Robert Vudro Vilson — разлика између измена

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{{Short description|Američki astronom (rođen 1936)}}
{{Infokutija biografija-lat
| titula_prefiks =
| ime = Robert Vudro Vilson
| prezimeime = Robert Vudro Vilson
| titula_sufiks =
| slika = Robert Wilson (28215880301) (cropped).jpg
| slika = Robert Wilson (28215880301) (cropped).jpg
| širina_slike = 250px
| širina_slike = 250px
| opis_slike = Robert Vudro Vilson 2016.
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| opis_slike = Robert Vudro Vilson 2016.
| dan_rođenja = 10.
| puno_ime =
| mesec_rođenja = januar
| ime_po_rođenju =
| godina_rođenja = 1936.
| ostala_imena =
| mesto_rođenja = [[Hjuston]] ([[Teksas]])
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| država_rođenja = [[Sjedinjene Američke Države|SAD]]
| datum_rođenja = {{birth date and age|1936|1|10}}
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| mesto_rođenja = [[Hjuston]] ([[Teksas]])
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| država_rođenja = [[Sjedinjene Američke Države|SAD]]
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| nagrade = [[Нобелова награда за физику|Nobelova nagrada za fiziku]] (1978)
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| prebivalište = SAD
| državljanstvo = SAD
| obrazovanje = [[Rice University|Rajs univerzitet]]<br />[[California Institute of Technology|Kalifornijski tehnološki institut]]
| alma_mater =
| zanimanje = Astronom
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| delovanje = [[Fizika]]
| radovi = [[Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation|Kosmičko pozadinsko zračenje]]
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| supružnik = {{marriage|Elizabet Roads Savin|1958}}
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| pozivni_znak =
| nagrade = [[Нобелова награда за физику|Nobelova nagrada za fiziku]] (1978)
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'''Robert Vudro Vilson''' ({{jez-engl-lat|Robert Woodrow Wilson}}; [[Hjuston]], [[10. januar]] [[1936]]) američki je [[astronomer|astronom]], [[Nobelova nagrada za fiziku|Nobelovac]] na polju fizike, koji je zajedno sa [[Arno Penzijas|Arnom Penzijasom]] otkrio 1964. godine [[Kosmičko pozadinsko zračenje|kosmičko pozadinsko zračenje]].<ref>{{Cite web|url=https://www.space.com/25945-cosmic-microwave-background-discovery-50th-anniversary.html|title=Cosmic Anniversary: 'Big Bang Echo' Discovered 50 Years Ago Today|last=May 2014|first=Mike Wall 20|website=Space.com|date=May 20, 2014|language=en|access-date=March 13, 2020}}</ref><ref>{{Cite web|url=https://www.nobelprize.org/prizes/physics/1978/summary/|title=The Nobel Prize in Physics 1978|website=NobelPrize.org|language=en-US|access-date=March 13, 2020}}</ref><ref>{{Cite web|url=https://www.mediatheque.lindau-nobel.org/laureates/wilson-2|title=Laureate - Robert W. Wilson|website=Lindau Nobel Mediatheque|language=en|access-date=2021-01-29}}</ref>
 
[[Датотека:Wilson penzias200.jpg|thumb|left|125px250px|Penzijas i Vilson pored antene]]
 
Dok su radili na novom [[Holmdel Horn Antenna|tipu antena]] u [[Белове лабораторије|Belovim laboratorijama]] u [[Њу Џерзи|Nju Džerziju]],<ref name="nrhpinv">{{cite web | url={{NHLS url|id=89002457}} | last=Butowsky | first=Harry | title=Holmdel Horn Antenna | work=National Register of Historic Places Inventory-Nomination | publisher=[[National Park Service]] | date=1989-05-01}}</ref><ref>[http://www.nps.gov/history/nhl/designations/Lists/NJ01.pdf NJ NHL list]</ref><ref name="nhlsum">{{cite web|url=http://tps.cr.nps.gov/nhl/detail.cfm?ResourceId=2082&ResourceType=Structure|title=Holmdel Horn Antenna|date=2008-06-23|work=National Historic Landmark summary listing|publisher=National Park Service|url-status=dead|archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20090225013531/http://tps.cr.nps.gov/nhl/detail.cfm?ResourceId=2082&ResourceType=Structure|archivedate=2009-02-25}}</ref> pronašli su šum koji nisu mogli da objasne.<ref>{{cite journal|last1=Penzias|first1 = A.A.|last2 = Wilson|first2=R.W.|title=A Measurement of Excess Antenna Temperature at 4080 Mc/s|journal=[[Astrophysical Journal]]|volume=142|pages=419–421|date=1965|doi=10.1086/148307|bibcode=1965ApJ...142..419P}}</ref><ref name="Penzias">{{cite journal | last1 = Penzias | first1 = A. A. | last2 = Wilson | first2 = R. W. | title = A Measurement of Excess Antenna Temperature at 4080 Mc/s | journal = Astrophysical Journal | volume = 142 | issue = | pages = 419–421 | publisher = [[American Astronomical Society]] | date = July 1965 | issn = | doi = 10.1086/148307 | id = | bibcode = 1965ApJ...142..419P}}</ref> Kada su odstranili sve potencijalne izvore, uključujući sletanje goluba na antenu, šum je konačno identifikovan kao [[Kosmičko pozadinsko zračenje|CMB]], koji je služio kao važna potvrda teorije [[Veliki prasak|Velikog praska]].
{{L|rut}}
In 1970, Wilson led a team that made the first detection of a rotational spectral line of carbon monoxide (CO) in an astronomical object, the [[Orion Nebula]], and eight other galactic sources.<ref>{{cite journal|last1=Wilson|first1 = R.W.|last2 = Jefferts|first2=K.B.|last3=Penzias|first3=A.A.|title=Carbon Monoxide in the Orion Nebula|journal=[[Astrophysical Journal]]|volume=161|pages=L43–L44|date=1970|doi=10.1086/180567|bibcode=1970ApJ...161..L43P}}</ref> Subsequently, [[Carbon_monoxide#Astronomy|CO observations]] became the standard method of tracing cool molecular interstellar gas,<ref>{{cite journal|author=Combes, Françoise|year=1991|title=Distribution of CO in the Milky Way|journal=Annual Review of Astronomy & Astrophysics|volume=29|pages=195–237|bibcode=1991ARA&A..29..195C|doi=10.1146/annurev.aa.29.090191.001211}}</ref><ref>{{cite journal|author=Hamed, M.|year=2021|title=Multiwavelength dissection of a massive heavily dust-obscured galaxy and its blue companion at z∼2|journal=Astronomy & Astrophysics|volume=646|pages=A127|bibcode=2021A&A...646A.127H|doi=10.1051/0004-6361/202039577|arxiv=2101.07724|s2cid=231639096}}</ref><ref name="LAT-20140308">{{cite news|last=Khan|first=Amina|title=Did two planets around nearby star collide? Toxic gas holds hints|work=[[Los Angeles Times]]|url=http://www.latimes.com/science/sciencenow/la-sci-sn-beta-pictoris-star-planet-gas-collision-comets-carbon-monoxide-20140307,0,1884709.story|access-date=March 9, 2014}}</ref><ref name="SCI-20140306">{{cite journal|vauthors=Dent, WR, Wyatt, MC, Roberge, A, Augereau, JC, Casassus, S, Corder, S, Greaves, JS, ((de Gregorio-Monsalvo, I)), Hales, A, Jackson, AP, Hughes, AM, Meredith A, Lagrange, AM, Matthews, B, Wilner, D|date=March 6, 2014|title=Molecular Gas Clumps from the Destruction of Icy Bodies in the β Pictoris Debris Disk|url=https://www.science.org/doi/abs/10.1126/science.1248726|journal=[[Science (journal)|Science]]|volume=343|issue=6178|pages=1490–1492|arxiv=1404.1380|bibcode=2014Sci...343.1490D|doi=10.1126/science.1248726|pmid=24603151|access-date=March 9, 2014|s2cid=206553853}}</ref> and detection of CO was the foundational event for the fields of millimeter and [[Submillimetre astronomy|submillimeter astronomy]].<ref name=ellesmere>{{cite web | url=http://almatelescope.ca/submmFuture-17feb2012/Presentations/Steinbring-Arctic.pdf | title=Recent Interest in Eureka on Ellesmere Island as a Submillimetre Observing Site | url-status=dead | archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20150703235656/http://almatelescope.ca/submmFuture-17feb2012/Presentations/Steinbring-Arctic.pdf | archive-date=2015-07-03 }}</ref><ref name=summit>{{cite web | url=http://www.asiaa.sinica.edu.tw/~hirashita/dust_group/JuanCarlos220811.pdf | title=ASIAA sub-mm VLBI Project}}</ref>
 
== Život i rad ==
Robert Vudro Vilson je rođen 10. januara 1936. u [[Hjuston]]u.<ref>{{Cite web|url=https://www.nobelprize.org/prizes/physics/1978/wilson/biographical/|title=The Nobel Prize in Physics 1978|website=NobelPrize.org|language=en-US|access-date=2021-01-29}}</ref><ref name="HISDAlumni">"[http://www.houstonisd.org/HISDConnectDS/v/index.jsp?vgnextoid=c3783acb02efc010VgnVCM10000052147fa6RCRD Distinguished HISD Alumni] {{webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20120206123543/http://www.houstonisd.org/HISDConnectDS/v/index.jsp?vgnextoid=c3783acb02efc010VgnVCM10000052147fa6RCRD |date=February 6, 2012 }}," ''[[Houston Independent School District]]''</ref> Maturirao je u školi u [[River Ouks (Teksas)|River Ouksu]] a studije nastavio na univerzitetu Rajs. Diplomirao je na [[Kalifornija|Kalifornijskom]] tehnološkom univerzitetu. Vilson i Penzijas su takođe osvojili Henri[Henry Draper Medal[|Henri Drejper]] medalju na [[United States National Academy of Sciences|Nacionalnoj akademiji nauka]] 1977.<ref name=Draper>{{cite web|title=Henry Draper Medal|url=http://www.nasonline.org/about-nas/awards/henry-draper-medal.html|publisher=[[National Academy of Sciences]]|access-date=February 24, 2011}}</ref> Wilson received the Golden Plate Award of the [[Academy of Achievement|American Academy of Achievement]] in 1987.<ref>{{cite web|title= Golden Plate Awardees of the American Academy of Achievement |website=www.achievement.org|publisher=[[American Academy of Achievement]]|url=https://achievement.org/our-history/golden-plate-awards/#science-exploration}}</ref>
 
Wilson remained at Bell Laboratories until 1994, when he was named a senior scientist at the [[Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics|Center for Astrophysics {{!}} Harvard & Smithsonian]] in Cambridge, Massachusetts.<ref>{{cite web |url=http://www.fofweb.com/History/MainPrintPage.asp?iPin=AS0290&DataType=AmericanHistory&WinType=Free |title=Facts on File History Database Center |access-date=April 2, 2014 |url-status=dead |archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20140407073319/http://www.fofweb.com/History/MainPrintPage.asp?iPin=AS0290&DataType=AmericanHistory&WinType=Free |archive-date=April 7, 2014 }}</ref>
 
Wilson has been a resident of [[Holmdel Township, New Jersey]].<ref>Nobel Lectures, Physics 1971–1980, Editor Stig Lundqvist, World Scientific Publishing Co., Singapore, 1992. {{Nobelprize|name=Autobiography}}. Accessed March 15, 2011. "We still live in the house in Holmdel which we bought when I first came to Bell Laboratories."</ref>
 
Wilson married Elizabeth Rhoads Sawin<ref>{{Cite web|url=https://www.nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/physics/laureates/1978/wilson-bio.html|title=Robert Woodrow Wilson - Biographical|website=www.nobelprize.org|access-date=June 7, 2016}}</ref> in 1958.<ref>{{Cite web|url=http://www.nndb.com/people/938/000099641/|title=Robert Woodrow Wilson|website=www.nndb.com|access-date=June 7, 2016}}</ref>
 
Wilson is one of the 20 American recipients of the Nobel Prize in Physics to sign a letter addressed to President [[George W. Bush]] in May 2008, urging him to "reverse the damage done to basic science research in the Fiscal Year 2008 Omnibus Appropriations Bill" by requesting additional emergency funding for the [[United States Department of Energy|Department of Energy]]'s [[Office of Science]], the [[National Science Foundation]], and the [[National Institute of Standards and Technology]].<ref>{{Cite web|title=A Letter from America's Physics Nobel Laureates|url=https://fire.pppl.gov/nobel_bush_fy08_050808.pdf}}</ref>
 
Wilson was elected to the [[American Philosophical Society]] in 2009.<ref>{{Cite web|title=APS Member History|url=https://search.amphilsoc.org/memhist/search?creator=Robert+W.+Wilson&title=&subject=&subdiv=&mem=&year=&year-max=&dead=&keyword=&smode=advanced|access-date=2021-04-23|website=search.amphilsoc.org}}</ref>
 
== Reference ==
{{reflist}}
 
== Literatura ==
{{refbegin|30em}}
* [https://web.archive.org/web/20120206123543/http://www.houstonisd.org/HISDConnectDS/v/index.jsp?vgnextoid=c3783acb02efc010VgnVCM10000052147fa6RCRD "Distinguished HISD Alumni]", [[Houston Independent School District]], Houston, Texas, 2008.
* Cite Video | BBC/WGBH BOSTON | NOVA #519 | A Whisper From Space | Copyright 1978 | Available With Permission | Consolidated Aircraft - Ronkonkoma, New York
* {{cite journal | last = Crawford | first = A.B. | authorlink = |author2=D. C. Hogg |author3=L. E. Hunt | title = Project Echo: A Horn-Reflector Antenna for Space Communication | journal = Bell System Technical Journal | volume = 40 | issue = 4 | pages = 1095–1099 | publisher = AT&T | location = USA | date = July 1961 | url = http://www3.alcatel-lucent.com/bstj/vol40-1961/articles/bstj40-4-1095.pdf | issn = | doi =10.1002/j.1538-7305.1961.tb01639.x}} on [http://www.alcatel-lucent.com/bstj/ Alcatel-Lucent website]
* Richard Learner, ''Astronomy Through the Telescope'' (New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold Company, 1981), p.&nbsp;154.
* A.B. Crawford, D. C. Hogg, and L. E. Hunt, "Project Echo: A Horn Antenna for Space Communication," ''Bell System Technical Journal'' (July 1961), pp. 1095–1099.
* Aaronson, Steve. "The Light of Creation: An Interview with Arno A. Penzias and Robert W. Wilson." ''Bell Laboratories Record''. January 1979, pp.&nbsp;12–18.
* Abell, George O. ''Exploration of the Universe''. 4th ed., Philadelphia: Saunders College Publishing, 1982.
* Asimov, Isaac. ''Asimov's Biographical Encyclopedia of Science and Technology''. 2nd ed., New York: Doubleday & Company, Inc., 1982.
* Bernstein, Jeremy. ''Three Degrees Above Zero: Bell Labs in the Information Age''. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1984.
* Chown, Marcus. "A Cosmic Relic in Three Degrees," ''New Scientist'', September 29, 1988, pp.&nbsp;51–55.
* Crawford, A.B., D.C. Hogg and L.E. Hunt. "Project Echo: A Horn-Reflector Antenna for Space Communication," ''The Bell System Technical Journal'', July 961, pp.&nbsp;1095–1099.
* Disney, Michael. ''The Hidden Universe''. New York: Macmillan Publishing Company, 1984.
* Ferris, Timothy. ''The Red Limit: The Search for the Edge of the Universe''. 2nd ed., New York: Quill Press, 1978.
* Friedman, Herbert. ''The Amazing Universe''. Washington, DC: National Geographic Society, 1975.
* Hey, J.S. ''The Evolution of Radio Astronomy''. New York: Neale Watson Academic Publications, Inc., 1973.
* Jastrow, Robert. ''God and the Astronomers''. New York : W. W. Norton & Company, Inc., 1978.
* [[H.T. Kirby-Smith]] ''U.S. Observatories: A Directory and Travel Guide''. New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold Company, 1976.
* Learner, Richard. ''Astronomy Through the Telescope''. New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold Company, 1981.
* Penzias, A.A., and R. W. Wilson. "A Measurement of the Flux Density of CAS A At 4080 Mc/s," ''Astrophysical Journal Letters'', May 1965, pp.&nbsp;1149–1154.
* {{cite journal|last1=Lellouch|first1=E.|last2=de Bergh|first2=C.|last3=Sicardy|first3=B.|last4=Ferron|first4=S.|last5=Käufl|first5=H.-U.|year=2010|title=Detection of CO in Triton's atmosphere and the nature of surface-atmosphere interactions|journal=Astronomy and Astrophysics|volume=512|pages=L8|arxiv=1003.2866|bibcode=2010A&A...512L...8L|doi=10.1051/0004-6361/201014339|issn=0004-6361|s2cid=58889896}}
* {{cite journal|last1=Greenberg|first1=J. Mayo|date=1998|title=Making a comet nucleus|journal=Astronomy and Astrophysics|volume=330|pages=375|bibcode=1998A&A...330..375G}}
* {{cite web|last=Yeomans|first=Donald K.|date=2005|title=Comets (World Book Online Reference Center 125580)|url=http://www.nasa.gov/worldbook/comet_worldbook.html|url-status=dead|archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20050429084558/http://www.nasa.gov/worldbook/comet_worldbook.html|archive-date=29 April 2005|access-date=18 August 2022|quote=About 80 percent of the ice is water ice, and frozen carbon monoxide makes up another 15 percent.|publisher=NASA|df=dmy-all}}
* {{cite journal|last1=Christopher Glein and Hunter Waite|date=May 11, 2018|title=Primordial N2 provides a cosmo chemical explanation for the existence of Sputnik Planitia, Pluto|journal=Icarus|volume=313|pages=79–92|arxiv=1805.09285|bibcode=2018Icar..313...79G|doi=10.1016/j.icarus.2018.05.007|s2cid=102343522}}
{{refend}}
 
== Spoljašnje veze ==
* [http://www.nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/physics/laureates/1978/wilson-bio.html Nobelova nagrada]
* [https://web.archive.org/web/20060828140646/http://alsos.wlu.edu/qsearch.aspx?browse=people%2FWilson%2C+Robert Biografija]
* {{Nobelprize}} including the Nobel Lecture, December 8, 1978 ''The Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation''
 
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{{Nobelova nagrada za fiziku-lat}}
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{{normativna kontrola-lat}}{{portal bar-lat|Astronomija|Fizika|Sjedinjene Američke Države}}
 
{{DEFAULTSORT:Вилсон, Роберт Вудро}}