Kumarađiva ili Kumaradživa (Kumārajīva; tradicionalni kineski: 鳩摩羅什; pinjin: Jiūmóluóshí; takođe Chiu mo lo shih; 344 – 413)[1] je bio budistički monah, učitelj i prevodilac, jedan od velikih učitelja škole Srednjeg puta u Kini.[2]

Kumarajiva at Kizil Caves, Kuqa.jpg
Statua Kumarađive u Sinkjangu, Kina.
Datum rođenja344.
Mesto rođenjaKucha Kingdom (now Kuqa)
 Kina
Datum smrti413.
Mesto smrtiChang'an, (Later) Qin (now Xi'an)
 Kina
PrebivališteKina
DržavljanstvoKinesko
ZanimanjeBuddhist monk, scholar, translator, and philosopher
DelovanjeTranslation of Buddhist texts written in Sanskrit to Chinese, founder of the Sanlun school of Mahayana Buddhism

Indijski monasi, Kumarađiva i učitelj meditacije Buddhabhadra delali su u Kini početkom 5. veka i zajedno sa svojim učenicima u velikoj meri utrli put čan budizmu.[3] Kumārajīva is seen as one of the greatest translators of Chinese Buddhism. According to Lu Cheng, Kumarajiva's translations are "unparalleled either in terms of translation technique or degree of fidelity".[4]

Kumārajīva first studied teachings of the Sarvastivadin schools, later studied under Buddhasvāmin, and finally became an adherent of Mahayana Buddhism, studying the Mādhyamaka doctrine of Nāgārjuna. After mastering the Chinese language, Kumārajīva settled as a translator and scholar in Chang'an (c. 401 CE).[5] He was the head of a team of translators which included his amanuensis Sengrui.[6] This team was responsible for the translation of many Sanskrit Buddhist texts into Chinese.

Kumārajīva also introduced the Madhyamaka school of Buddhist philosophy into China which would later be called Sanlun (the "Three Treatise school").[7]

ŽivotУреди

 
Prajnaparamita sutra koju je Kumarađiva preveo na kineski.

Kumarađiva je bio Indijac, ali je rođen na području današnjeg Kineskog Turkestana.[2] Obrazovao se u Sarvastivada školama, potom kod Budhasvamina, da bi na kraju postao sledbenik mahajane i studirao Nagarđuninu školu Srednjeg puta.

Godine 401. je došao u Č'ang-an (današnji Sijan u pokrajini Šensi), prestonicu tadašnje severnokineske države Jin, gde je živeo do svoje smrti, 413. podine.[2]

Tokom tih trinaest godina on je preveo veliki broj budističkih tekstova sa sanskrita na kineski jezik.[2] Takođe je poučavao brojne učenike, od kojih su neki postali veoma uticajni.[2] Medu Kumarađivinim učenicima, najistaknutiji su Seng-čao, koji je povezao madjamika i taoističke tekstove, i Tao-šeng, koji je zastupao doktrinu iznenadnog probuđenja.[3]

Early lifeУреди

Kumārajīva's father Kumārāyana was from ancient India, probably from present-day Kashmir,[8][9][10] his father was an Indian prince, [11] the son of a high minister, whom the king of Kucha pressured to marry his younger sister and so his mother was a Kuchan princess and devout Buddhist who significantly influenced his early studies. His grandfather Ta-to is supposed to have had a great reputation. His father became a monk, left Kashmir, crossed the Pamir Mountains and arrived in Kucha, where he became the royal priest. The sister of the king, Jīva, also known as Jīvaka, married him and they produced Kumārajīva. Jīvaka joined the Tsio-li nunnery, north of Kucha, when Kumārajīva was just seven.[12]

As a young boy (beginning at the age of 9), Kumārajīva studied the Agamas and the Sarvastivada Abhidharma under masters in North India, Kashmir and Kucha, which were centers of Sarvastivada monasticism and scholarship.[13][14] He later converted to and studied Mahayana under the Kashmirian Buddhayaśas in Kashgar.[13] He received full monastic ordination at the age of 20 in Kucha and also studied the Sarvastivada Vinaya along with the Madhyamaka philosophy.[15] Over time he became a famous figure known for his broad learning and skill in debate.[13]

Capture, Imprisonment and ReleaseУреди

 
White Horse Pagoda, Dunhuang, commemorating Kumarajiva's white horse which carried the scriptures to China, c. 384 CE.

In 379 CE, Kumārajīva's fame reached China when a Chinese Buddhist monk named Seng Jun visited Kucha and described Kumārajīva's abilities. Efforts were then made by Emperor Fu Jian (苻堅) of the Former Qin Dynasty to bring Kumārajīva to the Qin capital of Chang'an.[16] To do this, his general Lü Guang was dispatched with an army in order to conquer Kucha and return with Kumārajīva. Fu Jian is recorded as telling his general, "Send me Kumārajīva as soon as you conquer Kucha."[17] However, when Fu Jian's main army at the capital was defeated, his general Lü Guang declared his own state and became a warlord in 386 CE, and had Kumārajīva captured when he was around 40 years old.[18] Being a non-Buddhist, Lü Guang had Kumārajīva imprisoned for many years, essentially as booty. During this time, it is thought that Kumārajīva became familiar with the Chinese language. Kumārajīva was also coerced by Lü into marrying the Kucha King's daughter, and so he was forced to give up his monk's vows.[19]

After the Yao family of Former Qin overthrew the previous ruler Fu Jian, the emperor Yao Xing made repeated pleas to the warlords of the Lü family to free Kumārajīva and send him east to Chang'an.[20] When the Lü family would not free Kumārajīva from their hostage, an exasperated Yao Xing had armies dispatched to Liangzhou in order to defeat the warlords of the Lü family and to have Kumārajīva brought back to them.[20] Finally the armies of Emperor Yao succeeded in defeating the Lü family, and Kumārajīva was brought east to the capital of Chang'an in 401 CE.[20]

Chang'an and Translation workУреди

 
Brief map of Han Chang'an painted in Qing dynasty

At Chang'an, Kumārajīva was introduced to the emperor Yao Xing, the court, and the Buddhist leaders. He became a famous and well respected in China, being given the title of "National Preceptor" (guoshi).[21][22] At Chang'an, Kumārajīva led a court sponsored translation team of scholars who worked on translating numerous Sanskrit Buddhist texts into the Chinese language.[7] Yao Xing looked upon him as his own teacher, and many young and old Chinese Buddhists flocked to him, learning both from his direct teachings and through his translation bureau activities at the Xiaoyao Gardens where daily sessions were held (attended by over a thousand monks).[21] Within a dozen years, Kumārajīva's translation bureau had translated about thirty five sutras in 294 scrolls. His translations are still in use today in Chinese Buddhism.[7] Kumarajiva had four main disciples who worked on his team: Daosheng (竺道生), Sengzhao (僧肇), Daorong (道融), and Sengrui (僧睿).

Naučni radУреди

 
Section of the Diamond Sutra, a handwritten copy by Zhang Jizhi, based on Kumarajiva's translation from Sanskrit to Chinese.

TranslationУреди

Kumārajīva revolutionized Chinese Buddhism, and his team's translation style is known for its clarity and for overcoming the previous "geyi" (concept-matching) system of translation which matched Buddhist terminology with Daoist and Confucian terms. Kumārajīva's readable translation style was distinctive, possessing a flowing smoothness that reflects his prioritization on conveying the meaning as opposed to precise literal rendering.[23] Because of this, his renderings of seminal Mahāyāna texts have often remained more popular than later, more literal translations, e.g. those of Xuanzang.[24]

Kumārajīva's translations were very influential on the development of Buddhist Chinese and they introduced much commonly used terminology, such as:[25][26]

  • 大乘 ''Dà chéng'', or "greater vehicle," for the Sanskrit term Mahāyāna
  • 念處 "niàn chǔ" for smṛtyupasthāna (placement of mindfulness)
  • 菩提 "pú tí" for Bodhi (awakening)
  • 性 "xìng" for dhatū (nature, source)

These translations were a group effort and therefore it is more accurate to say that they were translated by a committee which was guided by Kumārajīva, not by Kumārajīva alone. The process of translation began with the reading of the text by Kumārajīva who would also give a running commentary in Chinese. The Chinese monks and students would discuss the text with Kumārajīva and among themselves. A translation in Chinese would emerge from this process, which would be checked by Kumārajīva. The text was then written down and revised numerous times. These were also public events which were attended by devotees, including emperor Yao Xing.[27]

Vidi jošУреди

ReferenceУреди

  1. ^ Pollard 2015, стр. 287.
  2. ^ а б в г д Fung Ju-Lan, Istorija kineske filozofije ), NOLIT, Beograd. (1977). стр. 271-285.
  3. ^ а б Зен, Енциклопедија живих религија, Нолит. Београд: 2004. ISBN 978-86-19-02360-3.
  4. ^ Beeby Lonsdale, Allison; Ensinger, Doris; Presas, Marisa (2000). Investigating Translation: Selected Papers from the 4th International Congress on Translation, Barcelona, 1998, p. 48. John Benjamins Publishing.
  5. ^ Rahul, Ram (2000). March of Central Asia, p. 83. Indus Publishing.
  6. ^ Lai, Whalen (1991). "Tao Sheng's Theory of Sudden Enlightenment Re-examined". In Gregory, Peter N. Sudden and Gradual. Approaches to Enlightenment in Chinese Thought. Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass Publishers Private Limited. p. 180
  7. ^ а б в Mair, Victor H.; Sanping Chen, Wood, Frances (2013). Chinese Lives: The People Who Made a Civilization, #28, Kumarajiva. Thames & Hudson.
  8. ^ Singh 2009, стр. 523.
  9. ^ Chandra 1977, стр. 180.
  10. ^ Smith 1971, стр. 115.
  11. ^ Hansen, Valerie (2015). The Silk Road: A New History (на језику: енглески). Oxford University Press. стр. 66. ISBN 978-0-19-021842-3. 
  12. ^ Hansen, Valerie (2015). The Silk Road: A New History, p. 66. Oxford University Press.
  13. ^ а б в Zürcher 2007 p. 226.
  14. ^ Robinson, Richard H. 1967. Early Madhyamika in China and India, p. 71. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press.
  15. ^ Robinson, Richard H. 1967. Early Madhyamika in China and India, p. 73. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press.
  16. ^ Kumar 2005, стр. 107.
  17. ^ Duan, Wenjie. Dunhuang Art: Through the Eyes of Duan Wenjie. 1995. p. 94
  18. ^ Nan 1998, стр. 84.
  19. ^ Wu 1938, p. 455
  20. ^ а б в Kumar 2005, стр. 108.
  21. ^ а б Yukteshwar Kumar (2005). A History of Sino-Indian Relations: 1st Century A.D. to 7th Century A.D. : Movement of Peoples and Ideas Between India and China from Kasyapa Matanga to Yi Jing, p. 128. APH Publishing.
  22. ^ Thompson, John M. (2008) Understanding Prajñā: Sengzhao's "wild Words" and the Search for Wisdom, p. 76.
  23. ^ Nattier 1992, стр. 186.
  24. ^ Nattier 1992, стр. 188.
  25. ^ Eitel & Edkins 1871, стр. 217.
  26. ^ Robinson, Richard H. 1967. Early Madhyāmika in China and India, p. 79. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press.
  27. ^ Thompson, John M. (2008) Understanding Prajñā: Sengzhao's "wild Words" and the Search for Wisdom, p. 78.

LiteraturaУреди

Spoljašnje vezeУреди