Kanabis (lek) — разлика између измена

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{{Preusmeri-lat|Marihuana}}
[[Датотека:Macro cannabis bud.jpg|мини|Osušeni pupoljak biljke [[Конопља|kanabis]]]]
'''Kanabis''' (''-{Cannabis}-''), poznat i kao '''marihuana''' (''-{marijuana}-''), je osušeni cvet biljke [[Конопља|kanabis]], koje se koristi kao opojna droga i za medicinske svrhe.<ref name="bookSpanish Word Histories or and Mysteries">{{Cite book | publisher = Houghton Mifflin Harcourt |id={{ISBN |978-0-618-91054-0}}, 9780618910540 | last = Company | first = Houghton Mifflin | others = American Heritage Dictionaries | title = Spanish Word Histories and Mysteries | date = 14. 11. 2007. |url=http://books.google.com/?id=VTYBbGybtNEC&pg=PA142|pages=142-}}</ref> Često se i cela biljka naziva ''marihuana''. Ona je jedno od najblažih i najslabijih opojnih sredstva.
 
Kanabis sadrži psihoaktivni delta-9-[[tetrahidrokanabinol]] (-{Δ<sup>9</sup>-THC}-). On je jedno od preko 400 jedinjenja u biljci, uključujući druge [[kanabinoid]]e, kao što su [[kanabidiol]], [[kanabinol]], i [[tetrahidrokanabivarin]], koji mogu da proizvedu senzorne efekte za razliku od psihoaktivnog dejstva -{[[Tetrahidrokanabinol|THC]]}--a.<ref name="pmid19124693">{{cite journal |author1=Fusar-Poli P |author2=Crippa JA |author3=Bhattacharyya S |display-authors=etal |title=Distinct effects of {delta}9-tetrahydrocannabinol and Cannabidiol on Neural Activation during Emotional Processing |journal= Archives of General Psychiatry |volume=66|issue=1|pages=95–105|year=2009|pmid=19124693|doi=10.1001/archgenpsychiatry.2008.519|url=|accessdate = 26. 9. 2009.}}</ref>
U [[Сједињене Америчке Државе|SAD]] je u martu 2014. godine pušten u prodaju eksperimentalni lek Epidiolex, koji se koristi za lečenje epilespije kod dece i odraslih i koji trenutno ima status "orphan drug".
 
U današnje vreme se kanabis koristi kao [[Уживалачка употреба конопље|rekreaciona droga]], u [[Ритуална употреба конопље|verskim ili duhovnim obredima]], ili za [[Медицинска употреба конопље|medicinske svrhe]]. Najraniji zapisi o upotrebi kanabiusa datiraju iz [[Миленијум|trećeg milenijuma pre nove ere]], tačnije 2737. godine pre nove ere za vreme vladavine kineskog cara Šun Neng.<ref name="bookLost Civilisations of the Stone Age">{{Cite book |last=Rudgley|first=Richard| year = 1998 | title = Lost Civilisations of the Stone Age. |id={{ISBN |978-0-684-85580-6}} | publisher = Free Press | location = New York }}</ref> [[Ujedinjene nacije]] su [[2004]]. procenile da konzumiranje kanabisa obuhvata 4.0 procenta [[Светска популација|svetske populacije]] (162&nbsp;miliona ljudi) i da oko 0.6 procenata (22.5&nbsp;miliona) ljudi koristi kanabis na dnevnoj bazi.<ref name="articleUnited Nations Office on Drugs and Crime">{{Cite book | author = United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime | year = 2006 | url = http://www.unodc.org/pdf/WDR_2006/wdr2006_chap2_biggest_market.pdf | format = PDF | title = ''Cannabis'': Why We Should Care. | journal = World Drug Report | volume = 1 |id={{ISBN |978-92-1-148214-0}} | publisher = United Nations | location = S.l. | page = 14}}</ref> Od ranog [[20. vek]]a kanabis je zakonski ograničen, i njegovo posedovanje, upotreba, i prodaja su ilegalni u većini zemalja.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.erowid.org/plants/cannabis/cannabis_law.shtml |title=Cannabis: Legal Status |publisher=Erowid.org |date= |accessdate = 30. 10. 2011.}}</ref><ref name='UN-WDR-2010'>{{Cite book | last1 = UNODC | title = World Drug Report 2010 | publisher = United Nations Publication | page = 198 | url = http://www.unodc.org/unodc/en/data-and-analysis/WDR-2010.html | accessdate = 19. 7. 2010.}}</ref>
 
== Vidi još ==
{{refbegin|2}}
* {{Cite book |ref= harv|title = Cannabis: A History | last=Booth|first=Martin | publisher = Macmillan Publishers & Random House, Inc | year = 2005 | isbn=978-0-312-42494-7 }}
* {{Cite book |ref= harv|last = Deitch |first =Robert |year =2003 |title = Hemp: American history revisited: the plant with a divided history|url = |publisher=Algora Pub |id={{ISBN |978-0-87586-206-4}} |accessdate = |postscript = }}
* {{Cite book |ref= harv|last = Earleywine |first =Mitchell |year = 2005|title =Understanding marijuana: a new look at the scientific evidence |url =http://books.google.ca/books?id=r9wPbxMAG8cC&lpg=PA3&dq=History%20of%20Cannabis&pg=PP1#v=onepage&q&f=true |publisher=Oxford University Press |id={{ISBN |978-0-19-513893-1}}|accessdate = }}
* {{Cite book |ref= harv|last =Emmett |first =David |author2= Graeme Nice |year =2009 |title = What you need to know about cannabis: understanding the facts|url =http://books.google.ca/books?id=dHAy6T_LSV4C&lpg=PA55&dq=History%20of%20Cannabis&pg=PP1#v=onepage&q&f=true |publisher= Jessica Kingsley Publishers|id={{ISBN |978-1-84310-697-5}} |accessdate =}}
* {{Cite book |ref= harv|last =Geoffrey William |first =Guy |author2= Brian Anthony Whittle |author3= Philip Robson |year =2004 |title =The medicinal uses of cannabis and cannabinoids|url =http://books.google.ca/books?id=AznCzOxvrtwC&lpg=PA1&dq=History%20of%20Cannabis&pg=PP1#v=onepage&q&f=true |publisher= Pharmaceutical Press|id={{ISBN |978-0-85369-517-2}}|accessdate = }}
* {{Cite book |ref= harv|last =Holland |first =Julie M.D. |year =2010 |title =The pot book : a complete guide to cannabis : its role in medicine, politics, science, and culture |url =http://books.google.ca/books?id=MQql_gt2QEgC&lpg=PA316&dq=Cannabis&pg=PP1#v=onepage&q&f=true |publisher=Park Street Press |isbn=978-1-59477-368-6 |accessdate = }}
* {{Cite book |ref= harv|last = Iversen |first =Leslie L |year = 2008|title =The science of marijuana|url = http://books.google.ca/books?id=l8O2OMNLNtcC&lpg=PA17&dq=History%20of%20Cannabis&pg=PP1#v=onepage&q&f=true|edition= 2nd |publisher=Oxford University Press |isbn=978-0-19-532824-0}}
* {{Cite book |ref= harv|last = Jenkins |first =Richard |year = 2006|title = Cannabis and young people: reviewing the evidence|url =http://books.google.ca/books?id=bFDznfmJLnAC&lpg=PP1&dq=Cannabis&pg=PP1#v=onepage&q&f=true |publisher=Jessica Kingsley |id={{ISBN |978-1-84310-398-1}} |accessdate =}}
* {{Cite book |ref= harv|last = Lambert |first = Didier M|year = 2008|title =Cannabinoids in Nature and Medicine|url =http://books.google.ca/books?id=ATDRt1HM9MwC&lpg=PA15&dq=History%20of%20Cannabis&pg=PR11#v=onepage&q&f=true |publisher=Wiley-VCH |id={{ISBN |978-3-906390-56-7}} |accessdate = }}
* {{Cite book |ref= harv|last = Roffman |first =Roger A |author2= Robert S. Stephens|year = 2006|title =Cannabis dependence: its nature, consequences, and treatment |url =http://books.google.ca/books?id=DEWRoPweosEC&lpg=PA89&dq=History%20of%20Cannabis&pg=PP1#v=onepage&q&f=true |publisher=Cambridge University Press |id={{ISBN |978-0-521-81447-8}} |accessdate = }}
* {{Cite book |ref= harv|last = Russo |first =Ethan |author2= Melanie Creagan Dreher |author3= Mary Lynn Mathre |year =2004 |title =Women and cannabis: medicine, science, and sociology|url =http://books.google.ca/books?id=gZJ7m3Uf6FQC&lpg=PA29&dq=History%20of%20Cannabis&pg=PP1#v=onepage&q&f=true |publisher= Haworth Press|id={{ISBN |978-0-7890-2101-4}}|accessdate = }}
* {{Cite book |ref =harv |last =Solowij |first =Nadia |year =1998 |title =Cannabis and cognitive functioning |url =http://books.google.ca/books?id=bL2u5RRYIpcC&lpg=PA84&dq=History%20of%20Cannabis&pg=PP1#v=onepage&q&f=true |publisher =Cambridge University Press |id ={{ISBN |978-0-521-59114-0}} |access-date =21. 07. 2012 |archive-url =https://web.archive.org/web/20110728010457/http://books.google.ca/books?id=bL2u5RRYIpcC&lpg=PA84&dq=History%20of%20Cannabis&pg=PP1#v=onepage&q&f=true |archive-date =28. 07. 2011 |url-status=dead |df = }}
* {{Cite book |ref= harv|publisher = Houghton Mifflin Harcourt |id={{ISBN |978-0-618-91054-0}}, 9780618910540 | last = Company | first = Houghton Mifflin |author2 = American Heritage Dictionaries | title = Spanish Word Histories and Mysteries |year=2007 |url=http://books.google.com/?id=VTYBbGybtNEC&pg=PA142|pages=142-}}
* {{Cite book |ref= harv|last=Rudgley|first=Richard| year = 1998 | title = Lost Civilisations of the Stone Age. |id={{ISBN |978-0-684-85580-6}} | publisher = Free Press | location = New York }}
* {{Cite book |ref= harv|last1 = UNODC | title = World Drug Report 2010 | publisher = United Nations Publication | page = 198 | url = http://www.unodc.org/unodc/en/data-and-analysis/WDR-2010.html | accessdate = 19. 7. 2010.}}
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