Самоопредељење — разлика између измена

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(суверена једнакост vs. самоопределење)
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{{short description|Кардинални принцип у савременом међународноправном принципу међународног права}}{{рут}}
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[[Принцип]]ом '''самоопредељења''' се назива право сваког [[народ]]а и [[нација]] света да самостално одлучују о својој судбини. Под тим принципом се подразумевају следећа права: право на отцепљење и стварање независне националне државе, право на уједињење са другим народима, право на [[економија|економско]] самоопредељење, као и право на избор друштвеног и [[политичко уређење|политичког уређења]].
 
[[Принцип]]ом '''самоопредељења''' се назива право сваког [[народ]]а и [[нација]] света да самостално одлучују о својој судбини. Под тим принципом се подразумевају следећа права: право на отцепљење и стварање независне националне државе, право на уједињење са другим народима, право на [[економија|економско]] самоопредељење, као и право на избор друштвеног и [[политичко уређење|политичког уређења]]. The right of [[peoples|a people]] to self-determination is a cardinal principle in modern [[international law]] (commonly regarded as a ''[[jus cogens]]'' rule), binding, as such, on the [[United Nations]] as authoritative interpretation of the Charter's norms.<ref>''See'': [[s:United Nations General Assembly Resolution 1514|United Nations General Assembly Resolution 1514]] in [[Wikisource]] states</ref><ref>{{cite book |title=Self-Determination of Peoples and Plural-Ethnic States in Contemporary International Law: Failed States, Nation-Building and the Alternative, Federal Option |last=McWhinney |first=Edward |author-link=Edward McWhinney |year=2007 |publisher=Martinus Nijhoff Publishers |isbn=978-9004158351 |page=8 }}</ref> It states that people, based on respect for the principle of equal rights and fair [[equal opportunity|equality of opportunity]], have the right to freely choose their [[sovereignty]] and international [[political status]] with no interference.<ref>''See'': [[Charter of the United Nations|Chapter I - Purposes and Principles of Charter of the United Nations]]</ref>
Право на самоопредељење први пут је прокламовано у [[Francuska buržoaska revolucija|Француској буржоаској револуцији]], а у међународној пракси се појављује у XX веку. Право на самоопредељење није апсолутно право народа. Тако схваћено водило би у хаос и анархију, јер данас између 5000 и 10000 група претендује на статус народа.<ref> Види у вези са нормом самоопределења члан 1(став 2) и члан 55 Повеље Уједињених нација. Види и два основна Пакта о људским правима. Самоопределње је ''ius cogens'' норма међународног права</ref><ref>International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, Article 1. [https://www.ohchr.org/Documents/Professionalinterest/ccpr.pdf]</ref> <ref>International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, Article 1. [https://www.ohchr.org/en/professionalinterest/pages/cescr.aspx] </ref>. Према „хијерархији" норми која произилаи из начела Повеље УН (члан 2.) заштита ''територијалног интегиретата'' постојећиш држава има превагу над општом правом на ''самоопределење'' народа. Државна ''територија'' је једн од основних елемената којим се дефинише [[државност]] и суштински елемент од значаја за принцип суверене једнакости држава.
 
[[File:Indigenous march right to self-determination.jpg|thumb|262x262px|Indigenous march right to self-determination]]
The concept was first expressed in the 1860s, and spread rapidly thereafter.<ref name=Fisch>{{cite book|author=Jörg Fisch|title=A History of the Self-Determination of Peoples: The Domestication of an Illusion|url=https://books.google.com/books?id=PETjCgAAQBAJ&pg=PA118|date=9 December 2015|page=118|publisher=Cambridge University Press|isbn=978-1-107-03796-0}}</ref><ref name=Knudsen>{{citation|url=http://etheses.lse.ac.uk/923/1/Knudsen_Moments_of_Self-determination.pdf |title=Moments of Self-determination: The Concept of 'Self- determination' and the Idea of Freedom in 20th- and 21st- Century International Discourse |first1=Rita Augestad |last1=Knudsen |publisher=The London School of Economics and Political Science |date=October 2013}}</ref> Право на самоопредељење први пут је прокламовано у [[Francuska buržoaska revolucija|Француској буржоаској револуцији]], а у међународној пракси се појављује у XX веку. Право на самоопредељење није апсолутно право народа. Тако схваћено водило би у хаос и анархију, јер данас између 5000 и 10000 група претендује на статус народа.<ref> Види у вези са нормом самоопределења члан 1(став 2) и члан 55 Повеље Уједињених нација. Види и два основна Пакта о људским правима. Самоопределње је ''ius cogens'' норма међународног права</ref><ref>International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, Article 1. [https://www.ohchr.org/Documents/Professionalinterest/ccpr.pdf]</ref> <ref>International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, Article 1. [https://www.ohchr.org/en/professionalinterest/pages/cescr.aspx] </ref>. Према „хијерархији" норми која произилаи из начела Повеље УН (члан 2.) заштита ''територијалног интегиретата'' постојећиш држава има превагу над општом правом на ''самоопределење'' народа. Државна ''територија'' је једнједна од основних елемената којим се дефинише [[државност]] и суштински елемент од значаја за принцип суверене једнакости држава.
 
During and after [[World War I]], the principle was encouraged by both [[Premier of the Soviet Union|Soviet Premier]] [[Vladimir Lenin]] and [[President of the United States|United States President]] [[Woodrow Wilson]].<ref name=Fisch/><ref name=Knudsen/> Having announced his [[Fourteen Points]] on 8 January 1918, on 11 February 1918 Wilson stated: "National aspirations must be respected; people may now be dominated and governed only by their own consent. 'Self determination' is not a mere phrase; it is an imperative principle of action."<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.gwpda.org/1918/wilpeace.html|title=President Wilson's Address to Congress, Analyzing German and Austrian Peace Utterances (Delivered to Congress in Joint Session on February 11, 1918)|date=February 11, 1918|website=gwpda.org|access-date=September 5, 2014}}</ref>
 
During [[World War II]], the principle was included in the [[Atlantic Charter]], declared on 14 August 1941, by [[Franklin D. Roosevelt]], President of the United States, and [[Winston Churchill]], Prime Minister of the United Kingdom, who pledged The Eight Principal points of the Charter.<ref>''See'': Clause 3 of the [[Atlantic Charter]] reads: "Third, they respect the right of all people to choose the form of government under which they will live; and they wish to see sovereign rights and self government restored to those who have been forcibly deprived of them" then became one of the eight cardinal principal points of the Charter all people had a right to self-determination.</ref> It was recognized as an international legal right after it was explicitly listed as a right in the UN Charter.<ref>{{Cite web|url=https://opil.ouplaw.com/view/10.1093/law:epil/9780199231690/law-9780199231690-e873|title=Self-Determination|website=Oxford Public International Lawdoi=10.1093/law:epil/9780199231690/e873}}</ref>
 
The principle does not state how the decision is to be made, nor what the outcome should be, whether it be [[independence]], [[federation]], [[protectorate|protection]], some form of [[autonomy]] or full [[Cultural assimilation|assimilation]].<ref>{{cite web|url=https://www.un.org/Depts/dpi/decolonization/trust4.htm |title=United Nations Trust Territories that have achieved self-determination |publisher=Un.org |date=1960-12-14 |access-date=2012-03-04 |url-status=dead |archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20091031212203/http://www.un.org/Depts/dpi/decolonization/trust4.htm |archive-date=2009-10-31 }}</ref> Neither does it state what the [[boundary delimitation|delimitation]] between peoples should be—nor what [[Nation-building|constitutes a people]]. There are conflicting definitions and legal criteria for determining which groups may legitimately claim the right to self-determination.<ref name="Unterberger">[[Betty Miller Unterberger]], [https://web.archive.org/web/20080220083041/http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_gx5215/is_2002/ai_n19132482 "Self-Determination"], ''Encyclopedia of American Foreign Policy,'' 2002.</ref>
 
Broadly speaking, the term self-determination also refers to the [[free choice]] of one's own acts without external compulsion.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/self-determination |title=Merriam-Webster online dictionary |publisher=Merriam-webster.com |access-date=2012-03-04}}</ref>
 
== Историја ==
 
=== Пре 20. века ===
 
==== Почеци ====
 
[[Michael Hechter]] and Elizabeth Borland have traced the origins of the norm of self-determination to the American and French revolutions.<ref>{{Cite web|last=Hecher|first=Michael|last2=Borland|first2=Elizabeth|date=2001|title=National Self-Determination: The Emergence of an International Norm|url=https://muse.jhu.edu/chapter/1550896|publisher=Russell Sage Foundation|language=en}}</ref>
 
==== Царства ====
[[Датотека:OttomanEmpireMain.png|thumb|right|250п|Мапа Османског царства 1683. године]]
 
The world possessed several traditional, continental empires such as the [[Ottoman Empire|Ottoman]], [[Russian Empire|Russian]], [[Austrian Empire|Austrian/Habsburg]], and the [[Qing Empire]]. Political scientists often define competition in Europe during the [[Modern Era]] as a [[Balance of power in international relations|balance of power]] struggle, which also induced various European states to pursue colonial empires, beginning with the [[Spanish Empire|Spanish]] and [[Portuguese Empire|Portuguese]], and later including the [[British Empire|British]], [[French colonial empire|French]], [[Dutch Empire|Dutch]], and [[German colonial empire|German]].
During the early 19th century, competition in Europe produced multiple wars, most notably the [[Napoleonic Wars]]. After this conflict, the British Empire became dominant and entered its [[Britain's Imperial Century|"imperial century"]], while nationalism became a powerful political ideology in Europe.
 
The [[Ottoman Empire]], [[Austrian Empire]], [[Russian Empire]], [[Qing dynasty|Qing Empire]] and the new [[Empire of Japan]] maintained themselves, often expanding or contracting at the expense of another empire. All ignored notions of self-determination for those governed.<ref>Jackson J. Spielvogel, ''Western Civilization: Since 1500 '', [https://books.google.com/books?id=fwxLkRmd-4QC&pg=PT421 p. 767], Cengage Learning, 2008, {{ISBN|0-495-50287-1}}, {{ISBN|978-0-495-50287-6}}.</ref>
 
==== Побуне и појава национализма ====
 
The [[American Revolution]] of the 1770s has been seen as the first assertion of the right of national and democratic self-determination, because of the explicit invocation of [[natural law]], the [[Natural rights and legal rights|natural rights of man]], as well as the [[Consent of the governed|consent]] of, and [[Popular sovereignty in the United States|sovereignty]] by, the people governed; these ideas were inspired particularly by [[John Locke]]'s [[Age of Enlightenment|enlightened]] writings of the previous century. [[Thomas Jefferson]] further promoted the notion that the will of the people was supreme, especially through authorship of the [[United States Declaration of Independence]] which inspired Europeans throughout the 19th century.<ref name="Unterberger" /> The [[French Revolution]] was motivated similarly and legitimatized the ideas of self-determination on that [[Old World]] continent.<ref>Chimène Keitner, [[Oxford University]], [http://www.ciaonet.org/isa/woc01/National Self-Determination: The Legacy of the French Revolution], paper presented at International Studies Association Annual Meeting, March 2000.</ref><ref>[https://query.nytimes.com/gst/abstract.html?res=F60B16FD3D5C147A93C2AB178CD85F4D8185F9 "Self-Determination Not a New Expedient; First Plebiscite Was Held in Avignon During the French Revolution—Forthcoming Book Traces History and Growth of the Movement"], ''[[New York Times]]'', July 20, 1919, 69.</ref>
 
Within the New World during the early 19th century, most of the nations of [[Hispanic America|Spanish America]] achieved [[Spanish American wars of independence|independence from Spain]]. The United States supported that status, as policy in the hemisphere relative to [[History of colonialism|European colonialism]], with the [[Monroe Doctrine]]. The American public, organized associated groups, and Congressional resolutions, often supported such movements, particularly the [[Greek War of Independence]] (1821–29) and the [[12 points of the Hungarian Revolutionaries of 1848|demands of Hungarian revolutionaries in 1848]]. Such support, however, never became official government policy, due to balancing of other [[national interests]]. After the [[American Civil War]] and with increasing capability, the United States government did not accept self-determination as a basis during its [[Purchase of Alaska]] and attempted purchase of the [[West Indies|West Indian]] islands of [[Saint Thomas, U.S. Virgin Islands|Saint Thomas]] and [[St. John, U.S. Virgin Islands|Saint John]] in the 1860s, or its growing influence in the [[Hawaiian Kingdom|Kingdom of Hawaii]], that led to [[Newlands Resolution|annexation]] in 1898. With its victory in the [[Spanish–American War]] in 1899 and its growing stature in the world, the United States supported annexation of the former Spanish colonies of [[Guam]], [[Puerto Rico]] and the [[Philippines]], without the consent of their peoples, and it retained "quasi-[[suzerainty]]" over [[Republic of Cuba (1902–1959)|Cuba]], as well.<ref name="Unterberger" />
 
[[Karl Marx]] supported such [[nationalism]], believing it might be a "prior condition" to social reform and international alliances.<ref>[[Erica Benner]], ‘’Really existing nationalisms: a post-communist view from Marx and Engels’‘, [https://books.google.com/books?id=N-7Xc8WtCLgC&pg=PA188&dq=%22self-determination%22+of+colonies+marx&ei=HLAGS6bRHafgyASj-_2_Dw#v=onepage&q=&f=false p. 188], Oxford University Press, 1995 {{ISBN|0-19-827959-0}}, {{ISBN|978-0-19-827959-4}}</ref> In 1914 [[Vladimir Lenin]] wrote: "[It] would be wrong to interpret the right to self-determination as meaning anything but the right to existence as a separate state."<ref name="Lenin">{{cite web|url=http://www.marxists.org/archive/lenin/works/1914/self-det/ch01.htm#v20pp72-395 |title=What Is Meant By The Self-Determination of Nations? |publisher=Marxists.org |access-date=2012-03-04}}</ref>
 
== Референце ==
{{reflist}}
 
== Литература ==
{{refbegin|30em}}
* Rudolf A. Mark, "National Self-Determination, as Understood by Lenin and the Bolsheviks." ''Lithuanian Historical Studies'' (2008), Vol. 13, p 21–39.
* Abulof, Uriel and Cordell, Karl (eds.) (2015). [http://www.tandfonline.com/toc/reno20/14/5 Special Issue: Self-determination—A Double-edged Principle], Ethnopolitics 14(5).
* Danspeckgruber, Wolfgang F., ed. ''The Self-Determination of Peoples: Community, Nation, and State in an Interdependent World'', Boulder: [[Lynne Rienner Publishers]], 2002.
* Danspeckgruber, Wolfgang F., and Arthur Watts, eds. ''Self-Determination and Self-Administration: A Sourcebook'', Boulder: [[Lynne Rienner Publishers]], 1997.
* Allen Buchanan, ''Justice, Legitimacy, and Self-Determination: Moral Foundations for International Law (Oxford Political Theory)'', [[Oxford University Press]], USA, 2007.
* Annalisa Zinn, ''Globalization and Self-Determination (Kindle Edition)'', [[Taylor & Francis]], 2007.
* Marc Weller, ''Autonomy, Self Governance and Conflict Resolution (Kindle Edition)'', [[Taylor & Francis]], 2007.
* Valpy Fitzgerald, Frances Stewart, Rajesh Venugopal (Editors), ''Globalization, Violent Conflict and Self-Determination'', Palgrave Macmillan, 2006.
* Joanne Barker (Editor), ''Sovereignty Matters: Locations of Contestation and Possibility in Indigenous Struggles for Self-Determination'', [[University of Nebraska Press]], 2005.
* David Raic, ''Statehood and the Law of Self-Determination (Developments in International Law, V. 43) (Developments in International Law, V. 43)'', [[Springer Science+Business Media|Springer]], 2002.
* Y.N. Kly and D. Kly, ''In pursuit of The Right to Self-determination'', Collected Papers & Proceedings of the First International Conference on the Right to Self-Determination & the United Nations, Geneva 2000, Clarity Press, 2001.
* Antonio Cassese, ''Self-Determination of Peoples: A Legal Reappraisal (Hersch Lauterpacht Memorial Lectures)'', [[Cambridge University Press]], 1999.
* Percy Lehning, ''Theories of Secession'', Routledge, 1998.
* Hurst Hannum, ''Autonomy, Sovereignty, and Self-Determination: The Accommodation of Conflicting Rights'', [[University of Pennsylvania Press]], 1996.
* Temesgen Muleta-Erena, ''The political and Cultural Locations of National Self-determination: The Oromia Case'', Oromia Quarterly, Vol. II, No. 2, 1999. {{ISSN|1460-1346}}.
{{refend}}
 
== Спољашње везе ==
{{Commons category|Self-determination}}
{{refbegin|30em}}
* Thürer, Daniel, Burri, Thomas. [https://web.archive.org/web/20130715211014/http://www.mpepil.com/sample_article?id=%2Fepil%2Fentries%2Flaw-9780199231690-e873&recno=18& Self-determination], ''Max Planck Encyclopedia of Public International Law''
* [https://lisd.princeton.edu/ The Liechtenstein Institute on Self-Determination, Princeton University]
* [https://undocs.org/A/Res/1514(XV) United Nations General Assembly Resolution 1514(XV). "Declaration on the Granting of Independence to Colonial Countries and Peoples"]
* [https://web.archive.org/web/20080516034015/http://www.un.org/aboutun/charter United Nations Charter].
* [https://web.archive.org/web/20080610141041/http://www.unhchr.ch/html/menu3/b/a_ccpr.htm/ Text of International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights].
* [https://web.archive.org/web/20080610141047/http://www.unhchr.ch/html/menu3/b/a_cescr.htm/ Text of International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights].
* [https://web.archive.org/web/20080513194128/http://selfdetermine.irc-online.org/index.html Self Determination in Focus], [[Foreign Policy In Focus]] self-determination papers site.
* Andrei Kreptul, [https://mises.org/journals/jls/17_4/17_4_3.pdf The Constitutional Right of Secession in Political Theory and History], [[Journal of Libertarian Studies]], [[Ludwig von Mises Institute]], Volume 17, no. 4 (Fall 2003), pp.&nbsp; 39 – 100.
* [[Jacob T. Levy]], [http://ssrn.com/abstract=1028374 Self-Determination, Non-Domination, and Federalism], published in Hypatia: A Journal of Feminist Philosophy.
* [https://archive.today/20121211060056/http://www.legalfrontiers.ca/2010/11/winds-of-change-or-hot-air-decolonization-and-the-salt-water-test/ "Winds of Change or Hot Air? Decolonization, Self-determination and the Salt Water Test, "] Legal Frontiers International Law Blog
* [http://www.marxists.org/archive/lenin/works/1914/self-det/index.htm The Right of Nations to Self-Determination] [[Vladimir Lenin]] February – May 1914.
* [https://web.archive.org/web/20070313120829/http://www.mahapunjab.org/PNSD/ Parliamentarians for National Self-Determination] Unofficial page for London-based Parliamentary lobby group.
* [https://tamilnation.org/selfdetermination/ Self Determination - International Law and Practise] collated and sequenced by Nadesan Satyendra.
* [https://web.archive.org/web/20080511205455/http://www.cwis.org/index.php The Center for World Indigenous Studies].
* [https://www.iss.europa.eu/content/post-2011-scenarios-sudan-what-role-eu Post-2011 scenarios in Sudan: What role for the EU?], edited by Damien Helly, Report No. 6, November 2009, [[European Union Institute for Security Studies]]
* [http://www.nationalyounglords.com/ self determination for Puerto Rico and all Latin American nations]
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