Ебу Бекр — разлика између измена

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{{short description|Први муслимански калиф и најбољи пријатељ/пратилац пророка Мухамеда}}
{{Инфокутија владар
| име = Ебу Бекр
'''Ебу Бекр''' (-{''Abū Bakr aṣ-Ṣiddīq ‘Abdallāh bin Abī Quḥāfah''}-, {{lang-ar|أبو بكر الصديق عبد الله بن أبي قحافة}}; око [[573]]-[[23. август]] [[634]])<ref name="AbuBakr-IE2">{{cite encyclopedia|quote=His father was Abu Quhafa ..., and he is therefore sometimes known as Ibn Abi Quhafa. ... The names ''‘Abd Allah'' and ''‘Atiq'' ('freed slave') are attributed to him as well as Abu Bakr, but the relation of these names to one another and their original significance is not clear. ... He was later known by sunni muslims as ''al-Siddiq'', the truthful, the upright, or the one who counts true |encyclopedia=Encyclopedia of Islam |edition=2nd |title=Abu Bakr}}</ref> је био први [[калиф|халиф]], [[Мухамед]]ов таст и један од Мухамедових пратилаца.<ref name="Campo">[https://books.google.com/books?id=OZbyz_Hr-eIC&lpg=PP1&pg=PP1#v=onepage&q&f=false Juan Eduardo Campo, ''Encyclopedia of Islam'', Infobase Publishing, 2009]</ref> [[Сунизам|Сунити]] га сматрају законитим халифом и првим од [[праведни калифи|четири праведна халифа]]. [[Шиизам|Шиити]] верују да је он прекршио директне Мухамедове заповести и да је организовао државни удар. Научници га сврставају у првога муслиманскога халифа. Његова ћерка [[Ајша]] се удала за Мухамеда.
Initially a rich and respected businessman, Ебу Бакр later became one of the first converts to [[Islam]] and extensively contributed his wealth in support of Muhammad's work. He was among Muhammad's closest companions,<ref name=Saritoprak>{{cite web |last1=Saritoprak |first1=Zeki |title=Abu Bakr Al-Siddiq |url=http://www.oxfordbibliographies.com/view/document/obo-9780195390155/obo-9780195390155-0221.xml |website=Oxford Bibliographies |publisher=Oxford University Press |accessdate=12 December 2018}}</ref> accompanying him on his [[Hegira|migration to Medina]] and being present at a number of his military conflicts, such as the battles of [[Battle of Badr|Badr]] and [[Battle of Uhud|Uhud]].
Following Muhammad's death in 632, Ебу Бакр [[Succession to Muhammad|succeeded in the leadership]] of the Muslim community as the first Rashidun [[Caliph]].<ref name="brit">{{cite web|url=http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/2153/Abu-Bakr|title=Abu Bakr - Muslim caliph|publisher=}}</ref> During his reign, he overcame a number of uprisings, collectively known as the [[Ridda wars]], as a result of which he was able to consolidate and expand the rule of the Muslim state over the entire [[Arabian peninsula]]. He also commanded the initial incursions into the neighbouring [[Sassanian Empire|Sassanian]] and [[Byzantine empire]]s, which in the years following his death, would eventually result in the Muslim [[Muslim conquest of Persia|conquests of Persia]] and [[Muslim conquest of the Levant|the Levant]]. Ебу Бакр died of illness after a reign of 2 years, 2 months and 14 days.
== Порекло и наслов ==
{{See also|Породично стабло Ебу Бекра}}
[[File:Abubakr'sreign.png|thumb|Рашидунски калифат током владавине Ебу Бакра.]]
Ебу Бакрово пуно име је било Abdullah ibn [[Uthman Abu Quhafa|Uthman]] ibn Amir ibn Amr ibn Ka'b ibn Sa'd ibn [[Banu Taym|Taym]] ibn Murrah ibn Ka'b ibn Lu'ayy Ghalib ibn Fihr.<ref>[[Ibn Sa'd#The Major Classes|Tabaqat ibn Sa'd]] 3/ 169</ref>
На [[Арапски језик|арапском]], име ''Abd Allah'' means "servant of [[Allah]]". One of his early titles, preceding his conversion to [[Islam]], was ''Ateeq'', meaning "saved one". Muhammad later restated this title when he said that Ебу Бакр is the "Ateeq".<ref>Abi Na'eem, "Ma'arifat al-sahaba", no. 60</ref> He was called ''Al-Siddiq'' (the truthful)<ref name="Campo"/> by Muhammad after he believed him in the event of [[Isra and Mi'raj]] when other people didn't, and [[Ali]] confirmed that title several times.<ref>Abi Na'eem, "Ma'arifat al-sahaba", no. 64, 65</ref> He was also reportedly referred to in the [[Quran]] as the "second of the two in the cave" in reference to the event of [[Hijra (Islam)|hijra]], where with Muhammad he hid in the cave in [[Jabal Thawr]] from the [[Mecca]]n party that was sent after them.<ref>{{Cite book|url=https://books.google.com/?id=focLrox-frUC&lpg=PP1&pg=PP1#v=onepage|title=The New Encyclopedia of Islam|first=Cyril|last=Glassé|date=15 April 2003|publisher=Rowman Altamira|isbn=9780759101906|via=Google Books}}</ref>
== 573—610 ==
== Референце ==
== Литература ==
* Walker, Adam, Abu Bakr al-Siddiq, in ''Muhammad in History, Thought, and Culture: An Encyclopedia of the Prophet of God'' (2 vols.), Edited by C. Fitzpatrick and A. Walker, Santa Barbara, ABC-CLIO, 2014.
* {{citation |last=Rogerson|first=Barnaby|authorlink=Barnaby Rogerson |url=https://books.google.com/books?id=ExbdVf5fFmUC&dq |title=The Heirs Of The Prophet Muhammad: And the Roots of the Sunni-Shia Schism |date=4. 11. 2010 |publisher=Little, Brown Book Group |isbn=978-0-74-812470-1 |ref={{sfnref|Barnaby Rogerson|2010}}}}
* {{citation |last=Rogerson|first=Barnaby|url=https://books.google.com/books?id=qzyBPwAACAAJ&dq |title=The Heirs of Muhammad: Islam's First Century and the Origins of the Sunni-Shia Split |year=2008|publisher=Overlook |isbn=978-1-59-020022-3 |ref={{sfnref|Barnaby Rogerson|2008}}}}
* {{citation |last=Madelung|first=Wilferd|url=https://books.google.com/books?id=2QKBUwBUWWkC&printsec=frontcover&dq |title=The Succession to Muhammad: A Study of the Early Caliphate |date=15. 10. 1998. |publisher=Cambridge University Press |isbn=978-0-52-164696-3 |ref={{sfnref|Wilferd Madelung|1998}}}}
* Armstrong, Karen. Muhammad: Biography of the Prophet, Phoenix, 1991. {{ISBN|1-84212-608-3}}
* {{Cite book |last= Ibn Ishaq |first= Muhammad |authorlink= Ibn Ishaq |title= Ibn Ishaq's Sirat Rasul Allah – The Life of Muhammad |translator= [[Alfred Guillaume]] |publisher= Oxford University Press |location= Oxford |pages= 88–89 |date= 1955 |url=https://archive.org/stream/TheLifeOfMohammedGuillaume/The_Life_Of_Mohammed_Guillaume#page/n67/mode/1up |isbn=978-0196360331}}
* {{cite book |page=11 |title=[[Islam: A Short History]] |author=[[Karen Armstrong]] |isbn=081296618X |date=2002}}
* {{citation |title=The Life of Muhammad |url=https://books.google.com/books?id=fOyO-TSo5nEC&printsec=frontcover |first=Husayn |last=Haykal |year=1976 |publisher=Islamic Book Trust |isbn=978-9839154177 |pages=217–18}}
* {{cite book |last= Shaikh |first= Fazlur Rehman |authorlink= |title= Chronology of Prophetic Events |url=|accessdate= |year= 2001 |publisher= Ta-Ha Publishers Ltd. |location= London |isbn= |pages= 51–52}}
* {{cite book|url=https://www.britannica.com/event/Hijrah-Islam|last1=Tesch|first1=Noah|last2=Afsaruddin|first2=Asma|title=Hijrah|work=Encyclopaedia Britannica|date=12 March 2018|accessdate=7 February 2020}}
* {{Cite journal|last=Marom|first=Roy|date=Fall 2017|title=Approaches to the Research of Early Islam: The Hijrah in Western Historiography|url=https://www.academia.edu/35523840/Approaches_to_the_Research_of_Early_Islam_The_Hijrah_in_Western_Historiography_Jammaa_23_2017_English_Abstract_|journal=Jama'a|volume=23|page=vii|via=}}
* {{cite book|url= https://books.google.com/books?id=2pwuAh0ujPMC&pg=PA30|title= Muslim Travellers: Pilgrimage, Migration and the Religious Imagination|author= Dale F. Eickelman|publisher= [[University of California Press]]|year= 1990|page= 30|isbn= 978-0-520-07252-7}}
* {{cite book|url= https://books.google.com/books?id=KlNHBQAAQBAJ&pg=PA15|title= Theology of Migration in the Abrahamic Religions|author= Elaine Padilla, [[Peter C. Phan]] (editors)|publisher= [[Palgrave Macmillan]]|year= 2014|page= 15|isbn= 978-1-137-00104-7}}
* {{cite book|url= https://books.google.com/books?id=61elBgAAQBAJ&pg=PA55|title= Islam, Christianity and the Mystic Journey: A Comparative Exploration|author= Ian Richard Netton|publisher= [[Edinburgh University Press]]|year= 2011|page= 55|isbn= 978-0-7486-4082-9}}