Španska kolonizacija Amerike — разлика између измена

{{short description|Prekomorska ekspanzija pod krunom Kastilje}}
[[File:Pendón real de Medina del Campo.svg|thumb|200px|Zastava španskih [[konkvistador]]a sa krunom Kastilje na crvenoj zastavi, koju su koristili [[Ernan Kortes]], [[Fransisko Pizaro]] i drugi]]
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The overseas expansion under the [[Crown of Castile]] was initiated under the royal authority and first accomplished by the Spanish ''[[konkvistador]]a''. The Americas were invaded and incorporated into the [[Spanish Empire]], with the exception of [[Colonial Brazil|Brazil]], [[British Canada|Canada]], the north-eastern [[United States]] and several other small countries in South America and The Caribbean. The crown created civil and religious structures to administer the region. The motivations for colonial expansion were trade and the spread of the [[Catholic]] faith through [[Indigenous peoples of the Americas|indigenous]] conversions.
 
Prekomorska ekspanzija pod [[Crown of Castile|Krunom Kastilje]] pokrenuta je pod kraljevskom vlašću, a prvi su je realizovali španski ''[[konkvistador]]i''. Izvršena je invazija Amerika i nove teritorije su inkorporirane u [[Špansko carstvo]], s izuzetkom [[Colonial Brazil|Brazil]]a, [[Canada under British rule|Kanade]], severoistoka [[SAD|Sjedinjenih Država]] i još nekoliko malih zemalja Južne Amerike i Kariba. Kruna je stvorila civilne i verske strukture za administraciju regiona. Motivacija za kolonijalnu ekspanziju bila je trgovina i širenje [[Католичка црква|katoličke]] vere putem preobražavanaj [[Indigenous peoples of the Americas|autohtonih]] žitelja.
Beginning with the 1492 arrival of [[Christopher Columbus]] in the Caribbean and continuing control of vast territory for over three centuries, the [[Spanish Empire]] would expand across the [[Caribbean]] Islands, half of [[South America]], most of [[Central America]] and much of [[North America]] (including present day [[Mexico]], [[Florida]] and the [[Southwestern United States|Southwestern]] and [[West Coast of the United States|Pacific Coastal]] regions of the [[United States]]). It is estimated that during the colonial period (1492–1832), a total of 1.86 million Spaniards settled in the Americas and a further 3.5 million immigrated during the post-colonial era (1850–1950); the estimate is 250,000 in the 16th century, and most during the 18th century as immigration was encouraged by the new Bourbon Dynasty. In contrast, [[Indigenous peoples of the Americas#European colonization|the indigenous population plummeted]] by an estimated 80% in the first century and a half following Columbus's voyages, primarily through the spread of [[Old World|Afro-Eurasian]] [[Infection|diseases]].<ref name="Histoire">"La catastrophe démographique" (The Demographic Catastrophe) in ''[[L'Histoire]]'' n°322, July–August 2007, p. 17</ref> This has been argued to be the first large-scale act of [[genocide]] [[Genocides in history#1490 to 1914|in the modern era]],<ref>{{cite book|last=Forsythe|first=David P.|title=Encyclopedia of Human Rights, Volume 4|year=2009|publisher=Oxford University Press|isbn=978-0195334029|p=297|ref= harv}}</ref> although this claim is disputed due to the introduction of disease, which is considered a byproduct of the [[Columbian exchange]]. [[Mestizaje|Racial mixing]] was a central process in the Spanish colonization of the Americas, and ultimately led to the [[Latin Americans|Latin American]] identity, which combines [[Hispanic]], and [[Indigenous peoples of the Americas|Native American]] cultures.
 
Počevši od prispeća [[Кристифор Колумбо|Kristofora Kolumba]] na Karibe 1492. godine i nastavljajući kontrolu nad ogromnom teritorijom tokom više od tri veka, [[Špansko carstvo]] se proširilo na [[Антили|Karipska]] ostrva, polovinu [[Južna Amerika|Južne Amerike]], veći deo [[Central America|Centralne Amerike]] i veći deo [[North America|Severne Amerike]] (uključujući današnji) [[Meksiko]], [[Florida|Floridu]], i [[Southwestern United States|jugozapadne]] i primorske [[West Coast of the United States|pacifičko obalske]] regione [[SAD|Sjedinjenih Država]]. Procenjuje se da je tokom kolonijalnog perioda (1492-1832) ukupno 1,86 miliona Španaca naseljeno u Americi, a dodatnih 3,5 miliona je doseljeno tokom postkolonijalne ere (1850-1950); procena je da je u 16. veku naseljeno 250.000, a većina tokom 18. veka, jer je imigraciju podstakla nova dinastija Burbon. Suprotno tome, [[Indigenous peoples of the Americas#European colonization|veličina autohtone populacije]] je redukovana za procenjenih 80% tokom prvog veka i po nakon Kolumbovih putovanja, prevashodno širenjem [[Old World|afroevroazijskih]] [[Infection|bolesti]].<ref name="Histoire">"La catastrophe démographique" (The Demographic Catastrophe) in ''[[L'Histoire]]'' n°322, July–August 2007, p. 17</ref> Ovo se može smatrati prvim [[genocid]]nim aktom velikog obima u [[Genocides in history#1490 to 1914|modernom dobu]],<ref>{{cite book|last=Forsythe|first=David P.|title=Encyclopedia of Human Rights, Volume 4|year=2009|publisher=Oxford University Press|isbn=978-0195334029|p=297|ref= harv}}</ref> iako je ova tvrdnja osporena zbog uvođenja bolesti, koje se smatrju nusproduktom [[Columbian exchange|kolumbijske razmene]]. [[Местици|Rasno mešanje]] bilo je centralni proces u španskoj kolonizaciji Amerike, i ultimatno je dovelo do [[Латинска Америка|latinoameričkog]] identiteta, koji kombinuje [[hispano]] i [[Indigenous peoples of the Americas|indijanske]] kulture.
Spain enjoyed a cultural [[Spanish Golden Age|golden age]] in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries when silver and gold from American mines increasingly financed a long series of European and North African wars. In the early 19th century, the [[Spanish American wars of independence]] resulted in the secession and subsequent [[balkanization]] of most Spanish colonies in the Americas, except for [[Cuba]] and [[Puerto Rico]], which were finally given up in 1898, following the [[Spanish–American War]], together with [[Guam]] and the [[Philippines]] in the Pacific. Spain's loss of these last territories politically ended the Spanish rule in the Americas.
 
Španija je uživala u kulturnom [[Златни век шпанске књижевности|zlatnom dobu]] u šesnaestom i sedamnaestom veku, kada su srebro i zlato iz američkih rudnika sve više finansirali dugi niz evropskih i severnoafričkih ratova. Početkom 19. veka [[Борба за независност Латинске Америке|Špansko američki ratovi za nezavisnost]] rezultirali su secesijom i kasnijom [[Балканизација|balkanizacijom]] većine španskih kolonija u Americi, osim [[Kuba|Kube]] i [[Portoriko|Portorika]], koji su konačno napušteni 1898, posle [[Шпанско-амерички рат|Špansko-američkog rata]], zajedno sa [[Gvam]]om i [[Filipini]]ma u Tihom okeanu. Španski gubitak ovih poslednjih teritorija politički je okončao špansku vlast u Americi.
 
== Osvajanja ==