Preživari — разлика између измена

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{{Taxobox-lat
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'''Preživari''' ([[Латински језик|lat.]] -{Ruminantia}-) su podred [[Сисари|sisara]] iz reda [[papkari|papkara]] koji [[varenje|vare]] [[biljke|biljnu]] [[hrana|hranu]] tako što je najpre progutaju i omekšaju u prednjem delu [[želudac|želuca]], nakon čega povrate nedovoljno svarenu masu nazad u [[усна дупља|usta]] i ponovo je [[žvakanje|žvaću]].<ref>{{cite web|url=https://www.extension.umn.edu/agriculture/dairy/feed-and-nutrition/feeding-the-dairy-herd/ruminant-anatomy-and-physiology.html|title=Ruminant anatomy and physiology : Dairy Extension : University of Minnesota Extension|access-date=2017-05-08 |work=www.extension.umn.edu|language=en}}</ref> Proces ponovljenog žvakanja radi dodatnog usitnjavanja hrane se naziva ''preživanje''. U preživare spadaju [[domaće govedo|krava]], [[koza]], [[ovca]], [[žirafa]], [[bizon]], [[jak]], [[jelen]], [[gnu]] i [[antilopa|antilope]].
 
== Sistem organa za varenje ==
 
Iz želuca delimično svarena hrana dolazi do tankog creva, gde se meša sa [[Жуч|žuči]], [[Гуштерача|pankreasnim]] sokom i crevnim sokom. Dolazi do varenja preostalih ugljenih hidrata, proteina i masti, kao i do apsorpcije istih, zajedno sa mineralnim materijama. Nakon tankog, hrana prelazi u debelo crevo, gde se vrši resorpcija vode i formiranje [[izmet]]a.
 
== Evolucija ==
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'''Ruminantiamorpha''' is a total clade of artiodactyls defined, according to Spaulding et al., as "Ruminantia plus all extinct taxa more closely related to extant members of Ruminantia than to any other living species."<ref name="cite journal|pmc=2740860"/> Spaulding grouped some genera of the family [[Anthracotheriidae]] within Ruminantiamorpha (but not in Ruminantia), but placed others within Ruminantiamorpha's sister clade, [[Cetancodontamorpha]].
 
The Tragulidae are the basal family in Ruminantia.<ref name="Kulemzina2011">Kulemzina AI, Yang F, Trifonov VA, Ryder OA, Ferguson-Smith MA, Graphodatsky AS (2011) Chromosome painting in Tragulidae facilitates the reconstruction of Ruminantia ancestral karyotype. Chromosome Res.</ref>
 
The ancestral Ruminantia [[karyotype]] is 2n = 48, similar to that of cetartiodactyls.<ref name="Kulemzina2011"/>
 
== Sistematika ==
Podred '''Preživari''' ('''Ruminantia'''):
* Infrared [[Tragulina]] (parafiletski infrared)<ref name=wikilingue.com>{{cite web |title=WikiLingue |url=https://translate.google.com/translate?hl=en&sl=es&u=http://es.wikilingue.com/pt/Tragulina&ei=7hwQTMLjGo3tnQez2_G4DQ&sa=X&oi=translate&ct=result&resnum=10&ved=0CDUQ7gEwCQ&prev=/search%3Fq%3DTragulina%26hl%3Den%26client%3Dfirefox-a%26hs%3D1D%26rls%3Dorg.mozilla:en-US:official%26prmd%3Db |accessdate=May 11, 2010 }}</ref>
* Infrared [[Tragulina]] (parafiletski infrared)
** Porodica [[Prodremotheriidae]] †
** Porodica [[Hypertragulidae]] †
** Porodica [[Praetragulidae]] †
** Porodica [[Protoceratidae]] †<ref name="cite journal|pmc=2740860">„Relationships{{cite journal|pmc=2740860 | pmid=19774069 | doi=10.1371/journal.pone.0007062 | volume=4 | issue=9 | title=Relationships of Cetacea (Artiodactyla) among mammals: increased taxon sampling alters interpretations of key fossils and character evolution”.evolution | year=2009 | journal=PLoS ONE. | pages=e7062}}</ref>
** Porodica [[Tragulidae]]
** Porodica [[Archaeomerycidae]] †
** Porodica [[Lophiomerycidae]] †
* Infrared [[Pecora]]<ref name=HD>{{cite journal | last1 = Hassanin | first1 = A. | last2 = Douzery | first2 = E. | year = 2003 | title = Molecular and Morphological Phylogenies of Ruminantia and the Alternative Position of the Moschidae | url = | journal = Systematic Biology | volume = 52 | issue = 2| pages = 206–228 | doi = 10.1080/10635150390192726 | pmid=12746147}}</ref><ref name = JS>Janis, C., K. Scott. The Interrelationships of Higher Ruminant Families with Special Emphasis on the Members of the Cervoidea. ''American Museum Novitates''. 2893: 1-85. 1987. http://digitallibrary.amnh.org/dspace/handle/2246/5180</ref><ref name="Hassanin et al">{{cite journal | last1 = Hassanin | first1 = A. | last2 = Delsuc | first2 = F. | last3 = Ropiquet | first3 = A. | last4 = Hammer | first4 = C. | last5 = Matthee | first5 = C. | last6 = Ruiz-Garcia | first6 = M. | last7 = Catzeflis | first7 = F. | last8 = Areskoug | first8 = V. | last9 = Nguyen | first9 = T. T. | last10 = Couloux | first10 = A. | year = 2012 | title = Pattern and Timing of Diversification of Cetartiodactyla (Mammalia, Laurasiatheria), as Revealed by a Comprehensive Analysis of Mitochondrial Genomes | url = | journal = Comptes Rendus Biologies | volume = 335 | issue = 1| pages = 32–50 | doi = 10.1016/j.crvi.2011.11.002 | pmid=22226162}}</ref>
* Infrared [[Pecora]]
** Porodica [[Cervidae]]
** Porodica [[Gelocidae]] †
** Porodica [[Moschidae]]
** Porodica [[Bovidae]]
 
Not all ruminants belong to the Ruminantia.<ref name="Whistler, D. P 2005">Whistler, D. P. and S. D. Webb. 2005. [http://biostor.org/reference/201380/page/1 New goatlike camelid from the late Pliocene of Tecopa Lake Basin, California]. Natural History Museum of Los Angeles County Contributions in Science 503:1-40.</ref>{{vn|date=November 2017}} [[Tylopoda]] (such as [[camel]]s, which chew a cud) and [[Hippopotamidae]] (such as [[hippopotami]], which do not chew a cud) are classified as [[pseudoruminant]]s.<ref name="Whistler, D. P 2005"/> A number of other large grazing mammals, e.g. [[horse]]s and [[kangaroo]]s, employ [[hindgut fermentation]] as an adaptation for surviving on large quantities of low-grade food.
 
== Reference ==
 
== Literatura ==
{{refbegin}}
* {{Cite journal|pmc=2740860 | pmid=19774069 | doi=10.1371/journal.pone.0007062 | volume=4 | issue=9 | title=Relationships of Cetacea (Artiodactyla) among mammals: increased taxon sampling alters interpretations of key fossils and character evolution | year=2009 | journal=PLoS ONE | pages=e7062}}
{{refend}}
 
== Spoljašnje veze ==
{{Commonscat-lat|Ruminantia}}
* {{Cite EB1911|wstitle=Ruminantia |short=x}}
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[[Категорија:Papkari]]