Каста — разлика између измена

12 бајтова додато ,  пре 7 месеци
Синтакса – параметар у наводницима.
(Синтакса – параметар у наводницима.)
 
[[Датотека:Basor Dalit caste.jpg|thumb|''[[Басор]]и'' плету корпе од бамбуса у књизи из 1916. ''Басори'' су каста са [[Scheduled Caste|планска која]] присутна у држави [[Утар Прадеш]] у Индији.]]
 
'''Каста''' је унутар себе затворена [[друштво|друштвена]] [[скуп]]ина заснована на породичном наслеђу и строгој хијерархији [[моћ]]и и [[утицај]]а. Кастинска [[организација]] друштва још увек делом егзистира на индијском потконтиненту. Каста је облик [[Друштвена стратификација|друштвене стратификације]] коју карактерише [[ендогамија]], наследни пренос стила живота који често укључује занимање, ритуални статус у хијерархији и уобичајену друштвену интеракцију и искљученост засновану на културним схватањима чистоће и загађења.<ref name="caste-lead">
*{{citation|editor=Lagasse, Paul|title=The Columbia Encyclopedia|chapter=Caste|chapter-url=http://www.encyclopedia.com/topic/caste.aspx#3|access-date=24 September 2012|year=2007|publisher=Columbia University Press|location=New York, NY|isbn=978-0-231-14446-9}} Quote: "'''caste''' [Port., casta=basket], ranked groups based on heredity within rigid systems of social stratification, especially those that constitute Hindu India. Some scholars, in fact, deny that true caste systems are found outside India. The caste is a closed group whose members are severely restricted in their choice of occupation and degree of social participation. Marriage outside the caste is prohibited. Social status is determined by the caste of one's birth and may only rarely be transcended."
*{{citation|last1=Madan|first1=T. N.|author-link1=T. N. Madan|last2=Editors|title=caste|publisher= Encyclopæida Britannica Online|url=http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/98395/caste|date=2012}} Quote: "'''caste''', any of the ranked, hereditary, endogamous social groups, often linked with occupation, that together constitute traditional societies in South Asia, particularly among Hindus in India. Although sometimes used to designate similar groups in other societies, the "caste system" is uniquely developed in Hindu societies."
*{{harvnb|Béteille|2002|pages=136–137|ps=. Quote: "'''Caste''': Caste has been described as the fundamental social institution of India. Sometimes the term is used metaphorically to refer to rigid social distinctions or extreme social exclusiveness wherever found, and some authorities have used the term 'colour-caste system' to describe the stratification based on race in the United States and elsewhere. But it is among the Hindus in India that we find the system in its most fully developed form although analogous forms exist among Muslims, Christians. Sikhs and other religious groups in South Asia. It is an ancient institution, having existed for at least 2,000 years among the Hindus who developed not only elaborate caste practices hut also a complex theory to explain and justify those practices (Dumont 1970). The theory has now lost much of its force although many of the practices continue."}}
*{{citation|last=Mitchell|first=Geoffrey Duncan|title=A New Dictionary of the Social Sciences|chapter-url=https://books.google.com/books?id=-a4vvdBrSVgC&pg=PA194|access-date=10 August 2012|date=2006|publisher=Aldine Transaction Publishers|isbn=978-0-202-30878-4|pages=194–195|chapter=Castes (part of SOCIAL STRATIFICATION)|location=New Brunswick, NJ}} Quote:"'''Castes''' A pure caste system is rooted in the religious order and may be thought of as a hierarchy of hereditary, endogamous, occupational groups with positions fixed and mobility barred by ritual distances between each caste. Empirically, the classical Hindu system of India approximated most closely to pure caste. The system existed for some 3,000 years and continues today despite many attempts to get rid of some of its restrictions. It is essentially connected with Hinduism."
*{{citation|chapter=caste, n.|title = Oxford English Dictionary, Second edition; online version June 2012|publisher = Oxford University Press|location=Oxford, UK|chapter-url=http://www.oed.com/view/Entry/28546|access-date =5 August 2019|year = 1989}}) Quote: "'''caste, n.''' 2a. spec. One of the several hereditary classes into which society in India has from time immemorial been divided; ... ''This is now the leading sense, which influences all others.''"</ref>{{Sfn|Scott|Marshall|2005|p=66}}{{Sfn|Winthrop|1991|pp=27–30}} Њен парадигматски етнографски пример је подела индијског [[хинду]]истичког друштва на круте друштвене групе, са коренима у древној историји Индије и постојаним до данас.<ref name="caste-lead"/>{{Sfn|Béteille|2002|p=66}} Међутим, економски значај [[caste system in India|кастинског система у Индији]] опада као резултат урбанизације и програма афирмативних акција. Као предмет знатног проучавања социолога и антрополога, хиндуистички кастни систем понекад се користи као аналогна основа за проучавање друштвених подела сличних кастама које постоје изван хиндуизма и Индије. Израз „каста” такође се примењује на морфолошке групе код [[eusocial|еусоцијалних]] инсеката као што су [[мрави]], [[пчеле]] и [[термити]].<ref>{{Cite journal |last= Wilson |first= E. O. |year= 1979 |title= The Evolution of Caste Systems in Social Insects |journal= Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society |volume= 123 |number=4 |pages= 204–210 |jstor= 986579}}</ref>
 
== Етимологија ==
The English word "caste" ({{IPAc-en|k|ɑː|s|t|,_|k|æ|s|t}}) derives from the Spanish and Portuguese ''[[casta]]'', which, according to the [[John Minsheu]]'s Spanish dictionary (1569), means "race, lineage, tribe or breed".<ref name="oed-caste">{{Cite OED|caste|id=28546}}</ref> When the Spanish colonised the [[New World]], they used the word to mean a "clan or lineage". It was, however, the Portuguese who first employed ''casta'' in the primary modern sense of the English word 'caste' when they applied it to the thousands of endogamous, hereditary Indian social groups they encountered upon their arrival in India in 1498.<ref name="oed-caste"/><ref name="pitt-rivers">{{citation|last=Pitt-Rivers|first=Julian|editor=T O Beidelman|title=The translation of culture essays to E.E. Evans-Pritchard|chapter-url=https://books.google.com/books?id=f509AAAAIAAJ&pg=231|year=1971|publisher=Tavistock|location=London, UK|pages=231–256|chapter=On the word 'caste'|id=GGKEY:EC3ZBGF5QC9}}</ref> The use of the spelling "caste", with this latter meaning, is first attested in English in 1613.<ref name="oed-caste"/>
 
== Oпис ==