''Main article: [[Историја СССРа]]''
The history of Russia between [] and [] is essentially the history of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics or [[Soviet Union]]. This ideologically-based union, established in December 1922 by the leaders of the Russian Communist Party, was roughly coterminous with the Russian Empire. At that time, the new nation included four constituent republics: the [[Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic|Russian SFSR]], the [[Ukrainian SSR]], [[Belarusian SSR]], and the [[Transcaucasian Soviet Federated Socialist Republic|Transcaucasian SFSR]].
The constitution, adopted in 1924, established a '''''federal'' system''' of government based on a succession of soviets set up in villages, factories, and cities in larger regions. This pyramid of soviets in each constituent republic culminated in the All-Union Congress of Soviets. But while it appeared that the congress exercised sovereign power, this body was actually governed by the Communist Party, which in turn was controlled by the [[Politburo of the CPSU Central Committee|Politburo]] from Moscow, the capital of the Soviet Union, just as it had been under the tsars before Peter the Great.