Preživari — разлика између измена

1 бајт уклоњен ,  пре 5 месеци
ispravke formata datuma
(ispravke formata datuma)
-{[[Tragulidae]]}-
}}
'''Preživari''' ([[Латински језик|lat.]] -{Ruminantia}-) su podred [[Сисари|sisara]] iz reda [[papkari|papkara]] koji [[varenje|vare]] [[biljke|biljnu]] [[hrana|hranu]] tako što je najpre progutaju i omekšaju u prednjem delu [[želudac|želuca]], nakon čega povrate nedovoljno svarenu masu nazad u [[усна дупља|usta]] i ponovo je [[žvakanje|žvaću]].<ref>{{cite web|url=https://www.extension.umn.edu/agriculture/dairy/feed-and-nutrition/feeding-the-dairy-herd/ruminant-anatomy-and-physiology.html|title=Ruminant anatomy and physiology : Dairy Extension : University of Minnesota Extension|access-date=8. 5. 2017-05-08 |work=www.extension.umn.edu|language=en}}</ref> Proces ponovljenog žvakanja radi dodatnog usitnjavanja hrane se naziva ''preživanje''. U preživare spadaju [[domaće govedo|krava]], [[koza]], [[ovca]], [[žirafa]], [[bizon]], [[jak]], [[jelen]], [[gnu]] i [[antilopa|antilope]].
 
== Sistem organa za varenje ==
== Sistematika ==
Podred '''Preživari''' ('''Ruminantia'''):
* Infrared [[Tragulina]] (parafiletski infrared)<ref name=wikilingue.com>{{cite web |title=WikiLingue |url=https://translate.google.com/translate?hl=en&sl=es&u=http://es.wikilingue.com/pt/Tragulina&ei=7hwQTMLjGo3tnQez2_G4DQ&sa=X&oi=translate&ct=result&resnum=10&ved=0CDUQ7gEwCQ&prev=/search%3Fq%3DTragulina%26hl%3Den%26client%3Dfirefox-a%26hs%3D1D%26rls%3Dorg.mozilla:en-US:official%26prmd%3Db |accessdate=May 11,. 5. 2010 }}</ref>
** Porodica [[Prodremotheriidae]] †
** Porodica [[Hypertragulidae]] †
** Porodica [[Bovidae]]
 
Not all ruminants belong to the Ruminantia.<ref name="Whistler, D. P 2005">Whistler, D. P. and S. D. Webb. 2005. [http://biostor.org/reference/201380/page/1 New goatlike camelid from the late Pliocene of Tecopa Lake Basin, California]. Natural History Museum of Los Angeles County Contributions in Science 503:1-40.</ref>{{vn|date=Novembernovembar 2017}} [[Tylopoda]] (such as [[camel]]s, which chew a cud) and [[Hippopotamidae]] (such as [[hippopotami]], which do not chew a cud) are classified as [[pseudoruminant]]s.<ref name="Whistler, D. P 2005"/> A number of other large grazing mammals, e.g. [[horse]]s and [[kangaroo]]s, employ [[hindgut fermentation]] as an adaptation for surviving on large quantities of low-grade food.
 
== Reference ==