Урду (језик) — разлика између измена

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| опис_мапе2 = <div align=left>{{legend|#ffc90e|Урду је званични језик или званични са још неким језицима}}</small>{{legend|#fff200|Хинди је званични језик}}</div>
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'''Урду''' ('''اردو''') (Локално преведен и познат као '''Лашкари''' '''لشکری''') припада групи индоевропских језика и граматички и лингвистички се развијао под утицајем многих језика различитих група као што су [[Персијски језик|персијски]], [[Турски језик|турски]], [[паштунски језик|пашто]], [[Арапски језик|арапски]] те [[хинди|хинду]] и [[санскрт|санскрит]] у периоду постојања султаната Делхи и [[Mogulsko carstvo|Могулског царства]] (1200-1800. године).<ref name="Mukherjee2018">{{cite book|author=Ramkrishna Mukherjee|title=Understanding Social Dynamics in South Asia: Essays in Memory of Ramkrishna Mukherjee|url=https://books.google.com/books?id=IHWKDwAAQBAJ&pg=PA221|year=2018|publisher=Springer|isbn=9789811303876|pages=221–}}</ref><ref>{{cite book|title=Economic and Political Weekly|url=https://books.google.com/books?id=yu-wAAAAIAAJ|year=1996|publisher=Sameeksha Trust}}</ref>
 
Урду се налази на 20. месту по броју говорника којима је матерњи језик. То је народни и званични (заједно са [[Енглески језик|енглеским]]) језик [[Пакистан]]а. Такође је један од 23 званична језика [[Индија|Индије]].
* [[Катар]] (70.000)
* [[Немачка]] (40.000)
* [[Норвешка]] (34.000)<ref>{{Cite web|url=https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/no.html|title=Europe :: Norway — The World Factbook - Central Intelligence Agency|website=www.cia.gov|access-date=2019-11-01}}</ref><ref>{{Cite web|url=https://joshuaproject.net/people_groups/15727/NO|title=Urdu in Norway|last=Project|first=Joshua|website=joshuaproject.net|language=en|access-date=2019-11-01}}</ref>
* [[Норвешка]] (26.950{{чињеница| date = 11. 2013.}})
* [[Француска]] (20.000)
* [[Шпанија]] (18.000 [2004]{{чињеница| date = 11. 2013.}})
* [[Шведска]] (10.000 [2001] [http://www.answers.com/topic/demographics-of-sweden])
 
== Референце ==
{{reflist}}
 
== Литература ==
{{refbegin|30em}}
* {{cite book|url=https://books.google.com/?id=xY8xAAAAMAAJ&printsec=frontcover#v=onepage&q&f=false|title=English and Urdu dictionary, romanized|author=[[Henry Blochmann]]|editor=|year=1877|publisher=Printed at the Baptist mission press for the Calcutta school-book society|edition= 8|location=CALCUTTA|isbn=|page=215|volume=|accessdate=6 July 2011}}the University of Michigan
* {{cite book|url=https://books.google.com/?id=fClgAAAAMAAJ&printsec=frontcover#v=onepage&q&f=false|title=A grammar of the Urdū or Hindūstānī language|author=John Dowson|editor=|year=1908|publisher=K. Paul, Trench, Trübner & Co., ltd.|edition= 3|location=LONDON|isbn=|page=264|volume=|accessdate=6 July 2011}}the University of Michigan
* {{cite book|url=https://books.google.com/?id=8U8IAAAAQAAJ&printsec=frontcover#v=onepage&q&f=false|title=A grammar of the Urdū or Hindūstānī language|author=John Dowson|editor=|year=1872|publisher=Trübner & Co.|edition= |location=LONDON|isbn=|page=264|volume=|accessdate=6 July 2011}}Oxford University
* {{cite book|url=https://books.google.com/?id=cFIIAAAAQAAJ&printsec=frontcover#v=onepage&q&f=false|title=A grammar of the Hindūstānī or Urdū language|author=John Thompson Platts|editor=|year=1874|publisher=W.H. Allen|edition= |location=LONDON|isbn=|page=399|volume=Volume 6423 of Harvard College Library preservation microfilm program|accessdate=6 July 2011}}Oxford University
* {{cite book|url=https://books.google.com/?id=JBoYAAAAYAAJ&printsec=frontcover#v=onepage&q&f=false|title=A grammar of the Hindūstānī or Urdū language|author=John Thompson Platts|editor=|year=1892|publisher=W.H. Allen|edition= |location=LONDON|isbn=|page=399|volume=|accessdate=6 July 2011}}the New York Public Library
* {{cite book|url=https://books.google.com/?id=iDtbAAAAQAAJ&printsec=frontcover#v=onepage&q&f=false|title=A dictionary of Urdū, classical Hindī, and English|author=John Thompson Platts|editor=|year=1884|publisher=H. Milford|edition= reprint|location=LONDON|isbn=|page=1259|volume=|accessdate=6 July 2011}}Oxford University
* Ahmad, Rizwan. 2006. [https://web.archive.org/web/20070614053903/http://www.ling.ohio-state.edu/NWAV/Abstracts/Papr172.pdf "Voices people write: Examining Urdu in Devanagari"]
* Alam, Muzaffar. 1998. "The Pursuit of Persian: Language in Mughal Politics." In ''Modern Asian Studies'', vol. 32, no. 2. (May 1998), pp.&nbsp;317–349.
* Asher, R. E. (Ed.). 1994. ''The Encyclopedia of language and linguistics''. Oxford: Pergamon Press. {{ISBN|0-08-035943-4}}.
* Azad, Muhammad Husain. 2001 [1907]. ''Aab-e hayat'' (Lahore: Naval Kishor Gais Printing Works) 1907 [in Urdu]; (Delhi: Oxford University Press) 2001. [In English translation]
* Azim, Anwar. 1975. Urdu a victim of cultural genocide. In Z. Imam (Ed.), ''Muslims in India'' (p.&nbsp;259).
* Bhatia, Tej K. 1996. ''Colloquial Hindi: The Complete Course for Beginners''. London, UK & New York, NY: Routledge. {{ISBN|0-415-11087-4}} (Book), 0415110882 (Cassettes), 0415110890 (Book & Cassette Course)
* Bhatia, Tej K. and Koul Ashok. 2000. "Colloquial Urdu: The Complete Course for Beginners." London: Routledge. {{ISBN|0-415-13540-0}} (Book); {{ISBN|0-415-13541-9}} (cassette); {{ISBN|0-415-13542-7}} (book and casseettes course)
* Chatterji, Suniti K. 1960. ''Indo-Aryan and Hindi'' (rev. 2nd ed.). Calcutta: Firma K.L. Mukhopadhyay.
* Dua, Hans R. 1992. "Hindi-Urdu as a pluricentric language". In M. G. Clyne (Ed.), ''Pluricentric languages: Differing norms in different nations''. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter. {{ISBN|3-11-012855-1}}.
* Dua, Hans R. 1994a. Hindustani. In Asher, 1994; pp.&nbsp;1554.
* Dua, Hans R. 1994b. Urdu. In Asher, 1994; pp.&nbsp;4863–4864.
* Durrani, Attash, Dr. 2008. '' Pakistani Urdu''.Islamabad: National Language Authority, Pakistan.
* {{Cite journal
|last=Gumperz
|first=J.J.
|year=1982
|title=Discourse Strategies
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|ref=harv}}
* Hassan, Nazir and Omkar N. Koul 1980. ''Urdu Phonetic Reader''. Mysore: Central Institute of Indian Languages.
* {{cite news |title=The Literary Heritage of Urdu |url=http://www.thedailystar.net/magazine/2006/06/03/culture.htm |author=Syed Maqsud Jamil|newspaper=Daily Star |date=16 June 2006 }}
* Kelkar, A. R. 1968. ''Studies in Hindi-Urdu: Introduction and word phonology''. Poona: Deccan College.
* Khan, M. H. 1969. Urdu. In T. A. Sebeok (Ed.), ''Current trends in linguistics'' (Vol. 5). The Hague: Mouton.
* King, Christopher R. 1994. ''One Language, Two Scripts: The Hindi Movement in Nineteenth Century North India''. Bombay: Oxford University Press.
* Koul, Ashok K. 2008. ''Urdu Script and Vocabulary''. Delhi: Indian Institute of Language Studies.
* Koul, Omkar N. 1994. ''Hindi Phonetic Reader''. Delhi: Indian Institute of Language Studies.
* Koul, Omkar N. 2008. ''Modern Hindi Grammar''. Springfield: Dunwoody Press.
* {{cite journal | last1 = Narang | first1 = G. C. | last2 = Becker | first2 = D. A. | year = 1971 | title = Aspiration and nasalization in the generative phonology of Hindi-Urdu | url = | journal = Language | volume = 47 | issue = 3| pages = 646–767 | doi=10.2307/412381| jstor = 412381 }}
* Ohala, M. 1972. Topics in Hindi-Urdu phonology. (PhD dissertation, University of California, Los Angeles).
* [http://www.columbia.edu/itc/mealac/pritchett/00ghalib/index.html?urdu "A Desertful of Roses"], a site about Ghalib's Urdu ghazals by Dr. Frances W. Pritchett, Professor of Modern Indic Languages at Columbia University, New York, NY, USA.
* Phukan, S. 2000. The Rustic Beloved: Ecology of Hindi in a Persianate World, The Annual of Urdu Studies, vol 15, issue 5, pp.&nbsp;1–30
* The Comparative study of Urdu and Khowar. [[Badshah Munir Bukhari]] National Language Authority Pakistan 2003.
* Rai, Amrit. 1984. ''A house divided: The origin and development of Hindi-Hindustani''. Delhi: Oxford University Press. {{ISBN|0-19-561643-X}}.
* Snell, Rupert ''Teach yourself Hindi: A complete guide for beginners.'' Lincolnwood, IL: NTC
* Pimsleur, Dr. Paul, [https://web.archive.org/web/20110707212801/http://www.audiobookscorner.com/title.aspx?titleId=555460 "Free Urdu Audio Lesson"]
* [http://languagelog.ldc.upenn.edu/myl/llog/King2001.pdf The poisonous potency of script: Hindi and Urdu], ''ROBERT D. KING''
{{refend}}
 
== Спољашње везе ==
* [http://ur.wiktionary.org Википедијин речник]
* [http://wikitravel.org/en/Hindi-Urdu_phrasebook Свакодневни изрази на урду језику - Туризам]
* {{Curlie|Science/Social_Sciences/Linguistics/Languages/Natural/Indo-European/Indo-Iranian/Indo-Aryan/Urdu/}}
* [https://www.britannica.com/topic/Urdu-language Urdu language] at ''[[Encyclopædia Britannica]]''
* [https://web.archive.org/web/20150105192948/http://dmoz.pk/Provinces/Urdu-Web/ Directory of Urdu websites].
* [http://www.easyurdutyping.com/ Type in Urdu]
* [https://www.urdudvds.com/ Urdu Tutorials Library]
* [https://scholar.google.com.pk/citations?user=jQ-doMQAAAAJ&hl=en Urdu Scholarship-Maldonado Garcia]
* [https://web.archive.org/web/20181110094032/http://www.urduebooks.com/ UrdueBooks Open Source]
* [https://web.archive.org/web/20180511145915/https://www.urdulibraryonline.com/ Urdu Digital Library]
 
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[[Категорија:Индо-аријски језици]]