C. J. Voker — разлика између измена

Спашавам 3 извора и означавам 0 мртвим.) #IABot (v2.0.9
(Спашавам 3 извора и означавам 0 мртвим.) #IABot (v2.0.9)
== Brak i porodica ==
 
Godine 1882, sa 14 godina, Sara se udala za Mojsija Makvilijamsa, čiji uzrast nije poznat, kako bi izbjegla zlostavljanje od svog zeta Džesija Pauela.<ref name=BWA1209/> Sara i Mojsije su imali jednu ćerku, Leliju Makvilijams, koja je rođena 6. juna 1885. Kada je Mojsije umro 1887, Sara je imala dvadeset godina, a Lelija dve godine.<ref name=indiana-history/><ref name=NC100Bio>{{cite web | first =A'Lelia | last =Bundles | title =Biography of Madam C. J. Walker | publisher =National Coalition of 100 Black Women, Inc., Oakland/Bay Area Chapter | date =2014 | url =http://www.onehundredblackwomen.com/madame-c-j-walker/ | access-date =February 5, 2016 | archive-url =https://web.archive.org/web/20180328133356/http://www.onehundredblackwomen.com/madame-c-j-walker/ | archive-date =March 28, 2018 | url-status =dead }}</ref> Sara se ponovo udala 1894, ali je napustila svog drugog muža Džona Dejvisa oko 1903.<ref>{{cite web |url= https://www.philanthropyroundtable.org/resource/madam-c-j-walker/|title= Madam C. J. Walker|last=Klem|first= Monica|date=n.d.|website=Philanthropy Roundtable|language=en|archive-url=https://archive.phtoday/20220323011710/https://www.philanthropyroundtable.org/resource/madam-c-j-walker/UEdjr| archive-date=March23. 22,03. 2022|access-date= March 22, 2022|url-status=live}}</ref><ref>{{cite book | first1=Linda C. | last1=Gugin | author2=James E. St. Clair | title=Indiana's 200: The People Who Shaped the Hoosier State | publisher =Indiana Historical Society Press| year =2015 | location =Indianapolis | page =360 | isbn =978-0-87195-387-2}}</ref>
 
U januaru 1906. Sara se udala za Čarlsa Džozefa Vokera, novinskog prodavca reklama koga je poznavala u [[St. Louis, Missouri|Sent Luisu]], [[Misuri]]. Kroz ovaj brak, postala je poznata kao Madam C. J. Voker. Par se razveo 1912. godine; Čarls je umro 1926. Lelija Makvilijams je usvojila prezime svog očuha i postala poznata kao [[A'Lelia Walker|A'Lelija Voker]].<ref name="indiana-history" /><ref name="BWA1210-11">Bundles, "Madam C J (Sarah Breedlove) Walker, 1867–1919" in ''Black Women in America'', v. II, pp. 1210–11.</ref><ref name="Riquier">{{cite web |last=Riquier |first=Andrea |date=2015-02-15 |title=Madam Walker Went from Laundress to Millionairess |url=http://news.investors.com/management-leaders-and-success/022415-740635-madam-walker-built-hair-care-empire-rose-from-washerwoman.htm |url-status=live |archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20201112050222/https://www.investors.com/madam-walker-built-hair-care-empire-rose-from-washerwoman/ |archive-date=2020-11-12 |access-date=February 8, 2016 |work=Investor's Business Daily}}</ref>
U početku je Sara naučila o nezi kose od svoje braće, koji su bili berberi u Sent Luisu.<ref name="Her Own Ground 2001"/> Otprilike u vreme održavanja [[Louisiana Purchase Exposition|Prodajne izložbe u Luizijani]] (Svetski sajam u Sent Luisu 1904. godine), postala je zastupnik za prodaju proizvoda za [[Annie Malone|Eni Malon]], afroameričku preduzetnicu za negu kose, milionerku i vlasnicu kompanije Poro.<ref name=BWA1209/> Prodaja na izložbi je bila razočaravajuća, jer je afroamerička zajednica u velikoj meri ignorisana.
 
Dok je radila za Malon, koji će kasnije postati Vokerov najveći rival u industriji nege kose,<ref name="Philanthropy" /> Sara je počela da stiče svoja nova znanja i razvija sopstvenu liniju proizvoda.<ref name=BWA1210-11/> U julu 1905. godine, kada je imala 37 godina, Sara i njena ćerka su se preselile u [[Denver]], u [[Colorado|Koloradu]], gde je nastavila da prodaje proizvode za Malon i razvija sopstveni biznis za negu kose. Razvila se kontroverza između Eni Melon i Sare, jer je Melon optužila Saru da je ukrala njenu formulu, mešavinu želatinoznog [[petroleum jelly|vazelina]] i [[sumpor]]a koja je bila u upotrebi stotinak godina.<ref name="daughter">{{Cite web |last=Oatman-Stanford |first=Hunter |date=2015-08-31 |title=The Sharcropper's Daughter Who Made Black Women Proud of Their Hair |url=https://www.collectorsweekly.com/articles/madam-walker/ |url-status=live |archive-url=https://archive.phtoday/20151024003645/http://www.collectorsweekly.com/articles/madam-walker/nAEe1 |archive-date=2015-10-24. 10. 2015 |access-date=March 22, 2022 |website=[[Collectors Weekly]] |language=en }}</ref>
 
== Reference ==
<ref name="bundles">{{cite journal| first=A'Lelia | last=Bundles | title=Madam C. J. Walker: Business Savvy to Philanthropy |journal=eJournal USA | volume=16 | issue=6 | pages=3–5 | url=https://photos.state.gov/libraries/amgov/30145/publications-english/Black_Women_Leaders_eJ.pdf | publisher=[[United States Department of State]] | date=February 2012 }}</ref>
 
<ref name="Philanthropy">{{cite web |last=Klem |first=Monica |date=2022-03-22 |title=Madam C. J. Walker |url=https://www.philanthropyroundtable.org/almanac/people/hall-of-fame/detail/madam-c.-j.-walker |url-status=live |archive-url=https://archive.phtoday/20220323011710/https://www.philanthropyroundtable.org/resource/madam-c-j-walker/UEdjr |archive-date=2022-23. 03-22. 2022 |access-date=2022-03-22 |publisher=[[Philanthropy Roundtable]] }}</ref>
}}
 
266.578

измена