Каста — разлика између измена

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{{short description|Формална и неформална друштвена стратификација и класификација која даје статус}}{{rut}}
{{Преусмери|Касте|насеље и општину у Француској|Касте (Атлантски Пиринеји)}}
{{без инлајн референци}}
[[Датотека:Seventy-two Specimens of Castes in India (32).jpg|мини|Илустрација из књиге "Седамдесет два примера касте у Индији" (1837). На илустрацији се налазе жена и мушкарац из [[Мадурај|Мадураја]].]]
[[Датотека:Basor Dalit caste.jpg|thumb|The ''[[Basor]]'' weaving bamboo baskets in a 1916 book. The ''Basor'' are a [[Scheduled Caste]] found in the state of [[Uttar Pradesh]] in India.]]
'''Каста''' је унутар себе затворена [[друштво|друштвена]] [[скуп]]ина заснована на породичном наслеђу и строгој хијерархији [[моћ]]и и [[утицај]]а. Кастинска [[организација]] друштва још увек делом егзистира на индијском потконтиненту.
 
'''Каста''' је унутар себе затворена [[друштво|друштвена]] [[скуп]]ина заснована на породичном наслеђу и строгој хијерархији [[моћ]]и и [[утицај]]а. Кастинска [[организација]] друштва још увек делом егзистира на индијском потконтиненту. Каста is a form of [[social stratification]] characterised by [[endogamy]], hereditary transmission of a style of life which often includes an occupation, ritual status in a hierarchy, and customary social interaction and exclusion based on cultural notions of purity and pollution.<ref name=caste-lead>
*{{citation|editor=Lagasse, Paul|title=The Columbia Encyclopedia|chapter=Caste|chapter-url=http://www.encyclopedia.com/topic/caste.aspx#3|access-date=24 September 2012|year=2007|publisher=Columbia University Press|location=New York, NY|isbn=978-0-231-14446-9}} Quote: "'''caste''' [Port., casta=basket], ranked groups based on heredity within rigid systems of social stratification, especially those that constitute Hindu India. Some scholars, in fact, deny that true caste systems are found outside India. The caste is a closed group whose members are severely restricted in their choice of occupation and degree of social participation. Marriage outside the caste is prohibited. Social status is determined by the caste of one's birth and may only rarely be transcended."
*{{citation|last1=Madan|first1=T. N.|author-link1=T. N. Madan|last2=Editors|title=caste|publisher= Encyclopæida Britannica Online|url=http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/98395/caste|date=2012}} Quote: "'''caste''', any of the ranked, hereditary, endogamous social groups, often linked with occupation, that together constitute traditional societies in South Asia, particularly among Hindus in India. Although sometimes used to designate similar groups in other societies, the "caste system" is uniquely developed in Hindu societies."
*{{citation|last=Gupta|first=Dipankar|chapter=Caste|editor-last=Schaefer|editor-first=Richard T.|title=Encyclopedia of Race, Ethnicity, and Society|chapter-url=https://books.google.com/books?id=YMUola6pDnkC&pg=PA246|location=Thousand Oaks|access-date=5 August 2012|year=2008|publisher=SAGE|isbn=978-1-4129-2694-2|pages=246–250}} Quote: "'''Caste''': What makes Indian society unique is the phenomenon of caste. Economic, religious, and linguistic differentiations, even race-based discrimination, are known elsewhere, but nowhere else does one see caste but in India."
*{{harvnb|Béteille|2002|pages=136–137|ps=. Quote: "'''Caste''': Caste has been described as the fundamental social institution of India. Sometimes the term is used metaphorically to refer to rigid social distinctions or extreme social exclusiveness wherever found, and some authorities have used the term 'colour-caste system' to describe the stratification based on race in the United States and elsewhere. But it is among the Hindus in India that we find the system in its most fully developed form although analogous forms exist among Muslims, Christians. Sikhs and other religious groups in South Asia. It is an ancient institution, having existed for at least 2,000 years among the Hindus who developed not only elaborate caste practices hut also a complex theory to explain and justify those practices (Dumont 1970). The theory has now lost much of its force although many of the practices continue."}}
*{{citation|last=Mitchell|first=Geoffrey Duncan|title=A New Dictionary of the Social Sciences|chapter-url=https://books.google.com/books?id=-a4vvdBrSVgC&pg=PA194|access-date=10 August 2012|date=2006|publisher=Aldine Transaction Publishers|isbn=978-0-202-30878-4|pages=194–195|chapter=Castes (part of SOCIAL STRATIFICATION)|location=New Brunswick, NJ}} Quote:"'''Castes''' A pure caste system is rooted in the religious order and may be thought of as a hierarchy of hereditary, endogamous, occupational groups with positions fixed and mobility barred by ritual distances between each caste. Empirically, the classical Hindu system of India approximated most closely to pure caste. The system existed for some 3,000 years and continues today despite many attempts to get rid of some of its restrictions. It is essentially connected with Hinduism."
*{{citation|chapter=caste, n.|title = Oxford English Dictionary, Second edition; online version June 2012|publisher = Oxford University Press|location=Oxford, UK|chapter-url=http://www.oed.com/view/Entry/28546|access-date =5 August 2019|year = 1989}}) Quote: "'''caste, n.''' 2a. spec. One of the several hereditary classes into which society in India has from time immemorial been divided; ... ''This is now the leading sense, which influences all others.''"</ref>{{Sfn|Scott|Marshall|2005|p=66}}{{Sfn|Winthrop|1991|pp=27–30}} Its paradigmatic ethnographic example is the division of India's [[Hinduism|Hindu]] society into rigid social groups, with roots in India's ancient history and persisting to the present time.<ref name=caste-lead/>{{Sfn|Béteille|2002|p=66}} However, the economic significance of the [[caste system in India]] has been declining as a result of urbanisation and affirmative action programs. A subject of much scholarship by sociologists and anthropologists, the Hindu caste system is sometimes used as an analogical basis for the study of caste-like social divisions existing outside Hinduism and India. The term "caste" is also applied to morphological groupings in [[eusocial]] insects such as [[ant]]s, [[bee]]s, and [[termites#caste|termites]].<ref>{{Cite journal |last= Wilson |first= E. O. |year= 1979 |title= The Evolution of Caste Systems in Social Insects |journal= Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society |volume= 123 |number=4 |pages= 204–210 |jstor= 986579}}</ref>
 
== Етимологија ==
The English word "caste" ({{IPAc-en|k|ɑː|s|t|,_|k|æ|s|t}}) derives from the Spanish and Portuguese ''[[casta]]'', which, according to the [[John Minsheu]]'s Spanish dictionary (1569), means "race, lineage, tribe or breed".<ref name=oed-caste>{{Cite OED|caste|id=28546}}</ref> When the Spanish colonised the [[New World]], they used the word to mean a "clan or lineage". It was, however, the Portuguese who first employed ''casta'' in the primary modern sense of the English word 'caste' when they applied it to the thousands of endogamous, hereditary Indian social groups they encountered upon their arrival in India in 1498.<ref name=oed-caste/><ref name=pitt-rivers>{{citation|last=Pitt-Rivers|first=Julian|editor=T O Beidelman|title=The translation of culture essays to E.E. Evans-Pritchard|chapter-url=https://books.google.com/books?id=f509AAAAIAAJ&pg=231|year=1971|publisher=Tavistock|location=London, UK|pages=231–256|chapter=On the word 'caste'|id=GGKEY:EC3ZBGF5QC9}}</ref> The use of the spelling "caste", with this latter meaning, is first attested in English in 1613.<ref name=oed-caste/>
 
== Oпис ==
Подела индијског друштва на касте или варне, чије етимолошко значење се односи на боју коже, потиче од индоевропског народа, старих Аријеваца. Иако се кастински систем у Индији мењао у историјско - политичким превратима, древни систем веровања да су сви људи рођени неједнаки, јачи је и од савременог закона и индијског устава, који забрањује кастинску дискриминацију и укида недодирљивост. Међутим, хиндуизам, који је религија око 80 одсто индијског становништва, и даље утиче на свакодневни живот, а већина људи се и даље управља крутом хијерархијом и друштвеним кодексима, који су наслеђени из давних браманских времена .
 
== Подела ==
На врху кастинског поретка у [[Индија|Индији]] налазили су се [[браман]]и, сталеж свештеника и учитеља, који је имао највећи углед. Они су били задужени за тумачење верских текстова и вођење обреда, а високо образовање им је омогућавало бављење законодавним и правосудним пословима и подучавањем. Ратници и племство, чине другу касту, кшатрије. Они представљају световну моћ, а њихов задатак је да владају и штите земљу од непријатеља. Трећу касту чини слободно аријевско производно становништво, насељеници који су остали чисте расе, вајшије. То су обично трговци, земљорадници и одгајивачи стоке, који су снабдевали остале касте основним животним намирницама. Четврту касту су чинили неаријевци, шудре. Она се састојала од поробљеног, тамнопутог дравидског популације и социјално одбачених аријеваца, који су се помешали са потлаченим староседеоцима. Пошто су били без поседа обављали су најтеже физичке послове као, надничари, слуге и поданици 3 горње касте. [[Парија|Парије]], "недодирљиви", били су потпуно избачени из кастинског поретка и сматрани су недостојним живота у заједници због послова које су обављали. И данас су парије осуђене на најтеже и такозване "нечисте" послове, који се преносе са генерације на генерацију, а предрасуде одређују њихове животе, нарочито у руралним подручјима где живи скоро три четвртине индијског становништва.
 
== Референце ==
{{Reflist|}}
 
== Литература ==
{{refbegin|30em}}
* {{РСР}}
* {{citation|last=Béteille
|first =André|editor-last=Barnard|editor-first=Alan|editor2-last=Spencer|editor2-first=Jonathan|chapter=Caste|title=Encyclopedia of Social and Cultural Anthropology|chapter-url=https://books.google.com/books?id=o1VpdrbH3BUC&pg=PA136|year=2002|location=New York; London|publisher=Routledge|isbn=978-0-415-28558-2|pages=136–137}}
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* {{citation|last=Gupta
|first=Dipankar|chapter=Caste|editor-last=Schaefer|editor-first=Richard T.|title=Encyclopedia of Race, Ethnicity, and Society|chapter-url=https://books.google.com/books?id=YMUola6pDnkC&pg=PA246|location=Thousand Oaks|access-date=5 August 2012|year=2008|publisher=Sage|isbn=978-1-4129-2694-2|pages=246–250}}
* {{citation|editor-last=Lagasse
|editor-first=Paul|title=The Columbia Encyclopedia|chapter=Caste|chapter-url=http://www.encyclopedia.com/topic/caste.aspx#3|access-date=24 September 2012|year=2007|publisher=Columbia University Press|location=New York|isbn=978-0-231-14446-9}}
* {{citation|last1=Madan
|first1=T. N.|author-link1=T. N. Madan|last2=Editors|title=caste|publisher= Encyclopæida Britannica Online|url=http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/98395/caste|date=2012}}
* {{citation|last=Mitchell
|first=Geoffrey Duncan|title=A New Dictionary of the Social Sciences|chapter-url=https://books.google.com/books?id=-a4vvdBrSVgC&pg=PA194|access-date=10 August 2012|date=2006|publisher=Aldine Transaction Publishers|isbn=978-0-202-30878-4|pages=194–195|chapter=Castes (part of Social Stratification)|location=New Brunswick, NJ}}
* {{citation|last=Morris
|first=Mike|title=Concise Dictionary of Social and Cultural Anthropology|chapter=caste|chapter-url=https://books.google.com/books?id=5lTQRZru1SQC&pg=PA33|access-date=10 August 2012|date= 2012|publisher=John Wiley & Sons|isbn=978-1-4443-3209-4|location=Malden, MA|page=33}}
* {{citation|last=Nagar
|first=Richa|author-link=Richa Nagar|editor=Derek Gregory|others=Ron Johnston, Geraldine Pratt, Michael Watts, Sarah Whatmore|title=The Dictionary of Human Geography|chapter-url=https://books.google.com/books?id=5gCHckKszz0C&pg=PA72|access-date=10 August 2012|year=2011|publisher=John Wiley & Sons|isbn=978-1-4443-5995-4|page=72|chapter=caste}}
* ''[[Oxford English Dictionary]]'' ({{citation|chapter=caste, n.|title = Oxford English Dictionary, Second edition; online version June 2012|publisher = Oxford University Press|location=Oxford, UK|chapter-url=http://www.oed.com/view/Entry/28546|access-date =5 August 2012|year = 1989}}) Quote: '''caste, n.''' 2a. spec. One of the several hereditary classes into which society in India has from time immemorial been divided; ... ''This is now the leading sense, which influences all others.''
* {{citation|last=Parry
|first = Jonathan| editor1-last=Kuper|editor1-first=Adam|editor2-last=Kuper|editor2-first=Jessica|chapter=Caste|title=Social Science Encyclopedia|chapter-url=https://books.google.com/books?id=IKXj9sQ3aqIC&pg=PA131|year=2003|location=London and New York|publisher=Routledge|isbn=978-0-415-28560-5|page=131}}
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* {{citation|last=Ramu
|first=G. N.|editor=William A. Darity|title=International Encyclopedia of the Social Sciences|chapter-url=http://www.encyclopedia.com/topic/caste.aspx#2|access-date=24 September 2012|series=(Macmillan social science library)|year=2008|publisher=Macmillan Reference US|location=Detroit, MI|isbn=978-0-02-865967-1|chapter=Caste}}
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* {{citation|last=Salamone
|first=Frank A.|editor-first=Junius P. |editor-last=Rodriguez|chapter=Caste|title=The Historical Encyclopedia of World Slavery, Volume 1|chapter-url=https://books.google.com/books?id=ATq5_6h2AT0C&pg=PA133|location=Santa Barbara, CA; Oxford, UK|access-date=5 August 2012|year=1997|publisher=ABC-CLIO|isbn=978-0-87436-885-7|page=133}}
* {{citation|last1=Scott
|first1=John|last2=Marshall|first2=Gordon|title=A Dictionary of Sociology|chapter=caste|chapter-url=https://books.google.com/books?id=id8iAQAAIAAJ&pg=PA66|location=Oxford; New York|access-date=10 August 2012|year=2005|publisher=Oxford University Press|isbn=978-0-19-860987-2|page=66}}
* {{citation|last=Sonnad
|first=Subhash R. |editor1-last=Christensen|editor1-first=Karen|editor2-last=Levinson|editor2-first=David|title=Encyclopedia of Community: From the Village to the Virtual World|chapter=Caste|pages=115&ndash;121|chapter-url=https://books.google.com/books?id=t1geOjQ6R0MC&pg=PA115|access-date=5 August 2012|year=2003|publisher=Sage|location=Thousand Oaks, CA|isbn=978-0-7619-2598-9}}
* {{citation|last=Sooryamoorthi
|first=Radhamany|editor-last=Leonard|editor-first=Thomas M.|chapter=Caste Systems|title=Encyclopedia of the Developing World|chapter-url=https://books.google.com/books?id=3mE04D9PMpAC&pg=PA252|access-date=5 August 2012|year=2006|location=New York|publisher=Routledge|isbn=978-0-415-97662-6|pages=252–}}
* {{citation|last=Winthrop
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* ''Spectres of Agrarian Territory'' by David Ludden 11 December 2001
* "Early Evidence for Caste in South India", pp.&nbsp;467–492 in ''Dimensions of Social Life: Essays in honour of David G. Mandelbaum'', Edited by Paul Hockings and Mouton de Gruyter, Berlin, New York, Amsterdam, 1987.
{{refend}}
 
== Спољашње везе ==
{{светоназор|аспекти}}
{{commons category|Caste}}
{{Wiktionary|caste}}
* [https://www.casteless.org/ Casteless]
* [http://socserv.mcmaster.ca/econ/ugcm/3ll3/comte/Philosophy3.pdf Auguste Comte on why and how castes developed across the world – in The Positive Philosophy, Volume 3 (see page 55 onwards)]
* [http://sciencepolicy.colorado.edu/students/envs_5110/merton_sociology_science.pdf Robert Merton on Caste and The Sociology of Science]
* [http://www.cambridge.org/gb/knowledge/isbn/item1168367/?site_locale=en_GB Caste, Society and Politics in India from the Eighteenth Century to the Modern Age] – [[Susan Bayly]]
* [https://web.archive.org/web/20061105095243/http://www.countercurrents.org/hr-marguerite250404.htm Class In Yemen] by Marguerite Abadjian (Archive of the Baltimore Sun)
* [http://idsn.org/ International Dalit Solidarity Network: An international advocacy group for Dalits]
 
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