Zemljina atmosfera — разлика између измена

(.)
 
'''Zemljina atmosfera''' je sloj [[gas]]ova koji okružuju planetu [[Zemlja (planeta)|Zemlju]] i koji zadržava Zemljina [[gravitacija]]. Sadrži oko četiri petine [[azot]]a i jednu petinu [[кисеоник|kiseonika]], dok su količine ostalih gasova neznatne ili u tragovima. Atmosfera štiti život na [[Zemlja|Zemlji]] apsorbirajući [[ultraljubičasto zračenje|ultraljubičasto]] [[Sunce|sunčevo]] [[zračenje]] i smanjujući temperaturne ekstreme između [[dan]]a i [[noć]]i. Atmosfera ne završava naglo. Ona polagano postaje rjeđa i postepeno nestaje u svemiru. Ne postoji konačna granica između atmosfere i spoljašnjeg [[svemir]]a. Tri četvrtine mase atmosfere nalazi se unutar 11 -{km}- od površine [[planeta|planete]]. U SAD-u se osoba koja putuje iznad visine od 80 -{km}- naziva [[astronaut]]om. Visina od 120 -{km}- označava granicu gdje atmosferski uticaji postaju vidljivi tokom ulaska svemirske letjelice u atmosferu. Takođe se često kao granicu atmosfere i svemira uzima [[Karmanova linija]] na udaljenosti od 100 -{km}- od površine.
{{L|rut}}
Po zapremini, suvi vazduh sadrži 78,09% [[azot]]a, 20,95% [[kiseonik]]a, 0,93% [[argon]]a, 0,04% [[Carbon dioxide in Earth's atmosphere|ugljen diokisida]], i male količine drugih gasova.{{refn |name=total% |Two recent reliable sources cited here have total atmospheric compositions, including trace molecules, that exceed 100%. They are ''Allen's Astrophysical Quantities''<ref name=Allen2000>{{citation |editor-last=Cox |editor-first=Arthur N. |title=Allen's Astrophysical Quantities |edition=Fourth |year=2000 |publisher=AIP Press |pages=258–259 |isbn=0-387-98746-0}}, which rounds N{{sub|2}} and O{{sub|2}} to four significant digits without affecting the total because 0.004% was removed from N{{sub|2}} and added to O{{sub|2}}. It includes 20 constituents.</ref> (2000, 100.001241343%) and ''CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics''<ref name=handbook>{{citation |editor-last=Haynes |editor-first= H. M. |title=CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics |publisher=CRC Press |edition=97th |year=2016–2017 |page=14{{hyphen}}3 |isbn=978-1-4987-5428-6}}, which cites ''Allen's Astrophysical Quantities'' but includes only ten of its largest constituents.</ref> (2016–2017, 100.004667%), which cites ''Allen's Astrophysical Quantities''. Both are used as references in this article. Both exceed 100% because their CO{{sub|2}} values were increased to 345&nbsp;ppmv, without changing their other constituents to compensate. This is made worse by the April 2019 {{CO2}} value, which is 413.32&nbsp;ppmv.<ref name=CO2>{{citation |title=Trends in Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide |url=https://www.esrl.noaa.gov/gmd/ccgg/trends/ |website=Global Greenhouse Gas Reference Network, NOAA |year=2019 |access-date=2019-05-31}}</ref> Although minor, the January 2019 value for {{CH4}} is 1866.1&nbsp;ppbv (parts per billion).<ref name=methane>{{citation |title=Trends in Atmospheric Methane |website=Global Greenhouse Gas Reference Network, NOAA |url=https://www.esrl.noaa.gov/gmd/ccgg/trends_ch4/ |year=2019 |access-date=2019-05-31}}</ref> Two older reliable sources have dry atmospheric compositions, including trace molecules, that total less than 100%: ''U.S. Standard Atmosphere, 1976''<ref name=standard>{{citation |author=National Aeronautics and Space Administration |title=U.S. Standard Atmosphere, 1976 |url=https://ntrs.nasa.gov/archive/nasa/casi.ntrs.nasa.gov/19770009539.pdf |page=3 |year=1976}}</ref> (99.9997147%); and ''Astrophysical Quantities''<ref name=Allen1976>{{citation |last=Allen |first=C. W. |title=Astrophysical Quantities |url=https://archive.org/details/AstrophysicalQuantities/page/n127 |edition=Third |year=1976 |publisher=Athlone Press |page=119 |isbn=0-485-11150-0}}</ref> (1976, 99.9999357%).}} <!-- end refn -->
Air also contains a variable amount of [[Water vapor#Water vapor in Earth's atmosphere|water vapor]], on average around 1% at sea level, and 0.4% over the entire atmosphere. Air composition, temperature, and [[atmospheric pressure]] vary with altitude, and air suitable for use in [[photosynthesis]] by [[terrestrial plant]]s and [[breathing]] of [[terrestrial animal]]s is found only in Earth's [[troposphere]] and in [[breathing gas|artificial atmospheres]].
 
Po zapremini, suvi vazduh sadrži 78,09% [[azot]]a, 20,95% [[kiseonik]]a, 0,93% [[argon]]a, 0,04% [[Carbon dioxide in Earth's atmosphere|ugljen diokisida]], i male količine drugih gasova.{{refn |name=total% |Two recent reliable sources cited here have total atmospheric compositions, including trace molecules, that exceed 100%. They are ''Allen's Astrophysical Quantities''<ref name=Allen2000>{{citation |editor-last=Cox |editor-first=Arthur N. |title=Allen's Astrophysical Quantities |edition=Fourth |year=2000 |publisher=AIP Press |pages=258–259 |isbn=0-387-98746-0}}, which rounds N{{sub|2}} and O{{sub|2}} to four significant digits without affecting the total because 0.004% was removed from N{{sub|2}} and added to O{{sub|2}}. It includes 20 constituents.</ref> (2000, 100.001241343%) and ''CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics''<ref name=handbook>{{citation |editor-last=Haynes |editor-first= H. M. |title=CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics |publisher=CRC Press |edition=97th |year=2016–2017 |page=14{{hyphen}}3 |isbn=978-1-4987-5428-6}}, which cites ''Allen's Astrophysical Quantities'' but includes only ten of its largest constituents.</ref> (2016–2017, 100.004667%), which cites ''Allen's Astrophysical Quantities''. Both are used as references in this article. Both exceed 100% because their CO{{sub|2}} values were increased to 345&nbsp;ppmv, without changing their other constituents to compensate. This is made worse by the April 2019 {{CO2}} value, which is 413.32&nbsp;ppmv.<ref name=CO2>{{citation |title=Trends in Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide |url=https://www.esrl.noaa.gov/gmd/ccgg/trends/ |website=Global Greenhouse Gas Reference Network, NOAA |year=2019 |access-date=2019-05-31}}</ref> Although minor, the January 2019 value for {{CH4}} is 1866.1&nbsp;ppbv (parts per billion).<ref name=methane>{{citation |title=Trends in Atmospheric Methane |website=Global Greenhouse Gas Reference Network, NOAA |url=https://www.esrl.noaa.gov/gmd/ccgg/trends_ch4/ |year=2019 |access-date=2019-05-31}}</ref> Two older reliable sources have dry atmospheric compositions, including trace molecules, that total less than 100%: ''U.S. Standard Atmosphere, 1976''<ref name=standard>{{citation |author=National Aeronautics and Space Administration |title=U.S. Standard Atmosphere, 1976 |url=https://ntrs.nasa.gov/archive/nasa/casi.ntrs.nasa.gov/19770009539.pdf |page=3 |year=1976}}</ref> (99.9997147%); and ''Astrophysical Quantities''<ref name=Allen1976>{{citation |last=Allen |first=C. W. |title=Astrophysical Quantities |url=https://archive.org/details/AstrophysicalQuantities/page/n127 |edition=Third |year=1976 |publisher=Athlone Press |page=119 |isbn=0-485-11150-0}}</ref> (1976, 99.9999357%).}} <!--Vazduh endtakođe refnsadrži -->promenljivu količinu [[Water vapor#Water vapor in Earth's atmosphere|vodene pare]], u proseku oko 1% na nivou mora, a 0,4% u celoj atmosferi. Sastav vazduha, temperatura i [[atmospheric pressure|atmosferski pritisak]] variraju u zavisnosti od visine, a vazduh pogodan za upotrebu u [[photosynthesis|fotosintezi]] [[terrestrial plant|zemaljskih biljaka]] i [[disanje]] [[terrestrial animal|kopnenih životinja]] nalazi se samo u zemaljskoj [[Тропосфера|troposferi]] i u [[breathing gas|veštačkim atmosferama]].
The atmosphere has a mass of about 5.15{{e|18}}&nbsp;kg,<ref>Lide, David R. ''Handbook of Chemistry and Physics''. Boca Raton, FL: CRC, 1996: 14–17</ref> three quarters of which is within about {{convert|11|km|mi ft|abbr=on}} of the surface. The atmosphere becomes thinner and thinner with increasing altitude, with no definite boundary between the atmosphere and [[outer space]]. The [[Kármán line]], at {{convert|100|km|mi|abbr=on}}, or 1.57% of Earth's radius, is often used as the border between the atmosphere and outer space. Atmospheric effects become noticeable during [[atmospheric reentry]] of spacecraft at an altitude of around {{convert|120|km|mi|abbr=on}}. Several [[Atmospheric stratification|layers]] can be distinguished in the atmosphere, based on characteristics such as temperature and composition.
 
Atmosfera ima masu od oko 5,15{{e|18}}&nbsp;kg,<ref>Lide, David R. ''Handbook of Chemistry and Physics''. Boca Raton, FL: CRC, 1996: 14–17</ref> od kojih je tri četvrtine unutar oko {{convert|11|km|mi ft|abbr=on}} od površine. Atmosfera postaje tanja i tanja s povećanjem nadmorske visine, bez definitivnih granica između atmosfere i [[svemir]]a. [[Karmanova linija]], na {{convert|100|km|mi|abbr=on}}, odnosno 1,57% Zemljinog radijusa, često se koristi kao granica između atmosfere i svemira. Atmosferski efekti postaju primetni tokom [[Atmospheric entry|atmosferskog spuštanja]] svemirskih letelica na nadmorskoj visini od oko {{convert|120|km|mi|abbr=on}}. U atmosferi se može razlikovati nekoliko [[Zemljina atmosfera|slojeva]] na osnovu karakteristika kao što su temperatura i sastav.
The study of Earth's atmosphere and its processes is called [[Atmospheric sciences|atmospheric science]] (aerology). Early pioneers in the field include [[Léon Teisserenc de Bort]] and [[Richard Assmann]].<ref>{{cite book|author1=Vázquez, M.|author2=Hanslmeier, A.|title=Ultraviolet Radiation in the Solar System|chapter=Historical Introduction|series=Astrophysics and Space Science Library|volume=331|chapter-url=https://books.google.com/books?id=OlckxY7BA_0C&pg=PA17|year=2006|publisher=Springer Science & Business Media|isbn=978-1-4020-3730-6|page=17|bibcode=2005ASSL..331.....V|doi=10.1007/1-4020-3730-9_1}}</ref>
 
TheProučavanje studyZemljine ofatmosfere Earth'si atmospherenjenih andprocesa itsnaziva processes is calledse [[AtmosphericАтмосферске sciencesнауке|atmosphericatmosferska sciencenauka]] (aerologyaerologija). EarlyPrvi pioneerspioniri inu theovoj fieldoblasti includesu bili [[Léon Teisserenc de Bort|Leon Tejseren de Bor]] andi [[Richard Assmann|Ričarda Asmana]].<ref>{{cite book|author1=Vázquez, M.|author2=Hanslmeier, A.|title=Ultraviolet Radiation in the Solar System|chapter=Historical Introduction|series=Astrophysics and Space Science Library|volume=331|chapter-url=https://books.google.com/books?id=OlckxY7BA_0C&pg=PA17|year=2006|publisher=Springer Science & Business Media|isbn=978-1-4020-3730-6|page=17|bibcode=2005ASSL..331.....V|doi=10.1007/1-4020-3730-9_1}}</ref>
 
== Različita područja u atmosferi ==