Područje rasprostiranja naroda Sjungnu (zeleno) oko 250. pne koje uključuje područja kao što su: Mongolija, Zapadna Mandžurija, Tarimska zavala, istočni Kazahstan, istočni Kirgistan, te kineske pokrajine Unutrašnja Mongolija i Gansu

Sjungnu (кинески: 匈奴; Вејд-Џајлс: Hsiung-nu naziv je za konfederaciju nomadskih plemena Središnje Azije,[1] na čijem je čelu bila vladajuća klasa nepoznatog podrekla. Većina informacija o Sjungnima dolazi iz kineskih izvora, pa su imena i titule poznata isključivo po kineskim transliteracijama.

Identitet i podreklo vladajuće klase Sjungnua je zbog malog broja sačuvanih imena, titula i reči, predmet brojnih i različitih hipoteza među istoričarima. Kao mogući preci, odnosno srodnici Sjungnua se spominju razni iranski, mongolski, turkijski i jenisejski narodi[2][3] Prilično je popularna hipoteza kojoj su Sjungnu zapravo Huni, iako za to nema čvrstih dokaza.[3][4]

Kineski izvori iz 3. veka pne navode kako su Sjungnu stvorili carstvo pod Modu Čanjuom (koji je postao njihov vrhovni vođa 209. pne)[5] a koje se prostiralo preko granica današnje Mongolije. U drugom veku pne porazili su i u progonstvo najerali dotada dominantni narod Juedži, te postali gospodarima stepa na severu današnje Kine. Takođe su bili aktivni u južnom Sibiru, zapadnoj Mandžuriji i savremenim kineskim pokrajinama Unutrašnja Mongolija, Gansu i Sinkjang. Ta nomadska plemena su se smatrala toliko moćnim da je dinastija Ćin otpočela izgradnju Velikog zida kako bi zaštitila Kinu od njihovih napadaja. Odnosi Sjungnua i ranih kineskih dinastija su bili složeni, od čestih vojnih sukoba i intriga, preko složenih sistema plaćanja danka, trgovine i bračnih saveza.

ReferenceУреди

  1. ^ „Xiongnu People”. britannica.com. Encyclopædia Britannica. Приступљено 25. 7. 2015. 
  2. ^ Adas 2001: 88
  3. 3,0 3,1 Beckwith 2009: 404-405, nn. 51-52.
  4. ^ Vaissière 2006
  5. ^ di Cosmo 2004: 186

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Spoljašnje vezeУреди