Карл Фридрих Шинкел — разлика између измена

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{{Short description|пруски архитекта, урбаниста и сликар (1781–1841)}}
{{Уметник
| име = Карл Фридрех Шинкел
}}
'''Карл Фридрих Шинкел''' ({{јез-нем|Karl Friedrich Schinkel;}} [[13. март]] [[1781]] — [[9. октобар]] [[1841]]), био је [[Пруско краљевство|пруски]] [[романтизам|романтички]] [[архитектура|архитекта]], [[урбанизам|урбаниста]] и [[сликар]] који је такође дизајнирао [[намештај]] и позоришну сценографију. Шинкел је био најистакнутији представник [[неокласицизам|неокласицизма]] и неоготике у [[њемачка|немачкој]] архитектури<ref>[http://www.encyclopedia.com/doc/1O2-SchinkelKarlFriedrich.html Karl Friedrich Schinkel]</ref>.
 
== Биографија ==
[[Датотека:Franz Ludwig Catel Karl Friedrich Schinkel in Neapel.tif|250п|мини|left|[[Franz Ludwig Catel]], ''Schinkel in Naples'', 1824]]
[[Датотека:Briefmarke Karl Friedrich Schinkel.jpg|thumbnail|250п|A stamp with Schinkel's Altes Museum]]
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Шинкел је рођен у [[Нојрупин]]у у пруској грофовији [[Бранденбург]]. Оца је изгубио као шестогодишњак у [[град]]ском пожару.<ref name="zadow">{{citation|surname1=Mario Alexander Zadow|title=Karl Friedrich Schinkel – Ein Sohn der Spätaufklärung|publisher=Edition Axel Menges|publication-place=Stuttgart/London|isbn=3-932565-23-1|date=2001|language=German }}</ref><ref>{{citation|surname1=Ulrich Reinisch|title=Der Wiederaufbau der Stadt Neuruppin nach dem grossen Brand 1787 oder wie die preussische Bürokratie eine Stadt baute|publication-place=Berlin|at=pp.&nbsp;190-199|isbn=3-88462-173-4|date=2001|language=German }}</ref><ref>{{citation|surname1=Brigitte Meier|title=Fontanestadt Neuruppin: Kulturgeschichte einer märkischen Mittelstadt|publisher=Edition Rieger|publication-place=Karwe|at=p.&nbsp;131|isbn=978-3-935231-59-6|date=2004|language=German }}</ref> He became a student of architect [[Friedrich Gilly]]<ref>{{Cite web |title=Friedrich Gilly (1772—1800) |url=https://www.oxfordreference.com/view/10.1093/oi/authority.20110803095852726 |url-status=live |website=Oxford Reference}}</ref><ref>{{Cite book |last=Tillack-Graf |first=Anne-Kathleen |title=Das Denkmal für Friedrich den Großen von Friedrich Gilly 1796 |year=2004 |location=Munich |language=de}}</ref> (1772–1800) (the two became close friends)<ref> F[riedrich] Adler: ''Friedrich Gilly – Schinkel's Lehrer'', in: ''Zentralblatt der Bauverwaltung'', Jg. 1, 1881, Hefte 1–3 ([https://digital.zlb.de/viewer/image/14688302_1881/1/LOG_0003/ Digitalisat)]</ref> and his father, [[David Gilly]], in [[Berlin]]. At that time, the architectural taste in Prussia was shaped in neoclassical style, mainly by [[Carl Gotthard Langhans]], the architect of the [[Brandenburg Gate]] in Berlin.
 
Шинкел је рођен у [[Нојрупин]]у у пруској грофовији [[Бранденбург]]. Оца је изгубио као шестогодишњак у [[град]]ском пожару. Након студијског пута у [[Италија|Италију]] [[1805]]. године почео је да зарађује као [[сликар]]. Године 1816, уредио је сцену за [[Волфганг Амадеус Моцарт|Моцартову]] оперу ''[[Чаробна фрула]]''; Упознавши сликарство [[Каспар Давид Фридрих|Каспара Давида Фридриха]] [[1810]]. године у [[Берлин]]у одлучио је да се посвети архитектури. Након [[Наполеон I Бонапарта|Наполеоновог]] пораза, Шинкел је надгледао Пруску комисију за изградњу, где је утицао на обликовање, тада још увек неугледног [[Берлин]]а, али и друге пројектепројектеa. Он је такође oversaw projects in the expanded Prussian territories from the Rhineland in the west to [[Königsberg]] in the east, such as [[New Altstadt Church]].<ref name="Schinkel1991">{{cite book|author=Karl Friedrich Schinkel|editor=Michael Snodin|title=A Universal Man|url=https://books.google.com/books?id=HHJOZTmDiAAC |year=1991 |publisher=Yale University Press |isbn=978-0-300-05165-0}}</ref>
 
Од [[1808]]. до [[1817]]. године Шинкел је обновио [[Дворац]] Розенау у [[Кобург]]у, у новом [[неоготика|неоготичком]] [[стил]]у.<ref name="Quest-Ritson1999">{{harvnb|Quest-Ritson|1999|p=64}}</ref>
 
Нажалост, није успео да оствари свој потенцијал до краја, представљен бројним [[скица]]ма, што због [[Француска|француске]] окупације, што због своје преране смрти.
 
== Комеморација ==
His portrait appeared on the {{Reichsmark|1,000|link=yes}} banknote issued by the [[Reichsbank]] from 1936 until 1945.<ref>{{Cite web|url=http://banknote.ws/COLLECTION/countries/EUR/GER/GER0184.htm|title = P-184}}</ref> Printing ceased in 1945 but the note remained in circulation until the issue of the [[Deutsche Mark]] on 21 June 1948.
 
== Стил ==
[[File:Karl Friedrich Schinkel Moskowitischer Entwurf Grundriss.tif|thumb|left| Floorplan]]
[[File:Karl Friedrich Schinkel - Schloß am Strom - Google Art Project.jpg|thumb|''Castle by the River'' (''Schloß am Strom''), 1820]]
[[File:Karl Friedrich Schinkel - Gotische Kirche auf einem Felsen am Meer - Google Art Project.jpg|thumb|''Gotische Kirche auf einem Felsen am Meer'', 1815]]
[[File:Drake Schinkel.jpg|thumb|upright=0.6|Monument to Schinkel at Schinkelplatz, Berlin]]
 
Schinkel's style, in his most productive period, is defined by a turn to Greek rather than Imperial Roman architecture, an attempt to turn away from the style that was linked to the recent French occupiers. (Thus, he is a noted proponent of the [[Greek Revival]].) He believed that in order to avoid sterility and have a soul, a building must contain elements of the poetic and the past, and have a discourse with them.<ref>{{Cite news|url=https://www.welt.de/debatte/kommentare/article150970718/Wie-Buerger-fuer-die-Schoenheit-ihrer-Staedte-kaempfen.html|title=Wie Bürger für die Schönheit ihrer Städte kämpfen|last=Guratzsch|first=Dankwart|date=13 January 2016|newspaper=Welt Online|access-date=24 May 2016}}</ref><ref>{{Cite book|title=Karl Friederich Schinkel: Aspects of His Work|last=Peik|first=Susan M.|publisher=Axel Menges|year=2001|isbn=978-3-930698-81-3|location=Stuttgart/London|page=[https://archive.org/details/karlfriedrichsch0000unse/page/7 7]|url=https://archive.org/details/karlfriedrichsch0000unse/page/7}}</ref>
 
His most famous extant buildings are found in and around Berlin. These include the [[Neue Wache]] (1816–1818), the [[Prussian National Monument for the Liberation Wars|National Monument for the Liberation Wars]] (1818–1821), the [[Konzerthaus Berlin|Schauspielhaus]] (1819–1821) at the [[Gendarmenmarkt]], which replaced the earlier theatre that was destroyed by fire in 1817, and the [[Altes Museum]] on [[Museum Island]] (1823–1830). He also carried out improvements to the [[Kronprinzenpalais|Crown Prince's Palace]] and to [[Schloss Charlottenburg]]. Schinkel was also responsible for the interior decoration of a number of private Berlin residences. Although the buildings themselves have long been destroyed, portions of a stairwell from the Weydinger House were able to be rescued and built into the Nicolaihaus on Brüderstr. and its formal dining hall into the [[Palais am Festungsgraben]].<ref name="Schinkel1991" />
 
Between 1825–1827, he collaborated with [[Carl Theodor Ottmer]] on designs for the Berliner Singakademie for [[Sing-Akademie zu Berlin]]. Since 1952, it has been known as the [[Maxim Gorki Theatre]].<ref>Malgorzata Omilanowska {{google books|EX6tAAAAQBAJ|DK Eyewitness Travel Guide: Berlin (20|page=71}}</ref>
 
Later, Schinkel moved away from classicism altogether, embracing the [[Neo-Gothic]] in his [[Friedrichswerder Church]] (1824–1831). Schinkel's [[Bauakademie]] (1832–1836), his most innovative building, eschewed historicist conventions and seemed to point the way to a clean-lined "modernist" architecture that would become prominent in Germany only toward the beginning of the 20th century.
 
Schinkel, however, is noted as much for his theoretical work and his architectural drafts as for the relatively few buildings that were actually executed to his designs. Some of his merits are best shown in his unexecuted plans for the transformation of the Athenian [[Acropolis]] into a royal palace for the new [[Kingdom of Greece (Wittelsbach)|Kingdom of Greece]] and for the erection of the Orianda Palace in the [[Crimea]]. These and other designs may be studied in his ''Sammlung architektonischer Entwürfe'' (1820–1837) and his ''Werke der höheren Baukunst'' (1840–1842; 1845–1846). He also designed the famed [[Iron Cross]] medal of Prussia and later Germany.
 
It has been speculated, however, that due to the difficult political circumstances – French occupation and the dependency on the Prussian king – and his relatively early death, which prevented him from seeing the explosive German industrialization in the second half of the 19th century, he was not able to live up to the true potential exhibited by his sketches.
 
== Слике ==
<gallery widths="250px" heights="180px" class="center" caption="Скује Карла Фридриха Шинкела">
Датотека:Karl Friedrich Schinkel Gotischer Dom am Wasser.tif|''[[Gothic Cathedral by a River]]'', 1813
Датотека:1813 Schinkel Blick auf den Mont Blanc anagoria.JPG|''View of Mont Blanc'', 1813
Датотека:Karl Friedrich Schinkel - Der Morgen - Google Art Project.jpg|''Morning'', 1813
Датотека:Karl Friedrich Schinkel - Stage set for Mozart's Magic Flute - WGA21001.jpg|Karl Friedrich Schinkel's stage set for Mozart's ''Magic Flute'', 1815
Датотека:1815 Schinkel Mittelalterliche Stadt an einem Fluss anagoria.JPG|''[[Medieval City on a River (Schinkel)|Medieval City on a River]]'', 1815
Датотека:Karl Friedrich Schinkel - The Gate in the Rocks - WGA20999.jpg|''Rock Arch'', 1818
Датотека:Karl Friedrich Schinkel - Uranus and the Dance of the Stars.jpg|''Uranus and the Dance of the Stars'', 1834
Датотека:Karl Friedrich Schinkel Allegorie auf Beuth, den Pegasus reitend, 1837.tif|[[Christian Peter Wilhelm Beuth]], 1837 (Allegory of Prussia's industrial renewal)
<center></gallery>
 
== Зграде ==
<gallery mode="packed" widths="250px" heights="180px" caption="Избор дела Карла Фридриха Шинкела">
Датотека:Konzerths 3a.jpg|[[Konzerthaus Berlin|Konzerthaus]], Berlin<ref> Felix Pestemer: ''Alles bleibt anders : das Konzerthaus Berlin und seine Geschichte(n)'', avant-verlag (Verlag), Berlin 2021, ISBN 978-3-96445-046-3, {{OCLC|1250253904}}</ref>
Датотека:Berlin altes Museum und Lustgarten um 1900.jpg|[[Altes Museum]]<ref>Michael S. Cullen, Tilmann von Stockhausen: ''Das Alte Museum''. Berlin-Edition, Berlin 1998, {{ISBN|3-8148-0002-8}}.</ref><ref> Wolf-Dieter Heilmeyer, Huberta Heres, Wolfgang Maßmann: ''Schinkels Pantheon. Die Statuen der Rotunde im Alten Museum''. Von Zabern, Mainz 2004, {{ISBN|3-8053-3255-6}}.</ref><ref> Andreas Scholl, Gertrud Platz-Horster (Hrsg.): ''Altes Museum. Pergamonmuseum. Antikensammlung Staatlichen Museen zu Berlin''. 3., vollständig überarbeitete und erweiterte Auflage. Von Zabern, Mainz 2007, {{ISBN|978-3-8053-2449-6}}.</ref>
Датотека:Berlin - Friedrichswerdersche Kirche, 2006 1.jpg|[[Friedrichswerdersche Kirche]]<ref name=SMB>{{cite web |url=http://www.smb.museum/en/museums-institutions/friedrichswerdersche-kirche/about-us/profile.html |title=Friedrichswerdersche Kirche |publisher=Staatliche Museen zu Berlin}}</ref><ref name="Stimmann2016">{{cite news|last1=Stimmann|first1=Hans|title=Einstürzende Altbauten|url=https://www.faz.net/aktuell/feuilleton/debatten/hans-stimmann-ueber-die-friedrichswerdersche-kirche-14154295.html?printPagedArticle=true#pageIndex_2|accessdate=8 July 2016|work=Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung|date=3 April 2016|language=German}}</ref><ref>{{cite web|title=Ab 2020: Schinkel in der Friedrichswerderschen Kirche - Stiftung Preußischer Kulturbesitz|periodical=|publisher=|url=http://www.preussischer-kulturbesitz.de/pressemitteilung/article/2019/10/11/pressemeldung-ab-2020-schinkel-in-der-friedrichswerderschen-kirche/|url-status=|format=|access-date=|archive-url=|archive-date=|last=|date=|year=|language=de|pages=|quote=}}</ref>
Датотека:Pc 150036 Nikolaikirche.jpg|[[St. Nicholas' Church, Potsdam|Potsdam Nikolaikirche]]<ref>Dietmar Beuchtel, Ursula Treichel: ''St. Nikolai in Potsdam''. DKV-Kunstführer. Vol. 424,9. [[Deutscher Kunstverlag]], Munich - Berlin 1999 (3rd ed.)</ref><ref>Gemeindekirchenrat der Ev. St. Nikolai-Kirchen-Gemeinde Potsdam (ed.): ''St. Nikolai Potsdam. 150 Jahre unter der Kuppel''. UNZE, Teltow 2000.</ref><ref>Kuratorium der Nikolaikirche (Hrg.): ''St. Nikolai Potsdam - ein Rückblick anläßlich der Wiedereinweihung 1981.'' Potsdam 1981, W. Kreutzmann, Leipzig 1989.</ref>
Датотека:Alexander Nevsky chapel, Peterhof, Schinkel.JPG|Alexander Nevsky chapel, [[Peterhof Palace|Peterhof]], Russia<ref>Adrian Room, [https://books.google.com/books?id=PzIer-wYbnQC&pg=PA282 "Petrodvorets"], ''Placenames of the world: origins and meanings of the names for over 5000 Natural Features, Countries, Capitals, Territories, Cities and Historic sites'' (1997)</ref><ref name=":0">{{Cite news|url=https://www.britannica.com/place/Peterhof|title=Peterhof {{!}} Russia|date=2015-06-09|work=Encyclopedia Britannica|access-date=2018-11-17|publisher=Encyclopædia Britannica, inc.|language=en}}</ref><ref>{{Cite web|url=http://www.saint-petersburg.com/famous-people/domenico-trezzini/|title=Biography of Domenico Trezzini, architect in St. Petersburg|website=www.saint-petersburg.com|access-date=2018-11-17}}</ref>
Датотека:Schloss Stolzenfels 01 Koblenz 2015.jpg|[[Stolzenfels Castle|Schloss Stolzenfels]]<ref>Pecht, A., ''Schloss Stolzenfels'' (German), Publisher: Burgen Schlösser Altertümer Rheinland-Pfalz, Landesamt für Denkmalpflege Rheinland-Pfalz, Schnell & Steiner, 2011, {{ISBN|978-3-7954-1974-5}}</ref>
Датотека:AltMuseum 1a.jpg | Берлински „Стари музеј“
Датотека:Berlin-wedding nazareth-kirche 20050415 453 part.jpg | Црква у берлинском кварту [[Вединг]]
Датотека:Schauspielhaus Berlin um 1825.jpg | Шинкелов „Концертхаус“ у Берлину
Датотека:Schinkel-tomb.JPG | Гроб Карла Фридриха Шинкела
</gallery></center>
 
== Референце ==
* Jörg Trempler: ''Schinkels Motive''. Matthes & Seitz. {{page1|publisher=|location=Berlin|year=2007|isbn=978-3-88221-866-4|pages=}}
* Christoph Werner: Schloss am Strom. Die Geschichte vom Leben und Sterben des Baumeisters Karl Friedrich Schinkel. Bertuch-Verlag, Weimar. {{page|year=2004|isbn=978-3-937601-11-3|pages=}}}-
* Christoph Werner: ''Castle by the River: The Life and Death of Karl Friedrich Schinkel, Painter and Master Builder: A Novel''. Tredition, Hamburg, 2020, {{ISBN|978-3-347-04274-2}}.
* Christoph von Wolzogen: ''Karl Friedrich Schinkel: Unter dem bestirnten Himmel''. Biographie. Edition Fichter, Frankfurt, 2016, {{ISBN|978-3-943856-33-0}}.
 
{{refend}}
== Галерија ==
<center><gallery>
Датотека:AltMuseum 1a.jpg | Берлински „Стари музеј“
Датотека:Berlin-wedding nazareth-kirche 20050415 453 part.jpg | Црква у берлинском кварту [[Вединг]]
Датотека:Schauspielhaus Berlin um 1825.jpg | Шинкелов „Концертхаус“ у Берлину
Датотека:Schinkel-tomb.JPG | Гроб Карла Фридриха Шинкела
</gallery></center>
 
== Спољашње везе ==
{{портал|Биографија}}
{{Commonscat|Karl Friedrich Schinkel}}
* [http://www.tc.umn.edu/~peikx001/rcessay.htm Karl Friedrich Schinkel]
* {{Cite EB1911|wstitle=Schinkel, Karl Friedrich}}
* {{cite web |last=Carter |first=Rand |title=Karl Friedrich Schinkel, The Last Great Architect |url=http://www.tc.umn.edu/~peikx001/rcessay.htm}} Prefatory essay from ''Collection of Architectural Designs including those designs which have been executed and objects whose execution was intended by Karl Friedrich Schinkel'' (Chicago: Exedra Books Incorporated, 1981). Also used as a reference.
 
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{{портал бар|Биографија}}
 
{{DEFAULTSORT:Шинкел, Карл Фридрих}}