Затвор — разлика између измена

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{{Short description|Место на коме су људи легално физички затворени}}{{rut}}
{{Без извора|датум=јул 2019}}{{About|установи|значење овог термина у медицини|Opstipacija}}[[File:Theodor Leopold Weller, Besuch im Gefängnis.JPG|thumb|Theodor Leopold Weller, "затворска посета"]]
{{About|установи|значење овог термина у медицини|Opstipacija}}
'''Затвор''' је установа где се извршавају затворске казне по правоснажној и извршној пресуди [[суд]]а. У затвору се човеку ограничава [[слобода]] у оној мери у којој је то неопходно да би се остварила сврха кажњавања.
[[File:Theodor Leopold Weller, Besuch im Gefängnis.JPG|thumb|Теодор Леополд Велер, „затворска посета”]]
[[File:JimMorrisonMugShot1963.jpg|thumb|Затвореник]]
[[File:Prokudin-Gorskii-21.jpg|thumb|A zindan (a traditional [[Central Asia]]n prison) in [[Russia]], photographed by [[Sergey Prokudin-Gorsky]] between 1905 and 1915.]]
Главне службе у затворима су служба за обезбеђење и служба за преваспитање. Наука која се бави затворским системима назива се [[пенологија]]. Лице које издржава затворску казну назива се затвореник. Поред формалног затворског система у сваком затвору постоји и [[неформални затворски систем]] који стварају [[осуђено лице|осуђена лица]].
[[File:World map of prison population rates from World Prison Brief.svg|thumb|World map showing number of prisoners per 100,000 citizens, by country. The United States has both the world's largest prison population and the [[United States incarceration rate|world's highest per capita incarceration rate]].<ref name=ICPS>[http://www.prisonstudies.org/highest-to-lowest Highest to Lowest]. [http://www.prisonstudies.org/world-prison-brief World Prison Brief]. [[International Centre for Prison Studies]]. Use dropdown menu to choose lists of countries by region, or the whole world. Use menu to select highest-to-lowest lists of prison population totals, prison population rates, percentage of pre-trial detainees / remand prisoners, percentage of female prisoners, percentage of foreign prisoners, and occupancy ratio. Column headings in tables can be clicked to reorder columns lowest to highest, or alphabetically. For detailed info for each country go to the [http://www.prisonstudies.org/world-prison-brief World Prison Brief] main page and click on the map links and/or the sidebar links to get to the region and country desired.</ref><ref>{{cite web |url=http://billmoyers.com/2013/12/16/land-of-the-free-us-has-5-of-the-worlds-population-and-25-of-its-prisoners/ |title=Land of the Free? US Has 25 Percent of the World's Prisoners |last1=Holland |first1=Joshua |date=December 16, 2013 |access-date=December 29, 2013}}</ref>]]
 
'''Затвор''' је установа где се извршавају затворске казне по правоснажној и извршној пресуди [[суд]]а.<ref>{{cite web |title=Prison |url=http://www.etymonline.com/index.php?search=prison&searchmode=none |work=Online Etymology Dictionary |publisher=Douglas Harper |access-date=28 June 2013 |author=Douglas Harper |date=2001–2013 |url-status=live |archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20130909233445/http://www.etymonline.com/index.php?search=prison&searchmode=none |archive-date=9 September 2013 }}</ref> У затвору се човеку ограничава [[слобода]] у оној мери у којој је то неопходно да би се остварила сврха кажњавања. Главне службе у затворима су служба за обезбеђење и служба за преваспитање. Наука која се бави затворским системима назива се [[пенологија]]. Лице које издржава затворску казну назива се затвореник. Поред формалног затворског система у сваком затвору постоји и [[неформални затворски систем]] који стварају [[осуђено лице|осуђена лица]].
 
In [[American English]], the terms ''prison'' and ''jail'' have separate definitions, though this is not always followed in casual speech.<ref>{{cite web |last1=Larson |first1=Aaron |title=What is the Difference Between Jail and Prison |url=https://www.expertlaw.com/library/criminal-law/what-difference-between-jail-and-prison |website=ExpertLaw |access-date=25 July 2017 |date=5 June 2017 |url-status=live |archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20170827043012/https://www.expertlaw.com/library/criminal-law/what-difference-between-jail-and-prison |archive-date=27 August 2017 }}</ref> A ''prison'' or ''penitentiary'' holds people for longer periods of time, such as many years, and is operated by a state or federal government. A ''jail'' holds people for shorter periods of time (e.g. for shorter sentences or [[Remand (detention)|pre-trial detention]]) and is usually operated by a local government. Outside of North America, ''prison'' and ''jail'' often have the same meaning.
 
== Историја ==
 
=== Антички и средњовековни ===
The use of prisons can be traced back to the rise of the [[state (polity)|state]] as a form of social organization. Corresponding with the advent of the state was the development of [[written language]], which enabled the creation of formalized [[legal codes]] as official guidelines for society. The best known of these early legal codes is the [[Code of Hammurabi]], written in [[Babylon]] around 1750 BC. The penalties for violations of the laws in Hammurabi's Code were almost exclusively centered on the concept of ''[[lex talionis]]'' ("the law of retaliation"), whereby people were punished as a form of vengeance, often by the victims themselves. This notion of punishment as vengeance or retaliation can also be found in many other legal codes from early civilizations, including the [[ancient Sumerian]] codes, the [[Ancient India|Indian]] ''[[Manusmriti]]'' (Manava Dharma Sastra), the ''[[Hermes Trismegistus]]'' of Egypt, and the [[Israelite]] [[Mosaic Law]].<ref>{{cite book |author=Welch, Michael |chapter=A Social History of Punishment and Corrections |title=Corrections: A Critical Approach |publisher=McGraw-Hill |year=2004 |isbn=978-0-07-281723-2}}</ref>
 
[[File:The réale returning to port.jpg|thumb|A common punishment in [[Early Modern Europe]] was to be made a [[galley slave]]. The galley pictured here belonged to the Mediterranean fleet of [[Louis XIV]], {{circa|1694}}.]]
Some [[Ancient Greek]] philosophers, such as [[Plato]], began to develop ideas of using punishment to reform offenders instead of simply using it for its own sake. Imprisonment as a penalty was used initially for those who could not afford to pay their fines. Eventually, since impoverished Athenians could not pay their fines, leading to indefinite periods of imprisonment, time limits were set instead.<ref>{{cite web |author=Allen, Danielle S. |title=Punishment in Ancient Athens |work=Harvard University, Center for Hellenic Studies |url=http://chs.harvard.edu/wa/pageR?tn=ArticleWrapper&bdc=12&mn=1192 |url-status=live |archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20131203002347/http://chs.harvard.edu/wa/pageR?tn=ArticleWrapper&bdc=12&mn=1192 |archive-date=2013-12-03 }}</ref> The prison in Ancient Athens was known as the ''desmoterion'' ("place of chains").<ref>{{cite book |author=Roth, Michael P. |title=Prisons and Prison Systems: A Global Encyclopedia |publisher=Greenwood Publishing |year=2006 |isbn=9780313328565 |page=xxvi |url=https://books.google.com/books?id=RTH31DgbTzgC&pg=PR26 |url-status=live |archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20160515115859/https://books.google.com/books?id=RTH31DgbTzgC&pg=PR26 |archive-date=2016-05-15 }}</ref>
 
The Romans were among the first to use prisons as a form of punishment, rather than simply for detention. A variety of existing structures were used to house prisoners, such as metal cages, basements of public buildings, and [[quarries]]. One of the most notable Roman prisons was the [[Mamertine Prison]], established around 640 B.C. by [[Ancus Marcius]]. The Mamertine Prison was located within a [[Sewerage|sewer]] system beneath ancient Rome and contained a large network of dungeons where prisoners were held in squalid conditions,<ref>{{cite journal |last1=Lopes |first1=Jenna |title=There's Got to Be a Better Way: Retribution vs. Restoration |journal=Osprey Journal of Ideals and Inquiry |date=2002 |volume=II |page=53 |url=http://digitalcommons.unf.edu/ojii_volumes/116/ |access-date=25 July 2017 |url-status=live |archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20170808235532/http://digitalcommons.unf.edu/ojii_volumes/116/ |archive-date=8 August 2017 }}</ref> contaminated with [[human waste]]. Forced labor on public works projects was also a common form of punishment. In many cases, citizens were sentenced to [[slavery]], often in [[ergastula]] (a primitive form of prison where unruly slaves were chained to workbenches and performed hard labor).
 
During the [[Middle Ages]] in Europe, castles, fortresses, and the basements of public buildings were often used as makeshift prisons. The possession of the right and the capability to imprison citizens, however, granted an air of legitimacy to officials at all levels of government, from kings to regional [[Court (royal)|court]]s to [[city council]]s; and the ability to have someone imprisoned or killed served as a signifier of who in society possessed [[Power (social and political)|power]] or [[authority]] over others.<ref>{{cite book |author=Turning, Patricia |chapter=Competition for the Prisoner's Body: Wardens and Jailers in Fourteenth-Century Southern France |editor=Classen, Albrecht |editor2=Scarborough, Connie |title=Crime and Punishment in the Middle Ages and Early Modern Age: Mental-Historical Investigations of Basic Human Problems and Social Responses |publisher=Walter de Gruyter |year=2012 |isbn=978-3-11-029458-3 |page=285 |chapter-url=https://books.google.com/books?id=BxmTcMMfLpIC&pg=PA285 |url-status=live |archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20160603023524/https://books.google.com/books?id=BxmTcMMfLpIC&pg=PA285 |archive-date=2016-06-03 }}</ref> Another common punishment was sentencing people to [[galley slavery]], which involved chaining prisoners together in the bottoms of ships and forcing them to row on naval or merchant vessels.
 
== Види још ==
* [[Доживотна робија|Доживотни затвор]]
* [[Пеналне психозе]]
 
== Референце ==
{{Reflist|}}
 
== Литература ==
{{refbegin|30em}}
* {{cite book |author=Andrzejewski, Anna Vemer |title=Building Power: Architecture and Surveillance in Victorian America |publisher=University of Tennessee Press |year=2008 |isbn=978-1-57233-631-5 |url=https://books.google.com/books?id=9J7S6AqKOUAC}}
* Diiulio, John J., [https://books.google.com/books?id=s6AsM5Y_MUIC&printsec=frontcover ''Governing Prisons: A Comparative Study of Correctional Management''], [[Simon & Schuster]], 1990. {{ISBN|0-02-907883-0}}.
* {{cite book |author=Dikötter, Frank |title=Crime, Punishment and the Prison in Modern China |publisher=Columbia University Press |year=2002 |isbn=978-0-231-12508-6 |url=https://books.google.com/books?id=wQgdfx7dTs0C}}
* {{cite book |author=Dow, Mark |title=American Gulag: Inside U.S. Immigration Prisons |publisher=University of California Press |year=2005 |isbn=978-0-520-93927-1 |url=https://archive.org/details/america_dow_2004_00_2361|url-access=registration }}
* {{cite book |author=Drake, Deborah |title=Prisons, Punishment and the Pursuit of Security |publisher=Palgrave Macmillan |year=2012 |isbn=978-1-137-00484-0 |url=https://books.google.com/books?id=j6NsZZ4H60YC}}
* Fisher, George. "The birth of the prison retold." ''Yale Law Journal'' 104.6 (1995): 1235–1324. [https://digitalcommons.law.yale.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=7606&context=ylj online free]
* {{cite book |author=Garland, David |title=Mass Imprisonment: Social Causes and Consequences |publisher=SAGE |year=2001 |isbn=978-1-84920-823-9 |url=https://books.google.com/books?id=ZJOxKXPsVnYC}}
* {{cite book |author=Gilmore, Ruth Wilson |title=Golden Gulag: Prisons, Surplus, Crisis, and Opposition in Globalizing California |publisher=University of California Press |year=2007 |isbn=978-0-520-22256-4 |url=https://archive.org/details/goldengulagpriso00gilm|url-access=registration |author-link=Ruth Wilson Gilmore }}
* {{cite book |author=Hallett, Michael A. |title=Private Prisons in America: A Critical Race Perspective |publisher=University of Illinois Press |year=2006 |isbn=9780252073083 |url=https://books.google.com/books?id=cF5Md6QXQNEC}}
* {{cite book |editor=James, Joy |title=The New Abolitionists: (Neo)slave Narratives And Contemporary Prison Writings |publisher=SUNY Press |year=2005 |isbn=978-0-7914-8310-7 |url=https://books.google.com/books?id=cB9YRqeXZ_kC}}
* {{cite book |author=McGrew, Ken |title=Education's Prisoners: Schooling, the Political Economy, and the Prison Industrial Complex |publisher=Peter Lang |year=2008 |isbn=9781433101755 |url=https://books.google.com/books?id=6B_NqZcaZR8C}}
* {{cite book |author=Nashif, Esmail |title=Palestinian Political Prisoners: Identity and community |publisher=Routledge |year=2008 |isbn=978-0-203-89561-0 |url=https://books.google.com/books?id=isM0jRDRgN4C}}
* {{cite book |author=Neild, James |title=The State of Prisons of England, Scotland and Wales: Not for the Debtor Only, But for Felons Also, and Other Less Criminal Offenders |publisher=Cambridge University Press |year=2011 |isbn=978-1-108-03699-3 |url=https://books.google.com/books?id=3z2mCMaRaC0C}}
* {{cite book |author=Pisciotta, Alexander |title=Benevolent Repression: Social Control and the American Reformatory-Prison Movement |publisher=NYU Press |year=2012 |isbn=978-0-8147-6797-9 |url=https://books.google.com/books?id=ofCaLDy4SHEC}}
* {{cite book |author=Rodriguez, Dylan |title=Forced Passages: Imprisoned Radical Intellectuals And the U.S. Prison Regime |publisher=University of Minnesota Press |year=2006 |isbn=978-1-4529-0733-8 |url=https://books.google.com/books?id=ss6WP-Y7wooC}}
* {{cite book |author=Selman Donna |author2= Leighton Paul |title=Punishment for Sale: Private Prisons, Big Business, and the Incarceration Binge Issues in crime & justice |publisher=Rowman & Littlefield |year=2010 |isbn=978-1-4422-0173-6 |url=https://books.google.com/books?id=xHU_IRjsMZgC}}
* {{cite book |author1=Sharp, Susan F. |author2=Eriksen, M. Elaine |chapter=Imprisoned Mothers and Their Children |editor=Zaitzow, Barbara H. |editor2=Thomas, Jim |title=Women in Prison: Gender and Social Control |publisher=Lynne Reiner Publishers |year=2003 |isbn=978-1-58826-228-8 |chapter-url=https://books.google.com/books?id=RyBF1WXXmckC&pg=PA119}}
* Skarbek, David. 2020. ''The Puzzle of Prison Order: Why Life Behind Bars Varies Around the World''. Oxford University Press.
* {{cite book |author=Sim, Joe |title=Punishment and Prisons: Power and the Carceral State |publisher=SAGE |year=2009 |isbn=978-0-85702-953-9 |url=https://books.google.com/books?id=B1z1oOE9BOkC}}
* {{cite book |author=Solinger, Rickie |title=Interrupted Life: Experiences of Incarcerated Women in the United States |publisher=University of California Press |year=2010 |isbn=978-0-520-25249-3 |url=https://books.google.com/books?id=dSGYWHAmsaQC}}
* SpearIt, Economic Interest Convergence in Downsizing Imprisonment (2014). University of Pittsburgh Law Review, Vol. 25, 2014. Available at SSRN: http://ssrn.com/abstract=2608698
* SpearIt, Shackles Beyond the Sentence: How Legal Financial Obligations Create a Permanent Underclass (July 9, 2015). 1 Impact 46 (2015). Available at SSRN: http://ssrn.com/abstract=2628977
* {{cite book |author=Thompson, Anthony C. |title=Releasing Prisoners, Redeeming Communities: Reentry, Race, and Politics |publisher=NYU Press |year=2008 |isbn=978-0-8147-8316-0 |url=https://books.google.com/books?id=vnEmtS2pRqIC}}
* {{cite book |author=Throness, Laurie |title=A Protestant Purgatory: Theological Origins of the Penitentiary Act, 1779 |publisher=Ashgate Publishing |year=2008 |isbn=9780754663928 |url=https://books.google.com/books?id=jI-Iqtv-kU8C}}
* {{cite book |author=Walsh, John P. |chapter=Conditions of Confinement: The Social Reality of the Jail Inmate |title=The Culture of Urban Control: Jail Overcrowding in the Crime Control Era |publisher=Lexington Books |year=2013 |isbn=978-0-7391-7465-4 |page=51 |chapter-url=https://books.google.com/books?id=oIQ-70Zq2zsC&pg=PA51}}
* {{cite book |author=Wortley, Richard |title=Situational Prison Control: Crime Prevention in Correctional Institutions |publisher=Cambridge University Press |year=2002 |isbn=978-0-521-00940-9 |url=https://books.google.com/books?id=Uxe1_tkxtt4C}}
* {{cite book |author=Yousman, Bill |title=Prime Time Prisons on U.S. TV: Representation of Incarceration |publisher=Peter Lang |year=2009 |isbn=978-1-4331-0477-0 |url=https://archive.org/details/primetimeprisons0000yous|url-access=registration }}
{{refend}}
 
== Спољашње везе ==
{{Commonscat|Prisons}}
* [http://www.novosti.rs/dodatni_sadrzaj/feljtoni.120.html?item_id=907 Историја затвора у Србији („Вечерње новости”, фељтон, јул 2016)]
* [https://www.bop.gov Federal Bureau of Prisons]
* [https://www.prisonradio.org Priston Radio Official website]
 
{{Authority control}}
 
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