Затвор — разлика између измена

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=== Антички и средњовековни ===
The use of prisons can be traced back to the rise of the [[state (polity)|state]] as a form of social organization. Corresponding with the advent of the state was the development of [[written language]], which enabled the creation of formalized [[legal codes]] as official guidelines for society. The best known of these early legal codes is the [[Code of Hammurabi]], written in [[Babylon]] around 1750 BC. The penalties for violations of the laws in Hammurabi's Code were almost exclusively centered on the concept of ''[[lex talionis]]'' ("the law of retaliation"), whereby people were punished as a form of vengeance, often by the victims themselves. This notion of punishment as vengeance or retaliation can also be found in many other legal codes from early civilizations, including the [[ancient Sumerian]] codes, the [[Ancient India|Indian]] ''[[Manusmriti]]'' (Manava Dharma Sastra), the ''[[Hermes Trismegistus]]'' of Egypt, and the [[Israelite]] [[Mosaic Law]].<ref>{{cite book |author=Welch, Michael |chapter=A Social History of Punishment and Corrections |title=Corrections: A Critical Approach |publisher=McGraw-Hill |year=2004 |isbn=978-0-07-281723-2}}</ref>
 
Употреба затвора може се пратити до успона [[state (polity)|државе]] као облика друштвене организације. С складу са доласком државе је био и развој [[written language|писаног језика]], који је омогућио стварање формализованих [[Закон (право)|правних кодекса]] као службених смерница за друштво. Најпознатији од ових раних правних кодекса је [[Code of Hammurabi|Хамурабијев законик]], написан у [[Вавилон]]у око 1750. године пре нове ере. Казне за кршење закона из Хамурабијевог законика биле су скоро искључиво усредсређене на концепт ''[[Око за око|lex talionis]]'' („закон одмазде”), при чему су људи били кажњавани као облик освете, често од самих жртава. Овај појам казне као освете или одмазде може се наћи и у многим другим правним кодексима из раних цивилизација, укључујући [[Сумер|древне сумерске]] законике, индијски ''[[Мануов законик|Манусмрити]]'' (Манава Дарма Састра), ''[[Хермес Трисмегистос]]'' у Египту и [[Israelites|израелитски]] [[Law of Moses|Мозесов закон]].<ref>{{cite book |author=Welch, Michael |chapter=A Social History of Punishment and Corrections |title=Corrections: A Critical Approach |publisher=McGraw-Hill |year=2004 |isbn=978-0-07-281723-2}}</ref>
[[File:The réale returning to port.jpg|thumb|A common punishment in [[Early Modern Europe]] was to be made a [[galley slave]]. The galley pictured here belonged to the Mediterranean fleet of [[Louis XIV]], {{circa|1694}}.]]
Some [[Ancient Greek]] philosophers, such as [[Plato]], began to develop ideas of using punishment to reform offenders instead of simply using it for its own sake. Imprisonment as a penalty was used initially for those who could not afford to pay their fines. Eventually, since impoverished Athenians could not pay their fines, leading to indefinite periods of imprisonment, time limits were set instead.<ref>{{cite web |author=Allen, Danielle S. |title=Punishment in Ancient Athens |work=Harvard University, Center for Hellenic Studies |url=http://chs.harvard.edu/wa/pageR?tn=ArticleWrapper&bdc=12&mn=1192 |url-status=live |archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20131203002347/http://chs.harvard.edu/wa/pageR?tn=ArticleWrapper&bdc=12&mn=1192 |archive-date=2013-12-03 }}</ref> The prison in Ancient Athens was known as the ''desmoterion'' ("place of chains").<ref>{{cite book |author=Roth, Michael P. |title=Prisons and Prison Systems: A Global Encyclopedia |publisher=Greenwood Publishing |year=2006 |isbn=9780313328565 |page=xxvi |url=https://books.google.com/books?id=RTH31DgbTzgC&pg=PR26 |url-status=live |archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20160515115859/https://books.google.com/books?id=RTH31DgbTzgC&pg=PR26 |archive-date=2016-05-15 }}</ref>
 
[[File:The réale returning to port.jpg|thumb|Уобичајена казна у [[Early modern Europe|раној модерној]] Европи била је [[галеот]]ство. Овде приказана галија припадала је медитеранској флоти [[Louis XIV|Луја XIV]], око 1694.]]
The Romans were among the first to use prisons as a form of punishment, rather than simply for detention. A variety of existing structures were used to house prisoners, such as metal cages, basements of public buildings, and [[quarries]]. One of the most notable Roman prisons was the [[Mamertine Prison]], established around 640 B.C. by [[Ancus Marcius]]. The Mamertine Prison was located within a [[Sewerage|sewer]] system beneath ancient Rome and contained a large network of dungeons where prisoners were held in squalid conditions,<ref>{{cite journal |last1=Lopes |first1=Jenna |title=There's Got to Be a Better Way: Retribution vs. Restoration |journal=Osprey Journal of Ideals and Inquiry |date=2002 |volume=II |page=53 |url=http://digitalcommons.unf.edu/ojii_volumes/116/ |access-date=25 July 2017 |url-status=live |archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20170808235532/http://digitalcommons.unf.edu/ojii_volumes/116/ |archive-date=8 August 2017 }}</ref> contaminated with [[human waste]]. Forced labor on public works projects was also a common form of punishment. In many cases, citizens were sentenced to [[slavery]], often in [[ergastula]] (a primitive form of prison where unruly slaves were chained to workbenches and performed hard labor).
SomeНеки [[Ancient Greek|старогрчки филозофи]] philosophers, such asпопут [[PlatoПлатон]]а, beganпочели toсу developда ideasразвијају ofидеје usingо punishmentупотреби toказне reformза offendersреформу insteadпреступника ofуместо simplyда usingје itједноставно forкористе itsзбог ownње sakeсаме. ImprisonmentЗатвор asкао aказна penaltyпрвобитно wasсе usedкористио initiallyза forоне thoseкоји whoнису couldмогли notприуштити affordда toплате payсвоје theirказне. fines.На Eventuallyкрају, sinceпошто impoverishedосиромашени AtheniansАтињани couldнису notмогли payда theirплате finesсвоје казне, leadingшто toје indefiniteдовело periodsдо ofнеодређено imprisonment,дугих timeробија, limitsуспостављени wereсу setвременски insteadрокови.<ref>{{cite web |author=Allen, Danielle S. |title=Punishment in Ancient Athens |work=Harvard University, Center for Hellenic Studies |url=http://chs.harvard.edu/wa/pageR?tn=ArticleWrapper&bdc=12&mn=1192 |url-status=live |archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20131203002347/http://chs.harvard.edu/wa/pageR?tn=ArticleWrapper&bdc=12&mn=1192 |archive-date=2013-12-03 }}</ref> TheЗатвор prisonу inдревној AncientАтини Athensбио wasје knownпознат as theкао ''desmoterionдесмотерион'' ("place of„место chains"ланаца“).<ref>{{cite book |author=Roth, Michael P. |title=Prisons and Prison Systems: A Global Encyclopedia |publisher=Greenwood Publishing |year=2006 |isbn=9780313328565 |page=xxvi |url=https://books.google.com/books?id=RTH31DgbTzgC&pg=PR26 |url-status=live |archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20160515115859/https://books.google.com/books?id=RTH31DgbTzgC&pg=PR26 |archive-date=2016-05-15 }}</ref>
 
Римљани су међу првима користили затворе као облик казне, а не само као притвор. За смештај затвореника кориштени су различити постојећи објекти, попут металних кавеза, подрума јавних зграда и каменолома. Један од најистакнутијих римских затвора био је [[Mamertine Prison|Мамертински затвор]], основан око 640. године п.н.е. по налогу [[Анко Марције|Анка Марција]]. Мамертински затвор се налазио у [[канализација|канализационом]] систему испод старог Рима и садржавао је велику мрежу тамница у којима су затвореници држани у бедним условима,<ref>{{cite journal |last1=Lopes |first1=Jenna |title=There's Got to Be a Better Way: Retribution vs. Restoration |journal=Osprey Journal of Ideals and Inquiry |date=2002 |volume=II |page=53 |url=http://digitalcommons.unf.edu/ojii_volumes/116/ |access-date=25 July 2017 |url-status=live |archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20170808235532/http://digitalcommons.unf.edu/ojii_volumes/116/ |archive-date=8 August 2017 }}</ref> загађеним [[human waste|људским отпадом]]. Присилни рад на пројектима јавних радова такође је био уобичајен облик кажњавања. У многим случајевима, грађани су осуђивани на [[ропство]], често у [[Ergastulum|ергастули]] (примитивном облику затвора у којем су бунтовни робови били везани ланцима за радне столове и обављали тешке послове).
During the [[Middle Ages]] in Europe, castles, fortresses, and the basements of public buildings were often used as makeshift prisons. The possession of the right and the capability to imprison citizens, however, granted an air of legitimacy to officials at all levels of government, from kings to regional [[Court (royal)|court]]s to [[city council]]s; and the ability to have someone imprisoned or killed served as a signifier of who in society possessed [[Power (social and political)|power]] or [[authority]] over others.<ref>{{cite book |author=Turning, Patricia |chapter=Competition for the Prisoner's Body: Wardens and Jailers in Fourteenth-Century Southern France |editor=Classen, Albrecht |editor2=Scarborough, Connie |title=Crime and Punishment in the Middle Ages and Early Modern Age: Mental-Historical Investigations of Basic Human Problems and Social Responses |publisher=Walter de Gruyter |year=2012 |isbn=978-3-11-029458-3 |page=285 |chapter-url=https://books.google.com/books?id=BxmTcMMfLpIC&pg=PA285 |url-status=live |archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20160603023524/https://books.google.com/books?id=BxmTcMMfLpIC&pg=PA285 |archive-date=2016-06-03 }}</ref> Another common punishment was sentencing people to [[galley slavery]], which involved chaining prisoners together in the bottoms of ships and forcing them to row on naval or merchant vessels.
 
During theТоком [[Middle Ages|средњег века]] inу EuropeЕвропи, castlesдворци, fortresses,тврђаве andи theподруми basementsјавних ofзграда publicчесто buildingsсу wereсе oftenкористили usedкао asпривремени makeshift prisonsзатвори. TheПоседовање possessionправа ofи theмогућност rightзатварања and the capability to imprison citizensграђана, howeverмеђутим, grantedдавало anје airлегитимитет ofзваничницима legitimacyна toсвим officials at all levels ofнивоима governmentвласти, fromод kingsкраљева toпреко regionalрегионалних [[Court (royal)Двор|courtдворова]]s toдо [[cityCity council|градских већа]]s; andа theмогућност abilityда toнеко haveбуде someoneзатворен imprisonedили orубијен killedслужила servedје asкао aознака signifierонога ofко whoје inу societyдруштву possessedпоседовао [[Power (social and political)|powerмоћ]] orили [[authorityауторитет]] overнад othersдругима.<ref>{{cite book |author=Turning, Patricia |chapter=Competition for the Prisoner's Body: Wardens and Jailers in Fourteenth-Century Southern France |editor=Classen, Albrecht |editor2=Scarborough, Connie |title=Crime and Punishment in the Middle Ages and Early Modern Age: Mental-Historical Investigations of Basic Human Problems and Social Responses |publisher=Walter de Gruyter |year=2012 |isbn=978-3-11-029458-3 |page=285 |chapter-url=https://books.google.com/books?id=BxmTcMMfLpIC&pg=PA285 |url-status=live |archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20160603023524/https://books.google.com/books?id=BxmTcMMfLpIC&pg=PA285 |archive-date=2016-06-03 }}</ref> AnotherЈош commonједна punishmentуобичајена wasказна sentencingбила peopleје toосуђивање људи на [[galleyГалеот|галијско slaveryропство]], whichкоје involvedје chainingукључивало prisonersвезивање togetherзатвореника inна theдно bottoms of ships andбродова forcingи themприсиљавање toна rowвеслање onна navalпоморским orили merchantтрговачким vesselsпловилима.
 
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