Zapadna filozofija

(преусмерено са History of Western philosophy)

Zapadna filozofija odnosi se na filozofsku misao i delo zapadnog sveta. Istorijski se termin odnosio na filozofsko razmišljanje zapadne kulture, počevši od grčke filozofije presokratovaca kao što su Tales (oko 624 - 546 pne) i Pitagora (oko 570 - 495 pne), i na kraju pokrivajući veliko područje sveta.[1][2] Sama reč filozofija potiče od starogrčke reči philosophía (φιλοσοφία), doslovno, „ljubav prema mudrosti” (φιλεῖν phileîn, „voleti” i σοφία sophía, „mudrost”).

Opseg filozofije u drevnom razumevanju, i spisi (bar nekih) drevnih filozofa bili su intelektualni poduhvati. To je uključivalo probleme filozofije onako kako se danas razume; ali je obuhvatilo i mnoge druge discipline, poput čiste matematike i prirodnih nauka, poput fizike, astronomije i biologije (na primer, Aristotel je pisao o svim tim temama).

Drevna filozofijaУреди

Presokratski periodУреди

 
Sokratova bista, rimska kopija po grčkom originalu iz 4. veka pne

U presokratskom periodu, drevni filozofi su prvi artikulisali pitanja o „archḗ” (uzroku ili prvom principu) univerzuma. Za zapadnu filozofiju se obično navodi da počinje u grčkim gradovima zapadne Male Azije, ili Jonije, s Talesom iz Mileta, koji je bio aktivan oko 585. godine pne i bio odgovoran za tamnu izreku, „sve je voda”. Njegovi najpoznatiji studenti bili su Anaksimandar („sve je apejron”, sa aproksimativnim značenjem „neograničeno”) i Anaksimen iz Mileta („sve je vazduh”).

Pitagora, sa ostrva Samos kraj obale Jonije, koji je kasnije je živeo u Krotonu, u južnoj Italiji (Magna Graecia). Pitagorejci smatraju da je „sve broj”, dajući formalne opise za razliku od prethodnog Jonijinog materijala. Oni takođe veruju u metempsihozu, transmigraciju duša ili reinkarnaciju.

Klasični periodУреди

SokratУреди

 
Jonija, izvor rane grčke filozofije, u zapadnom Maloj Aziji

Ključna figura grčke filozofije je Sokrat. Sokrat je studirao pod nekoliko sofista, ali je grčku filozofiju pretvorio u granu filozofije koja se i danas sledi. Kaže se da je posle posete proročnici od Delfija proveo veći deo svog života ispitujući svako u Atini ko bi stupio u kontakt s njim, da bi opovrgao proročnicino proročanstvo da neće biti mudrije čoveka od Sokrata.[3] Sokrat je koristio kritički pristup koji se naziva elenčus ili Sokratov metod da bi ispitao ljudske poglede. Želeo je da prouči ljudske stvari: dobar život, pravdu, lepotu i vrlinu. Iako Sokrat nije ništa napisao, neki od njegovih mnogih učenika zapisali su njegove razgovore. Grčka demokratija sudila mu je zbog korumpiranja mladih i bezbožnosti. Proglašen je krivim i osuđen na smrt. Iako njegovi prijatelji ponudili da mu pomognu da pobegne iz zatvora, on je odlučio da ostane u Atini i da se pridržava svojih principa. Njegovo pogubljenje sastojalo se u ispijanju otrovne kokute i umro je 399. godine pne.

PlatonУреди

Platon je bio Sokratov učenik. Platon je osnovao Atinsku akademiju i napisao je niz dijaloga u kojima je primenjen sokratski metod istraživanja za ispitivanje filozofskih problema. Neke centralne ideje Platonovih dijaloga su besmrtnost duše, korist od pravednosti, zlo neznanja i teorija formi. Forme su univerzalna svojstva koja sačinjavaju pravu stvarnost i u kontrastu su sa promenljivim materijalnim stvarima koje je on zvao „postajućim”.

AristotlУреди

 
Statua Aristotela u Aristotlovom parku, Stagira

Aristotel je bio učenik Platona. Aristotel je verovatno bio prvi zaista sistematski filozof i naučnik. Pisao je o fizici, biologiji, zoologiji, metafizici, estetici, poeziji, pozorištu, muzici, retorici, politici i logici. Aristotelovska logika bila je prva vrsta logike koja je pokušala da kategoriše svaki važeći silogizam. Aristotel je podučavao Aleksandra Velikog, koji je kasnije pokorio veći deo drevnog sveta. Helenizacija i aristotelovska filozofija imali su znatan uticaj na gotovo sve naredne filozofe zapada i Bliskog Istoka, uključujući helenističke, rimske, vizantijske, zapadnosrednjovekovne, jevrejske i islamske mislioce.

Helenistički periodУреди

Following Socrates a variety of schools of thought emerged. In addition to Plato's Academy and Aristotle's Peripatetic school, other schools of thought derived from Socratic philosophy included the Academic Skeptics, the Cynics, the Cyrenaics, the Stoics, and the Neoplatonists. In addition, two non-Socratic schools derived from the teachings of Socrates' contemporary Democritus flourished, Pyrrhonism and Epicureanism.

Rimski periodУреди

Rimska filozofija was heavily influenced by the traditions of Greek philosophy. Thorough study of Greek philosophy was first introduced by Cicero. In Imperial times Epicureanism and Stoicism were particularly popular, especially the latter, as represented by the works of Seneca the Younger and Marcus Aurelius.[4]

Vidi jošУреди

ReferenceУреди

  1. ^ Kenny, Anthony, A New History of Western Philosophy, chapter 1.
  2. ^ Gottlieb, Anthony, The Dream of Reason: A History of Western Philosophy from the Greeks to the Renaissance, 1st Edition, chapters 1 and 2.
  3. ^ West, Thomas G., and Platon. Plato's Apology of Socrates: an interpretation, with a new translation. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press. 1979.
  4. ^ Roman Philosophy (Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy)

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Spoljašnje vezeУреди