Магија (илузија) — разлика између измена

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м (razne izmene)
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{{Short description|Performing art}}{{рут}}
{{Инфокутија Сценска умјетност
| име = Магија
| слика = Hieronymus Bosch 051.jpg
| опис = [[The Conjurer (painting)|''The Conjurer'']], 1475–1480, by [[Hieronymus Bosch]] or his workshop. Notice how the man in the back row steals another man's purse while applying misdirection by looking at the sky. The artist even misdirects the viewer from the thief by drawing the viewer to the magician.
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[[Датотека:Mind-reading-Russell-Morgan.jpeg|мини|200п|''Читање мисли'', илузионистички трик из 1900.]]
'''Илузионизам''' ('''чаробњаштво, опсенарство''') је стварање или кориштење [[илузија]] ради изокретања стварности; дисциплина у уметности коју изводе [[мађионичар (илузиониста)|мађионичари (илузионисти)]] углавном у [[циркус]]има и [[варијете]]има и на [[телевизија|телевизији]].
 
'''Илузионизам''' ('''чаробњаштво, опсенарство''') је стварање или кориштење [[илузија]] ради изокретања стварности; дисциплина у уметности коју изводе [[мађионичар (илузиониста)|мађионичари (илузионисти)]] углавном у [[циркус]]има и [[варијете]]има и на [[телевизија|телевизији]]. <ref>Foley, Elise (3 May 2016). [http://www.huffingtonpost.com/entry/congress-magic_us_56e84adce4b0b25c91837454 "Do You Believe In Magic? Congress Does"]. ''[[The Huffington Post]]''. Retrieved 22 May 2016.</ref><ref>Gibson, Bill (18 March 2016). [https://www.washingtonpost.com/lifestyle/style/david-copperfield-is-the-magic-force-behind-a-must-read-congressional-resolution/2016/03/17/eb0dde44-ec42-11e5-a6f3-21ccdbc5f74e_story.html "David Copperfield Is The Magic Force Behind A Must-Read Congressional Resolution"]. ''[[The Washington Post]]''. Retrieved 22 May 2016.</ref> It is to be distinguished from [[Magic (supernatural)|paranormal magic]] which are effects claimed to be created through [[supernatural]] means. It is one of the oldest performing arts in the world.
Почетак илузионизма се везује уз [[магија|магију]], када се осетним варкама, вештим триковима и [[Психологија|психолошким]] сугестијама постижу ефекти знакова и порука од стране [[демон]]а и [[бог]]ова, послије и [[икона]] [[светац]]а и сл.
 
Почетак илузионизма се везује уз [[магија|магију]], када се осетним варкама, вештим триковима и [[Психологија|психолошким]] сугестијама постижу ефекти знакова и порука од стране [[демон]]а и [[бог]]ова, послије и [[икона]] [[светац]]а и сл. Ради постизања чудесних ефеката и забављања публике користе се и научна достигнућа. Познати илузионистички поступци су:
* пењање уз конопац (индијски [[факир]]и),
* лебдење без ослонца, [[Крис Ејнџел]]
* излазак из закатанченог и потопљеног кавеза ([[Хари Худини]]) и
* проласка кроз Кинески зид ([[Дејвид Коперфилд (илузиониста)|Дејвид Коперфилд]]).
 
Modern entertainment magic, as pioneered by 19th-century magician [[Jean Eugène Robert-Houdin]], has become a popular theatrical art form.<ref>{{cite act |title=Recognizing magic as a rare and valuable art form and national treasure|type=H.Res|number=642|date=March 2016|url=https://www.congress.gov/bill/114th-congress/house-resolution/642/text}}</ref> In the late 19th and early 20th centuries, magicians such as [[John Nevil Maskelyne|Maskelyne]] and [[David Devant|Devant]], [[Howard Thurston]], [[Harry Kellar]], and [[Harry Houdini]] achieved widespread commercial success during what has become known as "the Golden Age of Magic".<ref>{{cite book |last=Steinmeyer|first=Jim|title=Hiding the Elephant|date=2003|publisher=Da Capo Press}}</ref> During this period, performance magic became a staple of [[Broadway theatre]], [[vaudeville]], and [[music hall]]s. Magic retained its popularity in the [[Television|television age]], with magicians such as [[Paul Daniels]], [[David Copperfield (illusionist)|David Copperfield]], [[Doug Henning]], [[Penn & Teller]], [[David Blaine]], and [[Derren Brown]] modernizing the art form.<ref>{{cite book|last=Chambers|first=Colin|date=2002|title=Continuum Companion to Twentieth Century Theatre|publisher=Continuum|page=471}}</ref>
 
== Историја ==
The term "magic" etymologically derives from the Greek word ''mageia'' (μαγεία). In ancient times, Greeks and [[Achaemenid Empire|Persian]]s had been at war for centuries, and the Persian priests, called ''[[magi|magosh]]'' in Persian, came to be known as ''magoi'' in Greek. Ritual acts of Persian priests came to be known as ''mageia'', and then ''magika''—which eventually came to mean any foreign, unorthodox, or illegitimate ritual practice. To the general public, successful acts of illusion could be perceived as if it were similar to a feat of magic supposed to have been able to be performed by the ancient magoi. The performance of tricks of illusion, or magical illusion, and the apparent workings and effects of such acts have often been referred to as "magic" and particularly as magic tricks.
 
The earliest known book to explain magic secrets, ''[[The Discoverie of Witchcraft]]'', was published in 1584. It was created by Reginald Scot to stop people from being killed for witchcraft. During the 17th century, many books were published that described magic tricks. Until the 18th century, magic shows were a common source of entertainment at [[fair]]s. A founding figure of modern entertainment magic was [[Jean Eugène Robert-Houdin]], who had a magic theatre in [[Paris]] in 1845. [[John Henry Anderson]] was pioneering the same transition in [[London]] in the 1840s. Towards the end of the 19th century, large magic shows permanently staged at big theatre venues became the norm.<ref name="History of Magic">{{cite web|url=http://www.magiczoom.com/history-of-magic.htm|title=History of Magic|publisher=This French site, Magiczoom, has now closed its doors|archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20060515125440/http://www.magiczoom.com/history-of-magic.htm|archive-date=2006-05-15|url-status=dead}}</ref> As a form of entertainment, magic easily moved from theatrical venues to television magic specials.
 
Performances that modern observers would recognize as conjuring have been practiced throughout [[history]]. For example, a trick with three cups and balls has been performed since 3 BC.<ref>{{Cite web|title=Penn & Teller's Cups-and-Balls Magic Trick|url=https://blogs.scientificamerican.com/illusion-chasers/pt-cups-and-balls/|last=Macknik|first=Stephen L.|website=Scientific American Blog Network|language=en|access-date=2020-04-30}}</ref> and is still performed today on stage and in [[street magic]] shows. For many recorded centuries, magicians were associated with the devil and the occult. During the 19th and 20th centuries, many stage magicians even capitalized on this notion in their advertisements.<ref>{{cite journal | title=The Art of Deception, or The Magical Affinity Between Conjuring and Art | author=Romano, Chuck | journal=The Linking Ring |date=January 1995 | volume=75 | issue=1 | pages=67–70}}</ref> The same level of ingenuity that was used to produce famous ancient deceptions such as the [[Trojan Horse]] would also have been used for [[entertainment]], or at least for cheating in [[gambling|money games]]. They were also used by the practitioners of various religions and [[cult]]s from ancient times onwards to frighten uneducated people into obedience or turn them into adherents. However, the profession of the illusionist gained strength only in the 18th century, and has enjoyed several popular vogues since.
 
===Magic tricks===
[[File:John the Baptist illusion.jpg|thumb|An illustration from [[Reginald Scot]]'s ''[[The Discoverie of Witchcraft]]'' (1584), one of the earliest books on magic tricks, explaining how the "Decollation of John Baptist" [[Guillotine (magic trick)|decapitation illusion]] may be performed]]
[[File:Fawkesshow.jpg|thumb|left|Advertisement for [[Isaac Fawkes]]' show from 1724 in which he boasts of the success of his performances for the King and Prince George]]
 
Opinions vary among magicians on how to categorize a given effect, but a number of categories have been developed. Magicians may pull a rabbit from an empty hat, make something seem to disappear, or transform a red silk handkerchief into a green silk handkerchief. Magicians may also destroy something, like cutting a head off, and then "restore" it, make something appear to move from one place to another, or they may escape from a restraining device. Other illusions include making something appear to defy gravity, making a solid object appear to pass through another object, or appearing to predict the choice of a spectator. Many magic routines use combinations of effects.
 
One of the earliest books on the subject is Gantziony's work of 1489, ''Natural and Unnatural Magic'', which describes and explains old-time tricks.<ref>{{cite book|title=The Unmasking of Robert-Houdin|url=https://archive.org/details/unmaskingrobert00houdgoog|author-link=Harry Houdini|first=Harry|last=Houdini|page=[https://archive.org/details/unmaskingrobert00houdgoog/page/n25 19]|year=1908}}</ref> In 1584, Englishman [[Reginald Scot]] published ''[[The Discoverie of Witchcraft]]'', part of which was devoted to debunking the claims that magicians used supernatural methods, and showing how their "magic tricks" were in reality accomplished. Among the tricks discussed were [[sleight-of-hand]] manipulations with rope, paper and coins. At the time, fear and belief in [[witchcraft]] was widespread and the book tried to demonstrate that these fears were misplaced.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.illusionist.co.uk/magician-blog/2010/05/10-facts-about-magicians/ |title=10 Facts About Magicians – Andi Gladwin&nbsp;– Close-Up Magician |publisher=Illusionist.co.uk |access-date=2011-01-02}}</ref> Popular belief held that all obtainable copies were burned on the accession of [[James I of England|James I]] in 1603.<ref>{{cite journal|last=Almond|first=Philip C.|title=King James I and the burning of Reginald Scot's The Discoverie of Witchcraft: The invention of a tradition|journal=Notes and Queries|year=2009|volume=56|issue=2|pages=209–213|doi=10.1093/notesj/gjp002}}</ref>
 
During the 17th century, many similar books were published that described in detail the methods of a number of magic tricks, including ''The Art of Conjuring'' (1614) and ''The Anatomy of Legerdemain: The Art of Juggling'' (c. 1675).
 
Until the 18th century, magic shows were a common source of entertainment at [[fair]]s, where itinerant performers would entertain the public with magic tricks, as well as the more traditional spectacles of [[sword swallowing]], [[juggling]] and [[fire breathing]]. In the early 18th century, as belief in witchcraft was waning, the art became increasingly respectable and shows would be put on for rich private patrons. A notable figure in this transition was the English showman, [[Isaac Fawkes]], who began to promote his act in advertisements from the 1720s—he even claimed to have performed for [[George II of Great Britain|King George II]]. One of Fawkes' advertisements described his routine in some detail:
{{quote|He takes an empty bag, lays it on the Table and turns it several times inside out, then commands 100 Eggs out of it and several showers of real Gold and silver, then the Bag beginning to swell several sorts of wild fowl run out of it upon the Table. He throws up a Pack of Cards, and causes them to be living birds flying about the room. He causes living Beasts, Birds, and other Creatures to appear upon the Table. He blows the spots of the Cards off and on, and changes them to any pictures.<ref>{{Cite book| last =Christopher | first = Milbourne | title = Magic: A Picture History | publisher = Courier Dover Publications | year = 1991| location=New York|isbn=0-486-26373-8|page=16| orig-year=1962}}</ref>}}
 
== Референце ==
{{reflist|}}
 
== Литература ==
{{refbegin|30em}}
* {{cite book
| first = Noel |last=Daniel
| author = Maurine Christopher and Milbourne Christopher
| editor = Mike Caveney |editor2= Jim Steinmeyer
| authorlink = Milbourne Christopher
| title = Magic. 1400-1950s
| location = Los Angeles
| publisher = Taschen
| year=2009
| isbn=9783836509770
}}
* {{cite web
|last1=Barrett
|first1=Caitlín E.
|title=Plaster Perspectives on "Magical" Gems: Rethinking the Meaning of "Magic"
|url=https://antiquities.library.cornell.edu/gems/plaster-perspectives-on-magical-gems
|website=Cornell Collection of Antiquities
|publisher=[[Cornell University Library]]
|access-date=24 August 2015
|url-status=dead
|archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20150526164252/https://antiquities.library.cornell.edu/gems/plaster-perspectives-on-magical-gems
|archive-date=26 May 2015
}}
*{{cite book
| first = H. J.
| last = Burlingame
| author-link = H. J. Burlingame
| title = History of Magic and Magicians
| date = 1895
| publisher = Charles L. Burlingame & Company
| url= https://archive.org/details/HistoryOfMagicAndMagicians
}}
*{{cite book
| first1 = Maurine
| last1 = Christopher
| first2 = Milbourne
| last2 = Christopher
| author2-link = Milbourne Christopher
| title = The Illustrated History of Magic
| year = 1996
| publisher = Heinemann
| isbn =978 0-0435070168435-07016-9
| url-access = registration
| url = https://archive.org/details/illustratedhisto00chri
}}
* {{cite book
| authorfirst = Milbourne Christopher
| authorlinklast = Milbourne Christopher
| author-link = Milbourne Christopher
| title = Panorama of Magic
| year = 1962
}}
* {{cite book
| editor1-first = Noel, (ed)
| editor1-last = Daniel
| editor2-first = Mike Caveney and Jim Steinmeyer
| editor2-last = Caveney
| title = Magic. 1400-1950s
| editor3-first = Jim
| editor3-last = Steinmeyer
| title = Magic. 1400–1950s
| location = Los Angeles
| publisher = Taschen
| year = 2009
| isbn =9783836509770 978-3-8365-0977-0
}}
* {{cite book
| first = Joseph
| last = Dunninger
| authorlinkauthor-link = Joseph Dunninger
| title = The Complete Encyclopedia of Magic
}}
* {{cite book
| editor-last = Nadis
| editor-first = Fred
| title = Wonder Shows: Performing Science, Magic, and Religion in America
| publisher = Rutgers University Press
| date = 2006
| url= http://quod.lib.umich.edu/cgi/t/text/text-idx?c=acls;cc=acls;view=toc;idno=heb90024.0001.001
}}
*{{cite book
| first = Thomas
| last = Frost
| author-link = Thomas Frost (writer)
| title = The Lives of the Conjurors
| date = 1876
| publisher = Tinsley Brothers
| url= https://archive.org/details/livesconjurors01frosgoog
}}
* {{cite book| url = http://www.thepiddingtons.com
| website = Piddington's Secrets
| title = We know how they did it!
| first = Martin T.
| last = Hart
| publisher = Manipulatist Books Global
| date = 2014
}}
*{{cite book
| first = David
| last = Price
| title = Magic: A Pictorial History of Conjurers in the Theatre
| year = 1985
| publisher = Cornwall Books
}}
* {{cite book
| first = James
| last = Randi
| authorlinkauthor-link = James Randi
| title = [[Conjuring (book)|Conjuring: A Definitive History]]
| year = 1992
| location = New York
| publisher = St. Martin's Press
| isbn =978 0-0312086343312-08634-2
| title-link = Conjuring (book)
}}
* {{cite book
| first = Robert A.
| last =Stebbins Stebbins
| title = Career, Culture and Social Psychology in a Variety Art: The Magician
| year =1993 1993
| location = Malabar, FL
| publisher = Krieger
}}
* Hawk, Mike. The Illusionist . 1st Ed. 01. Tiverton, ON: IBM, 1999. 234–238. Print. (Hawk 234–238)
* {{Cite book|url=http://askalexander.org/display/21976/A+Bibliography+of+Conjuring+Periodicals+in+English+1791+1983/|title=A Bibliography of Conjuring Periodicals in English: 1791–1983|last=Alfredson|first=James B.|last2=Daily|first2=George L.|year=1986|location=[[York, Pennsylvania]]}}
 
{{refend}}
 
== Спољашње везе ==
{{Commonscat|Magic (illusion)}}
* [http://www.blic.rs/Slobodno-vreme/Zanimljivosti/291090/Testera-i-asistentkinja-i-druge-bajke-Razotkriveni-najveci-madjionicarski-trikovi Разоткривени највећи мађионичарски трикови („Блиц“, 23. новембар 2011)]
* -{Boston Public Library. [https://www.flickr.com/photos/boston_public_library/sets/72157629496222244 Magic posters]}-
* -{State Library of Victoria (Australia). [http://guides.slv.vic.gov.au/magic Magic and magicians Research Guide]}-
* -{[https://www.loc.gov/rr/rarebook/digitalcoll/digitalcoll-magic.html Science, Math and Magic Books ] From the [https://www.loc.gov/rr/rarebook/ Rare Book and Special Collections Division] at the [[Library of Congress]]}-
* -{[https://www.loc.gov/rr/rarebook/digitalcoll/digitalcoll-magicapparatus.html Magic Apparatus ] From the [https://www.loc.gov/rr/rarebook/ Rare Book and Special Collections Division] at the [[Library of Congress]]}-
 
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