Ramana Maharši /ˈrʌmənə ˈməhʌrʃi/ (30. decembar 1879 – 14. april 1950) bio je indijski mudrac[1] i jivanmukta (oslobođeno biće).[2] On je rođen kao Venkataraman Ijer, ali je poznatiji po imenu Bagavan Sri Ramana Maharši.[3][note 1]

Ramana Maharši
Sri Ramana Maharshi in his late 60s
Ramana Maharši in svojim kasnim 60-im
Puno imeRamana Maharshi
Ime po rođenjuVenkataraman Ijer
Druga imenaVenkataraman Iyer
Datum rođenja30 decembar 1879(1879-12-30)
Mjesto rođenjaTiručuzi, Virudunagar
 Indija
Datum smrti14. april 1950.(1950-04-14) (70 god.)
Mjesto smrtiSri Ramana Ašram, Tiruvanamalaj, Tamil Nadu
 Indija
PrebivališteIndija
Državljanstvoindijsko
Zanimanjefilozof

On je rođen je u sadašnjem Tiručuliju, Tamil Nadu, Indija. Godine 1895. u njemu se probudila privlačnost prema svetom brdu Arunačala i 63 Najanmara se probudilo u njemu,[4] a 1896. godine, u svojoj 16 godini, imao je „iskustvo smrti” kad je postao svestan „struje” ili „sile” (avesam) koju je prepoznao kao svoje istinsko „ja” ili „biće”,[web 1][5] i koju je kasnije identifikovao sa „lični Bog, ili Isvara”,[web 1] tj. Šiva. To je rezultiralo stanjem koje je kasnije opisao kao „stanje uma Isvare ili jnani”.[web 1][note 2] Šest nedelja kasnije napustio je kuću svog ujaka u Maduraju i putovao do svete planine Arunačala, u Tiruvannamalaj, gde je preuzeo ulogu sanjasina (iako nije formalno iniciran), i ostao je tu do kraja života.

Ubrzo je privukao bakte koji su ga smatrali avatarom i koji su dolazili kod njega za daršan („vid Božji”), a u kasnijim godinama oko njega je rastao ašram, gde su posetioci dobijali upadesa („duhovno poučavanje”)[7] putem tihog sedenja u njegovoj blizini postavljajući pitanja.[8] Od tridesetih godina prošlog veka njegovo učenje je popularizovano na Zapadu, što je rezultiralo svetskim priznanjem kao prosvetljenog bića.[9]

Ramana Maharši je odobrio brojne staze i prakse,[3] ali je preporučio samoispitivanje kao glavno sredstvo za uklanjanje neznanja i povinovanja samosvesti,[web 2][10] zajedno sa bakti (predanošću) ili predajom sebi.[web 2]

RadoviУреди

Književno deloУреди

  • Gambhiram Sheshayya, Vichāra Sangraham, "Self-Enquiry". Answers to questions, compiled in 1901, published in dialogue-form, republished as essay in 1939 as A Cathechism of Enquiry. Also published in 1944 in Heinrich Zimmer's Der Weg zum Selbst.[11]
  • Sivaprakasam Oillai, Nān Yār?, "Who am I?". Answers to questions, compiled in 1902, first published in 1923.[11][web 3]
  • Five Hymns to Arunachala:
    • Akshara Mana Malai, "The Marital Garland of Letters". In 1914, at the request of a devotee, Ramana wrote Akshara Mana Malai for his devotees to sing while on their rounds for alms. It's a hymn in praise of Shiva, manifest as the mountain Arunachala. The hymn consists of 108 stanzas composed in poetic Tamil.[web 4]
    • Navamani Mālai, "The Necklet of Nine Gems".
    • Arunāchala Patikam, "Eleven Verses to Sri Arunachala".
    • Arunāchala Ashtakam, "Eight Stanzas to Sri Arunachala".
    • Arunāchala Pañcharatna, "Five Stanzas to Sri Arunachala".
  • Sri Muruganar and Sri Ramana Maharshi, Upadesha Sāra (Upadesha Undiyar), "The Essence of Instruction". In 1927 Muruganar started a poem on the Gods, but asked Ramana to write thirty verses on upadesha, "teaching" or "instruction".[12]
  • Ramana Maharshi, Ulladu narpadu, "Forty Verses on Reality". Written in 1928.[13] First English translation and commentary by S.S. Cohen in 1931.
  • Ullada Nārpadu Anubandham, "Reality in Forty Verses: Supplement". Forty stanzas, fifteen of which are being written by Ramana. The other twenty-five are translations of various Sanskrit-texts.[14]
  • Sri Muruganar and Sri Ramana Maharshi (1930s), Ramana Puranam.[web 5]
  • Ekātma Pañchakam, "Five Verses on the Self". Written in 1947, at the request of a female devotee.[15]

Snimljeni razgovoriУреди

Several collections of recorded talks, in which Sri Ramana used Tamil, Telugu and Malayalam,[3] have been published. Those are based on written transcripts, which were "hurriedly written down in English by his official interpreters".[3][note 3]

SećanjaУреди

  • Frank Hamfris, britanski policajac stationiran u Indiji, posetio je Ramana Maharšija 1911. godine i pisao je članke o njemu, koji su bili prvo objavljeni u časopisu The International Psychic Gazette 1913. godine.[16][note 4]
  • Paul Brunton (1935), A Search in Secret India. This book introduced Ramana Maharshi to a western audience.[17]
  • Cohen, S.S. (2003). Guru Ramana. Sri Ramanashram.  First published 1956.
  • Chadwick, Major A. W. (1961). A Sadhu's Reminiscences of Ramana Maharshi (PDF). Sri Ramanashram. 
  • Nagamma, Suri (1973). Letters from Ramanasram by Suri Nagamma. Tiruvannamalai: Sriramanasasram. 
  • Kunjuswami, Living with the Master. Recordings of Kunjuswami's experiences with Ramana Maharshi from 1920 on.[web 7] ISBN 81-88018-99-6
  • G. V. Subbaramayya, Sri Ramana Reminiscences. "The account covers the years between 1933 and 1950".[web 8]

Dokumentarni filmoviУреди

NapomeneУреди

  1. ^ Bagavan znači Bog, Sri je počasna titula, Ramana je kratka forma imena Venkataraman, i Maharši znači 'veliki vidovnjak' u sanskritu. To ime mu je dao 1907. jedan od njegovih prvih posvećenika, Ganapati Muni.
  2. ^ Hajnrih Cimer koristi izraz „intuicija prosvetljenih”. Ramana, kako je citirao Cimer: „Kada sam kasnije u Tiruvanamalaju slušao kako se čita Ribu Gita i takvi sveti tekstovi, shvatio sam te stvari i otkrio da su te knjige nazvale i analizirale, ono što sam pre toga nehotice osetio, a da nisam bio u mogućnosti da to imenujem ili analiziram. U jeziku ovih knjiga mogao bih označiti stanje u kome sam našao sebe nakon buđenja kao 'očišćeno razumevanje' (šudam manas) ili „Uvid” (Vijnana): kao intuicija prosvetljenih”.[6]
  3. ^ David Godman: "Because some of the interpreters were not completely fluent in English some of the transcriptions were either ungrammatical or written in a kind of stilted English which occasionally makes Sri Ramana sound like a pompous Victorian."[3]
  4. ^ See Frank H. Humphreys, Glimpses of the Life and Teachings of Bhagavan Sri Ramana Maharshi for Humphreys writings on Ramana Maharshi.
  1. 1,0 1,1 1,2 David godman (7 May 2008), Bhagavan's death experience, The Mountain Path, 1981, pp. 67–69
  2. 2,0 2,1 David Godman, The unity of surrender and Self-enquiry
  3. ^ Who am I? – pdf
  4. ^ Self Inquiry (19. 6. 2012). „Sri Ramana Maharshi's Aksharamanamalai.m4v”. YouTube. Приступљено 4. 8. 2012. 
  5. ^ Ramana Puranam
  6. ^ Society of Abidance in Truth, Origin of Spiritual Instruction
  7. ^ „Veda Yoga Books, Living with the Master. Архивирано из оригинала на датум 04. 03. 2016. Приступљено 11. 11. 2019. 
  8. ^ „sriramanamaharshi.org, Sri Ramana Reminiscences. Архивирано из оригинала на датум 04. 03. 2016. Приступљено 11. 11. 2019. 

ReferenceУреди

  1. ^ Sharma 2006.
  2. ^ Fort 1998, стр. 134-151.
  3. 3,0 3,1 3,2 3,3 3,4 Godman 1985.
  4. ^ Osborne 2002, стр. 5-6.
  5. ^ Godman 1985, стр. 4.
  6. ^ Zimmer 1948, стр. 23.
  7. ^ Osborne 1959.
  8. ^ Godman 1985, стр. 5.
  9. ^ Lucas 2011.
  10. ^ Zimmer 1948.
  11. 11,0 11,1 Renard 1999, стр. 19-20.
  12. ^ Renard 1999, стр. 24.
  13. ^ Renard 1999, стр. 25.
  14. ^ Renard 1999, стр. 26.
  15. ^ Renard 1999, стр. 27.
  16. ^ Osborne 2002, стр. 106, 111.
  17. ^ Ebert 2006, стр. 140.

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Spoljašnje vezeУреди