Каста — разлика између измена

829 бајтова додато ,  пре 11 месеци
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ознака: везе до вишезначних одредница
{{short description|Формална и неформална друштвена стратификација и класификација која даје статус}}{{rut}}
{{Преусмери|Касте|насеље и општину у Француској|Касте (Атлантски Пиринеји)}}
[[Датотека:Seventy-two Specimens of Castes in India (32).jpg|мини|Илустрација из књиге "Седамдесет два примера касте у Индији" (1837). На илустрацији се налазе жена и мушкарац из [[Мадурај|Мадураја]].]]
[[Датотека:Basor Dalit caste.jpg|thumb|The ''[[BasorБасор]]и'' weavingплету bambooкорпе basketsод inбамбуса aу 1916књизи bookиз 1916. The ''BasorБасори'' areсу aкаста са [[Scheduled Caste|планска која]] found in theприсутна stateу ofдржави [[UttarУтар PradeshПрадеш]] inу IndiaИндији.]]
 
'''Каста''' је унутар себе затворена [[друштво|друштвена]] [[скуп]]ина заснована на породичном наслеђу и строгој хијерархији [[моћ]]и и [[утицај]]а. Кастинска [[организација]] друштва још увек делом егзистира на индијском потконтиненту. Каста isје a form ofоблик [[socialДруштвена стратификација|друштвене stratificationстратификације]] characterisedкоју byкарактерише [[endogamyендогамија]], hereditaryнаследни transmissionпренос ofстила aживота styleкоји ofчесто lifeукључује which often includes an occupationзанимање, ritualритуални statusстатус in a hierarchy,у andхијерархији customaryи socialуобичајену interactionдруштвену andинтеракцију exclusionи basedискљученост onзасновану culturalна notionsкултурним ofсхватањима purityчистоће andи pollutionзагађења.<ref name=caste-lead>
*{{citation|editor=Lagasse, Paul|title=The Columbia Encyclopedia|chapter=Caste|chapter-url=http://www.encyclopedia.com/topic/caste.aspx#3|access-date=24 September 2012|year=2007|publisher=Columbia University Press|location=New York, NY|isbn=978-0-231-14446-9}} Quote: "'''caste''' [Port., casta=basket], ranked groups based on heredity within rigid systems of social stratification, especially those that constitute Hindu India. Some scholars, in fact, deny that true caste systems are found outside India. The caste is a closed group whose members are severely restricted in their choice of occupation and degree of social participation. Marriage outside the caste is prohibited. Social status is determined by the caste of one's birth and may only rarely be transcended."
*{{citation|last1=Madan|first1=T. N.|author-link1=T. N. Madan|last2=Editors|title=caste|publisher= Encyclopæida Britannica Online|url=http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/98395/caste|date=2012}} Quote: "'''caste''', any of the ranked, hereditary, endogamous social groups, often linked with occupation, that together constitute traditional societies in South Asia, particularly among Hindus in India. Although sometimes used to designate similar groups in other societies, the "caste system" is uniquely developed in Hindu societies."
*{{harvnb|Béteille|2002|pages=136–137|ps=. Quote: "'''Caste''': Caste has been described as the fundamental social institution of India. Sometimes the term is used metaphorically to refer to rigid social distinctions or extreme social exclusiveness wherever found, and some authorities have used the term 'colour-caste system' to describe the stratification based on race in the United States and elsewhere. But it is among the Hindus in India that we find the system in its most fully developed form although analogous forms exist among Muslims, Christians. Sikhs and other religious groups in South Asia. It is an ancient institution, having existed for at least 2,000 years among the Hindus who developed not only elaborate caste practices hut also a complex theory to explain and justify those practices (Dumont 1970). The theory has now lost much of its force although many of the practices continue."}}
*{{citation|last=Mitchell|first=Geoffrey Duncan|title=A New Dictionary of the Social Sciences|chapter-url=https://books.google.com/books?id=-a4vvdBrSVgC&pg=PA194|access-date=10 August 2012|date=2006|publisher=Aldine Transaction Publishers|isbn=978-0-202-30878-4|pages=194–195|chapter=Castes (part of SOCIAL STRATIFICATION)|location=New Brunswick, NJ}} Quote:"'''Castes''' A pure caste system is rooted in the religious order and may be thought of as a hierarchy of hereditary, endogamous, occupational groups with positions fixed and mobility barred by ritual distances between each caste. Empirically, the classical Hindu system of India approximated most closely to pure caste. The system existed for some 3,000 years and continues today despite many attempts to get rid of some of its restrictions. It is essentially connected with Hinduism."
*{{citation|chapter=caste, n.|title = Oxford English Dictionary, Second edition; online version June 2012|publisher = Oxford University Press|location=Oxford, UK|chapter-url=http://www.oed.com/view/Entry/28546|access-date =5 August 2019|year = 1989}}) Quote: "'''caste, n.''' 2a. spec. One of the several hereditary classes into which society in India has from time immemorial been divided; ... ''This is now the leading sense, which influences all others.''"</ref>{{Sfn|Scott|Marshall|2005|p=66}}{{Sfn|Winthrop|1991|pp=27–30}} ItsЊен paradigmaticпарадигматски ethnographicетнографски exampleпример isје theподела division of India'sиндијског [[Hinduism|Hinduхинду]]истичког societyдруштва intoна rigidкруте socialдруштвене groupsгрупе, withса rootsкоренима inу India'sдревној ancientисторији historyИндије andи persistingпостојаним toдо the present timeданас.<ref name=caste-lead/>{{Sfn|Béteille|2002|p=66}} HoweverМеђутим, theекономски economic significance of theзначај [[caste system in India]]|кастинског hasсистема beenу decliningИндији]] asопада aкао resultрезултат ofурбанизације urbanisationи andпрограма affirmativeафирмативних action programsакција. AКао subjectпредмет ofзнатног muchпроучавања scholarshipсоциолога byи sociologists and anthropologistsантрополога, theхиндуистички Hinduкастни casteсистем systemпонекад isсе sometimesкористи usedкао asаналогна anоснова analogicalза basisпроучавање forдруштвених theподела studyсличних ofкастама caste-likeкоје socialпостоје divisionsизван existingхиндуизма outsideи Hinduism and IndiaИндије. TheИзраз term„каста” "caste"такође isсе alsoпримењује appliedна toморфолошке morphologicalгрупе groupings inкод [[eusocial|еусоцијалних]] insectsинсеката suchкао asшто су [[antмрави]]s, [[beeпчеле]]s, andи [[termites#caste|termitesтермити]].<ref>{{Cite journal |last= Wilson |first= E. O. |year= 1979 |title= The Evolution of Caste Systems in Social Insects |journal= Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society |volume= 123 |number=4 |pages= 204–210 |jstor= 986579}}</ref>
 
== Етимологија ==