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Централне вредности заједничке свим облицима социјализма јесу критика приватног власништва и његово социјализовање, тј. подруштвљење (или барем неки облик друштвене контроле над њим), те начело друштвене једнакости.<ref>Brus, Wlodzimierz (5. новембар 2015). The Economics and Politics of Socialism. {{page1|location=|publisher=Routledge|year=|isbn=978-0-415-86647-7|pages=87}}. »This alteration in the relationship between economy and politics is evident in the very definition of a socialist economic system. The basic characteristic of such a system is generally reckoned to be the predominance of the social ownership of the means of production.«</ref><ref>Michie, Jonathan (1. јануар 2001). Readers Guide to the Social Sciences. Routledge. стр. {{page|year=1516|isbn=978-1-57958-091-9|pages=}} »Just as private ownership defines capitalism, social ownership defines socialism. The essential characteristic of socialism in theory is that it destroys social hierarchies, and therefore leads to a politically and economically egalitarian society. Two closely related consequences follow. First, every individual is entitled to an equal ownership share that earns an aliquot part of the total social dividend…Second, in order to eliminate social hierarchy in the workplace, enterprises are run by those employed, and not by the representatives of private or state capital. Thus, the well-known historical tendency of the divorce between ownership and management is brought to an end. The society — i.e. every individual equally — owns capital and those who work are entitled to manage their own economic affairs.«</ref><ref>„2. (Government, Politics & Diplomacy) any of various social or political theories or movements in which the common welfare is to be achieved through the establishment of a socialist economic system” „Socialism” at The Free dictionary</ref><ref>Arnold, Scott (1994). The Philosophy and Economics of Market Socialism: A Critical Study. {{page1|location=|publisher=Oxford University Press|year=|isbn=978-0-19-508827-4|pages=7—8}}. »This term is harder to define, since socialists disagree among themselves about what socialism ‘really is.’ It would seem that everyone (socialists and nonsocialists alike) could at least agree that it is not a system in which there is widespread private ownership of the means of production…To be a socialist is not just to believe in certain ends, goals, values, or ideals. It also requires a belief in a certain institutional means to achieve those ends; whatever that may mean in positive terms, it certainly presupposes, at a minimum, the belief that these ends and values cannot be achieved in an economic system in which there is widespread private ownership of the means of production…Those who favor socialism generally speak of social ownership, social control, or socialization of the means of production as the distinctive positive feature of a socialist economic system.«</ref><ref>Hastings, Mason and Pyper, Adrian, Alistair and Hugh (21. децембар 2000). The Oxford Companion to Christian Thought. {{page1|location=|publisher=Oxford University Press|year=|isbn=978-0-19-860024-4|pages=677}}. »Socialists have always recognized that there are many possible forms of social ownership of which co-operative ownership is one…Nevertheless, socialism has throughout its history been inseparable from some form of common ownership. By its very nature it involves the abolition of private ownership of capital; bringing the means of production, distribution, and exchange into public ownership and control is central to its philosophy. It is difficult to see how it can survive, in theory or practice, without this central idea.«</ref> Појавни облици социјализма међусобно се разликују по начину (средствима) којим ће се те вредности постићи. Иако се садржај појма социјализма може пронаћи већ у раним искуствима човечанства (појединим етичко-религијским учењима<ref>Cort, John C. (1988). Christian Socialism: An Informal History. Maryknoll, New York. {{page1|location=|publisher=Orbis Books|year=|isbn=978-0-88344-574-7|pages=}}</ref>, у пракси неких религијских заједница, јудео-хришћанском месијанизму, односно у учењима свих оних који су боље друштво покушавали постићи концепцијама праведности утемељеним на једнакости и братству), социјализам је модерна идеја.
 
У том смислу елементи социјалистичког мишљења могу се пронаћи у делима славних утописта (Т. [[Кампанела]], [[Томас Мор]]).<ref>von Mises, Ludwig (1981) [1951]. „Christianity and Socialism”. Socialism. New Heaven:. {{page1|location=|publisher=Yale University Press|year=|id=|pages=}}</ref> У делу Утопија из 1516. [[Томас Мор]] држи да »тамо где је власништво приватно, где је новац мерило свих ствари, тешко је и немогуће да заједница има праведну владу«.
 
== Утопијски социјализам ==
* {{Cite book|ref=harv|last=Itoh|first=Makoto|title=Political Economy of Socialism|location=London|publisher=Macmillan|year=1995|isbn=978-0-333-55337-4|pages=}}
* {{Cite book|ref=harv| last=Kitching | first = Gavin |authorlink= Gavin Kitching | title = Rethinking Socialism | publisher = Meuthen |year=1983 | url = http://www.gavinkitching.com/marx_0.htm |isbn=978-0-416-35840-7 | accessdate=29. 7. 2017 | archive-url = https://web.archive.org/web/20080118040529/http://www.gavinkitching.com/marx_0.htm | archive-date=18. 1. 2008 | dead-url = yes | df = }}
* -{[[Oskar Lange]], ''On the Economic Theory of Socialism'', Minneapolis, MN:. {{page1|location=|publisher=University of Minnesota Press, |year=1938|id=|pages=}}.}- {{LCCN|38012882}}.
* Michael Lebowitz, ''[http://www.monthlyreview.org/builditnow.htm Build It Now: Socialism for the 21st century]'', [http://www.monthlyreview.org/ Monthly Review Press]. {{page|year=2006|isbn=978-1-58367-145-0|pages=}}.
* -{George Lichtheim, ''A Short History of Socialism''. Praeger Publishers,}- 1970.
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