Шпијунажа је обавештајна делатност која се састоје од одавања или саопштавања прикупљених података који представљају војну, службену, привредну или индустријску тајну другој особи, ратној страни, држави или организацији. Подвргнута је међународном праву искључиво у области међународног хуманитарног права, а у мирнодопским условима спада под кривично право поједине државе.

Особа која се бави шпијунажом назива се шпијун или шпијунка,[1] а средства и начини којима они долазе до података су: праћење, тајно и неприметно прислушкивање разговора било да су то разговори телефоном, на интернету, тј. друштвеним мрежама или уживо на јавном месту разговор између две особе тако што се тихо ушуњају, сакрију се или преко врата или зида прислушкују, крађа писама, туђих податка, па тајно мотрење кретања, рада или неке друге активности посматране стране, достављање података, поверљивих тајних информација, одавање, потказивање или цинкарење итд.[2] Шпијуни су често полиглоте, говоре више од два или три страна језика, а неретко се у зависности од задатка прерушавају у нпр. жене, носећи перике, хаљине и шминку, носе одела, глуме да су нека друга особа, имају лажна документа, папире, пасош и личну карту. Труде се да не оставе никакве отиске прстију, да су им ђонови чисти од ципела, носе рукавице, да не пију ништа на јавном месту или догађају, не причају много, само ако им се неко обрати итд.[3][4]

Види јошУреди

РеференцеУреди

  1. ^ „Espionage”. MI5. 
  2. ^ Office of the Director of National Intelligence (2011-05-02). „TERMS & DEFINITIONS OF INTEREST FOR DoD COUNTERINTELLIGENCE PROFESSIONALS” (PDF). 
  3. ^ „USA v. Robert Philip Hanssen: Affidavit in Support of Criminal Complaint, Arrest Warrant and Search Warrant”. fas.org. Приступљено 19. март 2011. 
  4. ^ „Aldrich Ames Criminal Complaint”. jya.com. Архивирано из оригинала на датум 13. 5. 2011. Приступљено 19. март 2011. 

ЛитератураУреди

  • Johnson, John (1997). The Evolution of British Sigint, 1653–1939. London: HMSO. OCLC 52130886. 
  • Winkler, Jonathan Reed (јул 2009). „Information Warfare in World War I”. The Journal of Military History. 73 (3): 845—867. ISSN 1543-7795. doi:10.1353/jmh.0.0324. 
  • Aldrich, Richard J., and Christopher Andrew, eds. Secret Intelligence: A Reader (2nd ed. 2018); focus on the 21st century; reprints 30 essays by scholars. excerpt
  • Burnham, Frederick Russell, Taking Chances, 1944.
  • Felix, Christopher [pseudonym for James McCarger] „Intelligence Literature: Suggested Reading List”. US CIA. Приступљено 2. 9. 2012. [мртва веза] A Short Course in the Secret War, 4th Edition. Madison Books, November 19, 2001.
  • Friedman, George. America's Secret War: Inside the Hidden Worldwide Struggle Between the United States and Its Enemies 2005
  • Gopnik, Adam, "Spy vs. Spy vs. Spy: How valuable is espionage?", The New Yorker, 2 September 2019, pp. 53–59. "There seems to be a paranoid paradox of espionage: the better your intelligence, the dumber your conduct; the more you know, the less you anticipate.... Hard-won information is ignored or wildly misinterpreted.... [It] happens again and again [that] a seeming national advance in intelligence is squandered through cross-bred confusion, political rivalry, mutual bureaucratic suspicions, intergovernmental competition, and fear of the press (as well as leaks to the press), all seasoned with dashes of sexual jealousy and adulterous intrigue." (p. 54.)
  • Jeffreys-Jones, Rhodri. In Spies, We Trust: The Story of Western Intelligence (2013), covers U.S. and Britain
  • Jenkins, Peter. Surveillance Tradecraft: The Professional's Guide to Surveillance Training ISBN 978-0-9535378-2-2
  • Lerner, Brenda Wilmoth & K. Lee Lerner, eds. Terrorism: essential primary sources Thomas Gale 2006 ISBN 978-1-4144-0621-3
  • May, Ernest R. ed. Knowing One's Enemies: Intelligence Assessment Before the Two World Wars (1984).
  • O'Toole, George. Honorable Treachery: A History of U.S. Intelligence, Espionage, Covert Action from the American Revolution to the CIA 1991
  • Richelson, Jeffery T. The U.S. Intelligence Community (1999, fourth edition)
  • Smith Jr., W. Thomas. Encyclopedia of the Central Intelligence Agency (2003)
  • Andrew, Christopher. The Secret World: A History of Intelligence (2018) 940pp. covers ancient history to present; excerpt
  • Becket, Henry S. A. Dictionary of Espionage: Spookspeak into English (1986)' covers 2000 terms
  • Besik, Aladashvili. Fearless: A Fascinating Story of Secret Medieval Spies (2017) excerpt
  • Buranelli, Vincent, and Nan Buranelli. Spy Counterspy an Encyclopedia of Espionage (1982), 360pp
  • Burton, Bob. Dictionary of Espionage and Intelligence (2014) 800+ terms used in international and covert espionage
  • Dover, R., M.S. Goodman, and C. Hillebrand, eds. Routledge Companion to Intelligence Studies (2014).
  • Garthoff, Raymond L. "Foreign intelligence and the historiography of the Cold War." Journal of Cold War Studies 6.2 (2004): 21–56. abstract
  • Haslam,Jonathan and Karina Urbach, eds. Secret Intelligence in the European States System, 1918–1989 (2014) online covers USSR, Britain, France, East Germany and West Germany
  • Hughes-Wilson, John. The Secret State: A History of Intelligence and Espionage (2017) excerpt
  • Jeffreys-Jones Rhodri. In spies we trust: the story of Western intelligence (2015)-870190-3.
  • Kahn, David. The Codebreakers: The Comprehensive History of Secret Communication from Ancient Times to the Internet (2nd ed. 1996)
  • Keegan, John. Intelligence In War: Knowledge of the Enemy from Napoleon to Al-Qaeda (2003)
  • Knightley, Philip The Second Oldest Profession: Spies and Spying in the Twentieth Century (1986). online free to borrow
  • Lerner, K. Lee and Brenda Wilmoth Lerner, eds. Encyclopedia of Espionage, Intelligence and Security (3 vol. 2003) 1100 pages, 800 entries; emphasis 1990 to present
  • Owen, David. Hidden Secrets: A Complete History of Espionage and the Technology Used to Support It (2002)
  • Polmar, Norman, and Thomas Allen. Spy Book: The Encyclopedia of Espionage (2nd ed. 2004) 752pp 2000+ entries online freee to borrow
  • Richelson, Jeffery T. A Century of Spies: Intelligence in the Twentieth Century (1997) online
  • Trahair, Richard and Robert L. Miller. Encyclopedia of Cold War Espionage, Spies, and Secret Operations (2nd ed. 2004) 572pp; 300+ entries; online
  • Warner, Michael. The Rise and Fall of Intelligence: An International Security History (2014) excerpt
  • Woods, Brett F. Neutral Ground: A Political History of Espionage Fiction (2008) online

Први светски ратУреди

  • Andrew, Christopher. The Defence of the Realm: The Authorized History of MI5 (Allen Lane 2009) Section A
  • Boghardt, Thomas. Spies of the Kaiser: German Covert Operations in Great Britain during the First World War Era (2004).
  • Boghardt, Thomas. The Zimmermann telegram: intelligence, diplomacy, and America's entry into World War I (2012).
  • Dockrill, Michael. and David French, eds. Strategy and Intelligence: British Policy During the First World War (1996).
  • Debruyne, Emmanuel. "Espionage" In: Ute Daniel, et al. eds. 1914-1918-online: International Encyclopedia of the First World War online 22 page scholarly history full text
  • Finnegan, Terrance. "The Origins of Modern Intelligence, Surveillance, and Reconnaissance: Military Intelligence at the Front, 1914–18," Studies in Intelligence 53#4 (2009) pp. 25–40.
  • Foley, Robert T. "Easy Target or Invincible Enemy? German Intelligence Assessments of France Before the Great War." Journal of Intelligence History 5#2 (2005): 1–24.
  • Hiley, Nicholas. "Counter-espionage and Security in Great Britain during the First World War," English Historical Review 101#3 (1986) pp. 635–70
  • Hiley, Nicholas. "The Failure of British Counter-espionage against Germany, 1907–1914," Historical Journal 28#4 (1985) pp. 835–62.
  • Hiley, Nicholas. "Entering the Lists: MI5's Great Spy Round-up of August 1914." Intelligence and National Security 21#1 (2006) pp. 46–76.
  • Kahn, David. "Codebreaking in World Wars I and II: The Major Successes and Failures, Their Causes and Their Effects", Historical Journal 23#3 (1980) pp. 617–39.
  • Larsen, Daniel. "Intelligence in the First World War: The state of the field." Intelligence and National Security 29.2 (2014): 282–302, comprehensive overview
  • Larsen, Daniel. "British codebreaking and American diplomatic telegrams, 1914–1915." Intelligence and National Security 32.2 (2017): 256–263. The British read the American secrets from late 1915 online
  • May, Ernest R. ed. Knowing One's Enemy: Intelligence Assessment Before the two World Wars (1984)
  • Mount, Graeme. Canada's Enemies: Spies and Spying in the Peaceable Kingdom (1993) ch.3.
  • Pöhlmann, Markus. "German Intelligence at War, 1914–1918." Journal of Intelligence History 5.2 (2005): 25–54.
  • Seligmann, Matthew. Spies in Uniform: British Military and Naval Intelligence on the Eve of the First World War. (2006)
  • Spence, Richard B. "K.A. Jahnke and the German Sabotage Campaign in the United States and Mexico, 1914–1918," Historian 59#1 (1996) pp. 89–112.
  • Witcover, Jules. Sabotage at Black Tom: Imperial Germany's Secret War in America, 1914–1917 (1989).

Међуратни и Други светски рат, 1919–1945Уреди

  • Breuer, William B. The Secret War with Germany: Deception, Espionage, and Dirty Tricks, 1939–1945 (Presidio Press, 1988).
  • Chambers II, John Whiteclay. OSS Training in the National Parks and Service Abroad in World War II (NPS, 2008) online; chapters 1–2 and 8–11 provide a useful summary history of OSS by a scholar.
  • Crowdy, Terry. Deceiving Hitler: Double Cross and Deception in World War II (Osprey, 2008).
  • De Jong, Louis. The German Fifth Column in the Second World War (1953) covers activities in all major countries. online
  • Drea, Edward J. MacArthur's ULTRA: Codebreaking and the War against Japan, 1942–1945 (1992).
  • Farago, Ladislas. The game of the foxes: the untold story of German espionage in the United States and Great Britain during World War II (1971), popular.
  • Haufler, Hervie. Codebreakers' Victory: How the Allied Cryptographers Won World War II (2014).
  • Hinsley, F. H., et al. British Intelligence in the Second World War (6 vol. 1979).
    • Beesly, Patrick, et al. "What You Don't Know by What You Do Know." International History Review 5#2 (1983): 279–290. online review
  • Jackson, Peter, and Joseph Maiolo. "Strategic intelligence, Counter-Intelligence and Alliance Diplomacy in Anglo-French relations before the Second World War." Militärgeschichtliche Zeitschrift 65.2 (2006): 417–462. online in English
  • Jörgensen, Christer. Spying for the Fuhrer: Hitler's Espionage Machine (2014).
  • Kahn, David. "Codebreaking in World Wars I and II: The Major Successes and Failures, Their Causes and Their Effects", Historical Journal 23#3 (1980) pp. 617–39.
  • Lewin, Ronald. The American magic: codes, ciphers, and the defeat of Japan (1984).
  • Masterman, J. C. The Double-Cross System: The Incredible True Story of How Nazi Spies Were Turned into Double Agents (1972) excerpt
  • Mauch, Christof. The Shadow War Against Hitler: The Covert Operations of America's Wartime Secret Intelligence Service (2005), scholarly history of OSS.
  • May, Ernest R. ed. Knowing One's Enemy: Intelligence Assessment Before the two World Wars (1984)
  • Murray, Williamson, and Allan Reed Millett, eds. Calculations: net assessment and the coming of World War II (1992).
  • Paine, Lauran. German Military Intelligence in World War II: The Abwehr (1984).
  • Persico, Joseph E. Roosevelt's secret war: FDR and World War II espionage (2001)
  • Smith, Richard. OSS: The Secret History of America's First Central Intelligence Agency (U of California Press, 1972) online review
  • Sexton Jr., Donal J. Signals Intelligence in World War II: A Research Guide (1996) evaluates 800 primary and secondary sources online
  • Smith, Bradley F. The Shadow Warriors: OSS and the Origins of the CIA (1983) for U.S.A.
  • Special Operations Executive. How to be a Spy: The World War II SOE Training Manual (1943, 2001) How to become a British spy. online free
  • Stephan, Robert W. Stalin's secret war: Soviet counterintelligence against the Nazis, 1941–1945 (2004).

ФранцускаУреди

  • Alexander, Martin S. "Did the Deuxième Bureau work? The role of intelligence in French defence policy and strategy, 1919–39." Intelligence and National Security 6.2 (1991): 293–333.
  • Bauer, Deborah Susan. Marianne is Watching: Knowledge, Secrecy, Intelligence and the Origins of the French Surveillance State (1870–1914). (PhD Dissertation, UCLA, 2013.) Online Bibliography pp 536–59.
  • Deacon, Richard. The French Secret Service (1990).
  • Jackson, Peter. France and the Nazi Menace: Intelligence and Policy Making, 1933–1939 (2000).
  • Keiger, John. France and the World since 1870 (2001) ch 4: "French Intelligence" pp 80–109.
  • Porch, Douglas. The French Secret Services: A History of French Intelligence from the Dreyfus Affair to the Gulf War (2003). excerpt; also online review
  • Whitcomb, Edward A. "The Duties and Functions of Napoleon's External Agents." History 57.190 (1972): 189–204.

Енглеска и Велика БританијаУреди

  • Andrew, Christopher. The Defence of the Realm: The Authorized History of MI5 (2009).
  • Andrew, Christopher. Her Majesty's Secret Service: the making of the British intelligence community (1986) online free to borrow
  • Budiansky, Stephen. Her Majesty's Spymaster: Elizabeth I, Sir Francis Walsingham, and the Birth of Modern Espionage. (2005) online free to borrow
  • Fergusson, Thomas G. British military intelligence, 1870–1914: the development of a modern intelligence organization (1984) online free to borrow
  • Foot, M. R. D. SOE: the Special Operations Executive 1940–46 (1990) online free to borrow; British agents in Europe
  • Jeffreys-Jones, Rhodri. In Spies We Trust: The Story of Western Intelligence (2013), covers U.S. and Britain
  • Johnson, Robert. Spying for Empire: The Great Game in Central and South Asia, 1757–1947 (2006), Britain versus Russia.
  • Major, Patrick, and Christopher R. Moran, eds. Spooked: Britain, Empire and Intelligence since 1945 (2009). excerpt
  • Moran, Christopher R. "The pursuit of intelligence history: Methods, sources, and trajectories in the United Kingdom." Studies in Intelligence 55.2 (2011): 33–55. Historiography online
  • Thomas, Gordon. Secret wars: one hundred years of British intelligence inside MI5 and MI6 (2009) online free to borrow
  • Tuchman, Barbara W. The Zimmermann Telegram (1966) how Britain broke Germany's code in 1917
  • Walton, Calder. Empire of Secrets: British Intelligence in the Cold War and the Twilight of Empire (2014).
  • West, Nigel. MI6: British Secret Intelligence Service Operations 1909–1945 (1983).

Спољашње везеУреди