |title=Archived copy |access-date=16 February 2019 |archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20190217084950/https://citypopulation.de/php/china-chongqing-admin.php |archive-date=17 February 2019 |dead-url=no |df=dmy-all }}</ref><ref name="cqnews">{{cite web
| извор_становништво =
|url = http://cq.cqnews.net/html/2016-01/28/content_36292655.htm
|script-title = zh:2015年重庆常住人口3016.55万人 继续保持增长态势
|trans-title = In 2015, Chongqing’s resident population of 30,165,500 people continued to grow
|publisher = Chongqing News
|language = zh
|date = 28 January 2016
|accessdate = 2016-02-13
|title = Archived copy
|archive-url = https://web.archive.org/web/20160129083111/http://cq.cqnews.net/html/2016-01/28/content_36292655.htm
|archive-date = 29 January 2016
|dead-url = no
|df = dmy-all
}}</ref>
| година_становништво = 2009
| густина =
 
== Географија ==
{{рут}}
=== Клима ===
All climatic data listed below comes from the central parts of the city.
{{Клима града
 
|Град_генитив=
; Annual average : {{convert|18.39|°C|1}}
|Извор=
; January average : {{convert|7.9|°C|1}}<ref name="CMA graphical"/>
| Јан_ср= | Јан_ср_пад=20
; July and August average : {{convert|28.3|°C|1}}<ref name="CMA graphical"/>
| Феб_ср= | Феб_ср_пад=21
; Historical Temperature range : From {{convert|−1.8|°C|0}} on 15 December 1975 to {{convert|43.0|°C|0}} on 15 August 2006<ref name="cdc.cma.gov.cn">{{cite web |url = http://cdc.cma.gov.cn/dataSetLogger.do?changeFlag=dataLogger |archive-url = https://web.archive.org/web/20121013021740/http://cdc.cma.gov.cn/dataSetLogger.do?changeFlag=dataLogger |dead-url=yes |archive-date=13 October 2012 |script-title=zh:无标题文档|accessdate=2016-10-16 |df=dmy-all }}</ref><ref name = "Extremes" >
| Мар_ср= | Мар_ср_пад=37
{{cite web
| Апр_ср= | Апр_ср_пад=102
|url = http://www.mherrera.org/temp.htm
| Мај_ср= | Мај_ср_пад=159
|title = Extreme Temperatures Around the World
| Јун_ср= | Јун_ср_пад=166
|accessdate = 2010-08-28
| Јул_ср= | Јул_ср_пад=171
|archive-url = https://www.webcitation.org/6HdEy8tEB?url=http://www.mherrera.org/temp.htm
| Авг_ср= | Авг_ср_пад=138
|archive-date = 25 June 2013
| Сеп_ср= | Сеп_ср_пад=149
|dead-url = no
| Окт_ср= | Окт_ср_пад=96
|df = dmy-all
| Нов_ср= | Нов_ср_пад=53
| Дец_ср= | Дец_ср_пад=26
| Год_ср= | Год_ср_пад=1101
| Јан_ср_мин=5.6 | Јан_ср_макс=9.5
| Феб_ср_мин=6.9 | Феб_ср_макс=11.6
| Мар_ср_мин=10.9 | Мар_ср_макс=16.8
| Апр_ср_мин=15.1 | Апр_ср_макс=22.2
| Мај_ср_мин=19.0 | Мај_ср_макс=25.9
| Јун_ср_мин=21.5 | Јун_ср_макс=28.1
| Јул_ср_мин=24.5 | Јул_ср_макс=32.2
| Авг_ср_мин=24.5 | Авг_ср_макс=32.8
| Сеп_ср_мин=20.4 | Сеп_ср_макс=26.5
| Окт_ср_мин=16.2 | Окт_ср_макс=21.3
| Нов_ср_мин=11.5 | Нов_ср_макс=15.7
| Дец_ср_мин=7.2 | Дец_ср_макс=10.9
| Год_ср_мин=15.3 | Год_ср_макс=21.1
| Јан_а_макс= | Јан_а_мин=
| Феб_а_макс= | Феб_а_мин=
| Мар_а_макс= | Мар_а_мин=
| Апр_а_макс= | Апр_а_мин=
| Мај_а_макс= | Мај_а_мин=
| Јун_а_макс= | Јун_а_мин=
| Јул_а_макс= | Јул_а_мин=
| Авг_а_макс= | Авг_а_мин=
| Сеп_а_макс= | Сеп_а_мин=
| Окт_а_макс= | Окт_а_мин=
| Нов_а_макс= | Нов_а_мин=
| Дец_а_макс= | Дец_а_мин=
| Год_а_макс= | Год_а_мин=
}}
</ref>
; Total annual hours of sunshine : 955
; Annual [[precipitation (meteorology)|precipitation]] : {{convert|1108|mm|1}}<ref name="CMA graphical"/>
 
Chongqing has a [[humid subtropical climate]] ([[Köppen climate classification|Köppen]] ''Cfa''), bordering on a monsoonal humid subtropical climate ([[Köppen climate classification|Köppen]] ''Cwa'') and for most of the year experiences very high relative humidity, with all months above 75%. Known as one of the "[[Three Furnaces]]" of the Yangtze river, along with [[Wuhan]] and [[Nanjing]], its summers are long and among the hottest and most humid in China, with highs of {{convert|33|to|34|°C|°F|0}} in July and August in the urban area.<ref>{{cite web
|url = http://cdc.cma.gov.cn/dataSetLogger.do?changeFlag=dataLogger
|script-title=zh:中国气象局 国家气象信息中心
|publisher=Guangzhou Popular Science News Net ({{lang|zh-hans|广州科普资讯网}})
|language = zh-Hans
|date=12 September 2007
|accessdate=2014-11-12
|deadurl=yes
|archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20130318113757/http://cdc.cma.gov.cn/dataSetLogger.do?changeFlag=dataLogger
|archivedate=18 March 2013
|df=dmy
}}</ref> Winters are short and somewhat mild, but damp and overcast. The city's location in the [[Sichuan Basin]] causes it to have one of the lowest annual sunshine totals nationally, at only 1,055 hours, lower than much of Northern Europe; the monthly percent possible sunshine in the city proper ranges from a mere 8% in December and January to 48% in August. Extremes since 1951 have ranged from {{convert|−1.8|°C|0}} on 15 December 1975 (unofficial record of {{convert|-2.5|°C|0}} was set on 8 February 1943) to {{convert|43.0|°C|0}} on 15 August 2006 (unofficial record of {{convert|44.0|°C|0}} was set on 8 and 9 August 1933).<ref name="cdc.cma.gov.cn" /><ref>
{{cite web
|url = http://www.mherrera.org/temp.htm
|title = Extreme Temperatures Around the World
|accessdate = 2013-05-22
|archive-url = https://www.webcitation.org/6HdEy8tEB?url=http://www.mherrera.org/temp.htm
|archive-date = 25 June 2013
|dead-url = no
|df = dmy-all
}}
</ref>
 
As exemplified by [[Youyang County]] below, conditions are often cooler in the southeast part of the municipality due to the higher elevations there.
 
{{Weather box
|location = Чунгкинга (округ Шапингба, 1981–2010)
|metric first = Y
|single line = Y
|collapsed =
|Jan high C = 10.3
|Feb high C = 12.9
|Mar high C = 17.7
|Apr high C = 23.0
|May high C = 27.2
|Jun high C = 29.4
|Jul high C = 33.0
|Aug high C = 33.2
|Sep high C = 28.3
|Oct high C = 21.7
|Nov high C = 17.1
|Dec high C = 11.5
 
|Jan mean C = 7.9
|Feb mean C = 10.0
|Mar mean C = 13.8
|Apr mean C = 18.5
|May mean C = 22.6
|Jun mean C = 25.1
|Jul mean C = 28.3
|Aug mean C = 28.3
|Sep mean C = 24.1
|Oct mean C = 18.6
|Nov mean C = 14.2
|Dec mean C = 9.3
 
|Jan low C = 6.2
|Feb low C = 8.0
|Mar low C = 11.2
|Apr low C = 15.4
|May low C = 19.3
|Jun low C = 22.1
|Jul low C = 24.8
|Aug low C = 24.7
|Sep low C = 21.2
|Oct low C = 16.5
|Nov low C = 12.2
|Dec low C = 7.7
 
|Jan record high C= 18.8
|Feb record high C= 24.6
|Mar record high C= 34.0
|Apr record high C= 36.5
|May record high C= 38.9
|Jun record high C= 39.8
|Jul record high C= 42.0
|Aug record high C= 43.0
|Sep record high C= 41.9
|Oct record high C= 35.1
|Nov record high C= 29.2
|Dec record high C= 21.5
 
|Jan record low C = −1.8
|Feb record low C = −0.8
|Mar record low C = 1.2
|Apr record low C = 2.8
|May record low C = 10.8
|Jun record low C = 15.5
|Jul record low C = 19.2
|Aug record low C = 17.8
|Sep record low C = 14.3
|Oct record low C = 6.9
|Nov record low C = 0.7
|Dec record low C = −1.7
|precipitation colour = green
|Jan precipitation mm = 19.7
|Feb precipitation mm = 23.3
|Mar precipitation mm = 43.2
|Apr precipitation mm = 95.2
|May precipitation mm = 145.9
|Jun precipitation mm = 192.6
|Jul precipitation mm = 186.0
|Aug precipitation mm = 137.9
|Sep precipitation mm = 105.8
|Oct precipitation mm = 85.8
|Nov precipitation mm = 48.3
|Dec precipitation mm = 24.3
|Jan humidity = 84
|Feb humidity = 80
|Mar humidity = 77
|Apr humidity = 77
|May humidity = 77
|Jun humidity = 81
|Jul humidity = 76
|Aug humidity = 74
|Sep humidity = 79
|Oct humidity = 85
|Nov humidity = 84
|Dec humidity = 85
|unit precipitation days = 0.1 mm
|Jan precipitation days = 10.0
|Feb precipitation days = 9.8
|Mar precipitation days = 11.9
|Apr precipitation days = 14.3
|May precipitation days = 15.5
|Jun precipitation days = 15.7
|Jul precipitation days = 12.5
|Aug precipitation days = 11.3
|Sep precipitation days = 12.7
|Oct precipitation days = 16.1
|Nov precipitation days = 11.5
|Dec precipitation days = 9.8
|year precipitation days=151.1
|Jan sun = 20.6 |Jan percentsun = 8
|Feb sun = 29.7 |Feb percentsun = 11
|Mar sun = 64.9 |Mar percentsun = 18
|Apr sun = 93.6 |Apr percentsun = 25
|May sun = 109.4 |May percentsun = 26
|Jun sun = 97.7 |Jun percentsun = 26
|Jul sun = 158.6 |Jul percentsun = 42
|Aug sun = 167.0 |Aug percentsun = 48
|Sep sun = 106.6 |Sep percentsun = 28
|Oct sun = 50.4 |Oct percentsun = 18
|Nov sun = 35.9 |Nov percentsun = 13
|Dec sun = 20.4 |Dec percentsun = 8
|year percentsun= 24<!--automatically calculated value of 22.6 gives average possible 12.78 hours/day, physically impossible-->
|source 1 = China Meteorological Administration<ref name="CMA graphical">{{cite web
|url=http://data.cma.cn/data/weatherBk.html
|script-title=zh:中国气象数据网 - WeatherBk Data
|publisher=[[China Meteorological Administration]]
|accessdate=2018-11-09
|title=Archived copy
|archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20170923231541/http://data.cma.cn/data/weatherbk.html
|archive-date=23 September 2017
|dead-url=no
|df=dmy-all
}}</ref><ref name="CMA">{{cite web
|url = http://old-cdc.cma.gov.cn/shuju/search1.jsp?dsid=SURF_CLI_CHN_MUL_MMON_19712000_CES&tpcat=SURF&type=table&pageid=3
|script-title=zh:中国地面国际交换站气候标准值数据集 (1971–2000年)
|publisher=[[China Meteorological Administration]]
|language = zh-Hans
|accessdate=2011-05-23
|date=May 2011
|deadurl=yes
|archiveurl = https://web.archive.org/web/20130921055035/http://old-cdc.cma.gov.cn/shuju/search1.jsp?dsid=SURF_CLI_CHN_MUL_MMON_19712000_CES&tpcat=SURF&type=table&pageid=3
|archivedate=21 September 2013
|df=dmy
}}</ref>
|date = May 2010
}}
{{Weather box|location = Јангјанг Туђе и аутономног округа Мјао (1971–2000)
|single line = Y
|metric first = Y
|collapsed = Y
|Jan high C = 7.5
|Feb high C = 8.8
|Mar high C = 13.0
|Apr high C = 19.7
|May high C = 23.9
|Jun high C = 26.9
|Jul high C = 30.0
|Aug high C = 30.2
|Sep high C = 25.6
|Oct high C = 20.3
|Nov high C = 15.1
|Dec high C = 10.3
|year high C= 19.3
|Jan low C = 1.5
|Feb low C = 2.8
|Mar low C = 6.3
|Apr low C = 11.5
|May low C = 15.6
|Jun low C = 19.2
|Jul low C = 21.5
|Aug low C = 21.1
|Sep low C = 17.5
|Oct low C = 12.8
|Nov low C = 8.0
|Dec low C = 3.4
|year low C= 11.8
|precipitation colour = green
|Jan precipitation mm = 29.1
|Feb precipitation mm = 31.6
|Mar precipitation mm = 56.7
|Apr precipitation mm = 128.5
|May precipitation mm = 195.1
|Jun precipitation mm = 242.3
|Jul precipitation mm = 178.1
|Aug precipitation mm = 145.0
|Sep precipitation mm = 122.5
|Oct precipitation mm = 109.5
|Nov precipitation mm = 67.9
|Dec precipitation mm = 25.4
|unit precipitation days = 0.1 mm
|Jan precipitation days = 12.0
|Feb precipitation days = 12.2
|Mar precipitation days = 15.9
|Apr precipitation days = 16.9
|May precipitation days = 18.1
|Jun precipitation days = 17.1
|Jul precipitation days = 15.4
|Aug precipitation days = 14.4
|Sep precipitation days = 13.0
|Oct precipitation days = 15.1
|Nov precipitation days = 11.6
|Dec precipitation days = 9.7
 
|Jan humidity = 77
|Feb humidity = 77
|Mar humidity = 79
|Apr humidity = 80
|May humidity = 81
|Jun humidity = 83
|Jul humidity = 82
|Aug humidity = 81
|Sep humidity = 81
|Oct humidity = 82
|Nov humidity = 79
|Dec humidity = 76
 
|Jan sun = 42.5 |Jan percentsun = 13
|Feb sun = 37.4 |Feb percentsun = 12
|Mar sun = 47.6 |Mar percentsun = 13
|Apr sun = 83.3 |Apr percentsun = 22
|May sun = 102.7 |May percentsun = 25
|Jun sun = 101.4 |Jun percentsun = 24
|Jul sun = 155.9 |Jul percentsun = 37
|Aug sun = 171.7 |Aug percentsun = 42
|Sep sun = 112.3 |Sep percentsun = 31
|Oct sun = 88.7 |Oct percentsun = 25
|Nov sun = 68.7 |Nov percentsun = 21
|Dec sun = 64.4 |Dec percentsun = 20
|year percentsun= 24.3
| source 1 = [http://old-cdc.cma.gov.cn/shuju/search1.jsp?dsid=SURF_CLI_CHN_MUL_MMON_19712000_CES&tpcat=SURF&type=table&pageid=3 China Meteorological Administration]
|date=March 2013
}}
 
=== Ваздух ===
Chongqing, with over 100 days of fog per year,<ref>
{{cite web
|url=http://iesglobal.com/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=450&Itemid=404
|title=Chongqing Municipality
|publisher=IES Global
|accessdate=2011-07-17
|archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20101011175556/http://iesglobal.com/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=450&Itemid=404
|archive-date=11 October 2010
|dead-url=no
|df=dmy-all
}}
</ref> is known as the "Fog City" ({{lang|zh|雾都}}), like [[San Francisco]], and a thick layer of fog shrouds it for 68 days per year during the spring and autumn.<ref>
{{cite web
|url = http://english.china.com/zh_cn/tourism/chongqing/11047307/20060331/13212034.html
|title = Chongqing – City of Hills, Fog and Spicy Food
|publisher = China.com
|accessdate = 2011-07-17
|archive-url = https://web.archive.org/web/20110927083357/http://english.china.com/zh_cn/tourism/chongqing/11047307/20060331/13212034.html
|archive-date = 27 September 2011
|dead-url = no
|df = dmy-all
}}
</ref><ref>Lin, Yutang.1944. The Vigil of a Nation. The John Day Company. New York. 262 pages</ref> During the [[Second Sino-Japanese War]], this special weather possibly played a role in protecting the city from being overrun by the [[Imperial Japanese Army]].
 
== Историја ==
 
== Партнерски градови ==
{{colbegin|4}}
* {{зас|}} [[Ономичи]]
* {{зас|}} [[Адис Абеба]]
* {{зас|Аргентина}} [[Кордоба (Аргентина)|Кордоба]]
* {{зас|}} [[Бисао]]
{{colend}}
 
== Види још ==
== Референце ==
{{reflist}}
 
== Литература ==
{{refbegin|30em}}
* {{cite book |last = Danielson |first = Eric N. |chapter = Chongqing |pages = 325–362 |title = The Three Gorges and the Upper Yangzi |location = Singapore |publisher = Marshall Cavendish/Times Editions |year = 2005 |isbn = 978-981-232-599-0 }}
* {{cite journal |last = Danielson |first = Eric N. |title = Revisiting Chongqing: China's Second World War Temporary National Capital |journal = Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society Hong Kong Branch |volume = 45 |year = 2005 }}
* {{cite book |last = Huang |first = Jiren |script-title = zh:老重庆:巴山夜语 |trans-title = Old Chongqing: Ba Mountains Night Rains |series = 老城市 [''The Old Cities''] |location = Nanjing |publisher = Jiangsu Fine Arts Publishing House |year = 1999 |language = zh }}
* {{cite book |last = Kapp |first = Robert A. |chapter = Chungking as a Center of Warlord Power, 1926–1937 |pages = 143–170 |title = The Chinese City Between Two Worlds |editor1 = Mark Elvin |editor2 = G. William Skinner |location = Stanford |publisher = Stanford University Press |year = 1974 }}
* {{cite book |last = Kapp |first = Robert A. |title = Szechwan and the Chinese Republic: Provincial Militarism and Central Power, 1911–1938 |location = New Haven |publisher = Yale University Press |year = 1973 }}
* {{cite book |author = Liao, Qingyu |title = Chongqing Ge Le Shan Pei Du Yizhi (The Construction of War-time Capital on the Gele Mountain, Chongqing) |location = Chengdu |publisher = Sichuan University Press |year = 2005 }}
* {{cite book |author = Long, Juncai |title = Sui Yue Ya Feng de Jiyi: Chongqing Kang Zhan Yizhi (Covered Memory of Flowing Years: Site[s] of [the] Anti-Japanese War in Chongqing) |location = Chongqing |publisher = Southwest University Press |year = 2005 }}
* {{cite book |author = McIsaac, Lee |title = "The City as Nation: Creating a Wartime Capital in Chongqing," in Remaking the Chinese City, 1900–1950, ed. by Joseph W. Esherick |location = Honolulu |publisher = University of Hawaii Press |year = 2000 }}
* {{cite book |author = Xu |title = Chongqing Jiu Ying (Old Photos of Chongqing) |location = Beijing |publisher = People's Fine Arts Publishing House |year = 1998 |author2 = Dongsheng Liu |author3 = Yuchuan }}
{{refend}}
 
== Спољашње везе ==
* https://web.archive.org/web/20071212100851/http://www.chongqing-city.com/ Информације о Чунгћингу
* https://web.archive.org/web/20071216132416/http://china-videos.de/chongqing.php Видео-записи из Чунгћинга
* -{[http://www.cq.gov.cn/ Chongqing Municipal Government website]}-
 
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