Отворите главни мени

Промене

32.317 бајтова додато ,  пре 2 године
.
{{bez_izvora}}
{{Taxobox
| name = -{Plantae}-Биљке
<!--| fossil_range = {{long fossil range|Мезопротерозоик|садашњост}}-->
| fossil_range = средњи [[Ордовицијум]] - данас
| fossil_range = {{long fossil range|Mesoproterozoic|present}}
| image = Urueña almendro1 lou.jpg
| image = Diversity of plants image version 5.png
| image_width = 250п
| image_caption =
| domain = [[еукариоте|-{Eukaryota}-]]
| regnumdomain = '''-{Plantae[[Eukaryota]]}-'''
| unranked_regnum = -{[[Archaeplastida]]}-
| regnum_authority = [[Ернст Хекел|-{Haeckel}-]], 1866
| regnum = -{'''Plantae'''}-
| subdivision_ranks = раздели
| regnum_authority = -{''sensu'' Copeland, 1956}-
| subdivision =
| subdivision_ranks = Подела
* '''[[Зелене алге]]'''
| subdivision =
** -{[[Chlorophyta]]}-
* -{[[extinction|†]]'''[[Nematophytes]]'''}-
* -{'''[[Chlorophyta]]'''}-
** -{[[Palmophyllales]]}-
** -{[[Prasinophyceae]]}-
** -{[[Nephroselmidophyceae]]}-
** -{[[Pseudoscourfieldiales]]}-
** -{[[Pyramimonadophyceae]]}-
** -{[[Mamiellophyceae]]}-
** -{[[Scourfieldiales]]}-
** -{[[Pedinophyceae]]}-
** -{[[Chlorodendrophyceae]]}-
** -{[[Trebouxiophyceae]]}-
** -{[[Ulvophyceae]]}-
** -{[[Chlorophyceae]]}-
*-{'''[[Streptophyta]]''' s.l.}-
** -{[[Chlorokybophyceae|Chlorokybophyta]]}-
** -{[[Mesostigmatophyceae|Mesostigmatophyta]]}-
** -{[[Klebsormidiophyceae|Klebsormidiophyta]]}-
** -{[[Charophyta]]}-
** -{[[Chaetosphaeridiales]]}-
* '''[[Копнене биљке|-{Embryophyta}-]]'''
** -{[[AnthocerotophytaColeochaetophyceae|Coleochaetophyta]]}-
** -{[[MarchantiophytaZygnematophyceae|Zygnematophyta]]}-
** -{[[Embryophyta]]}- (копнене биљке)
** [[Маховине]] (-{Bryophyta}-)
| synonyms=
** '''-{[[Tracheophyta]]}- (васкуларне или више биљке)'''
* -{[[Viridiplantae]] <small>Cavalier-Smith 1981</small>}-<ref name=CavalierSmith1981>{{cite journal |first=T. |last=Cavalier-Smith|date=1981|title=Eukaryote kingdoms: Seven or nine?|journal=BioSystems|volume=14|issue=3–4|pages=461–481|doi=10.1016/0303-2647(81)90050-2|pmid=7337818}}</ref>
*** †-{[[Rhyniophyta]]}-
* -{Chlorobionta <small>Jeffrey 1982, emend. Bremer 1985, emend. Lewis and McCourt 2004</small>}-<ref name=LewisMcCourt>{{cite journal|last1=Lewis|first1=L.A.|first2=R.M.|last2=McCourt|date=2004|title=Green algae and the origin of land plants|journal=American Journal of Botany|volume=91|pages=1535–1556|doi=10.3732/ajb.91.10.1535|pmid=21652308}}</ref>
*** †-{[[Zosterophyllophyta]]}-
* -{Chlorobiota <small>Kenrick and Crane 1997</small>}-<ref name=KenrickCrane1997>{{cite book |last1=Kenrick|first1=Paul|last2=Crane|first2=Peter R.|date=1997|title=The origin and early diversification of land plants: A cladistic study|location=Washington, D. C.|publisher=Smithsonian Institution Press|isbn=1-56098-730-8}}</ref>
*** [[Пречице|-{Lycopodiophyta}-]]
* -{Chloroplastida <small>Adl et al., 2005 </small>}-<ref name=Adl>{{cite journal|author=Adl, S.M.| date=2005|title=The new higher level classification of eukaryotes with emphasis on the taxonomy of protists|journal=Journal of Eukaryote Microbiology|volume= 52|pages=399–451|doi=10.1111/j.1550-7408.2005.00053.x |display-authors=etal|pmid=16248873}}</ref>
*** †-{[[Trimerophytophyta]]}-
* -{Phyta Barkley 1939 emed. Holt & Uidica 2007}-
*** [[equisetophyta|-{Equisetophyta}-]]
* -{Cormophyta Endlicher, 1836}-
*** [[Папрати|-{Pteridophyta}-]]
* -{Cormobionta Rothmaler, 1948}-
*** -{[[Psilotophyta]]}-
* -{Euplanta Barkley, 1949}-
*** -{[[Ophioglossophyta]]}-
* -{Telomobionta Takhtajan, 1964}-
*** '''''-{[[Spermatophyta]]}- (биљке са семеном, семенице)'''''
* -{Embryobionta Cronquist et al., 1966}-
**** †[[Семене папрати|-{Pteridospermatophyta}-]]
* -{Metaphyta Whittaker, 1969}-
**** [[Голосеменице|-{Pinophyta}-]]
**** -{[[Cycadophyta]]}-
**** -{[[Ginkgoaceae|Ginkgophyta]]}-
**** -{[[Gnetophyta]]}-
**** [[Скривеносеменице|-{Magnoliophyta}-]]
}}
'''Биљке''' су углавном [[мултићелијски организам|мултићелијске]], предоминантно [[фотосинтеза|фотосинтетички]] [[еукариоте]] из [[Царство (биологија)|царства]] -{''Plantae''}-.
'''Биљке''' су [[организам|организми]] које карактерише примарно присуство [[пигмент]]а [[хлорофил]]а (неке биљке су га секундарно изгубиле). Захваљујући присуству хлорофила, биљке су у могућности да у процесу [[фотосинтеза|фотосинтезе]] електромагнетну [[енергија|енергију]] сунчевог зрачења преведу у енергију хемијских веза органских молекула (тј., биљке су фотосинтетски организми). Оваква трансформација енергије олакшава везивање неорганског [[угљен-диоксид|угљеник(IV)-оксида]] у [[органска једињења]] - [[угљени хидрат|угљене хидрате]], који представљају основну [[храна|храну]] организама (тј, биљке су аутотрофни организми). Могуће је, дакле, биљке дефинисати и као '''фотоаутотрофне организме'''.
 
Овај термин је данас генерално ограничен на '''зелене биљке''', које формирају нерангирани [[кладус]] -{''[[Viridiplantae]]''}- (латински за „зелене биљке“). Њиме су обухваћене [[Скривеносеменице|цветајуће биљке]], [[четинари]] и друге [[голосеменице]], [[папрат]]и, -{''[[Lycopodiopsida]]''}-, -{''[[Anthocerotophyta]]''}-, -{''[[Hepaticae]]''}-, [[маховина|маховине]] и [[зелене алге]], а нису обухваћене [[Rhodophyta|црвене]] и [[Phaeophyceae|смеђе]] алге. Историјски, биљке су формирале једно од два царства која су покривала сва жива бића која нису [[животиња|животиње]], и [[алге]] и [[гљиве]] су третиране као биљке; међутим све садашње дефиниције биљки искључују гљиве и неке алги, као и [[прокариоте]] ([[археје]] и [[бактерије]]).
Биљкама су најпре сматрани сви познати, а непокретни организми (укључујући и [[гљиве]] и [[лишај|лишајеве]]), а са открићем [[Mikroorganizam|микроорганизама]] у биљке су сврстане и [[бактерија|бактерије]], [[вирус]]и, једноћелијске [[алге]]. Зелена боја није таксономски карактер за разликовање биљака од осталих организама - постоје и животиње зелене боје (нпр. [[сунђери]], који су притом и сесилни), а исто тако постоје и биљни организми других боја, или безбојни.
Основним карактеристикама биљака сматране су непокретност, присуство [[ћелијски зид|ћелијског зида]] и могућност аутотрофије.
 
Зелена боја није таксономски карактер за разликовање биљака од осталих организама - постоје и животиње зелене боје (нпр. [[Сунђери]], који су притом и сесилни), а исто тако постоје и биљни организми других боја, или безбојни.
Са развојем биологије, полако се одустаје од овако широког схватања појма биљка.
Основним карактеристикама биљака сматране су непокретност, присуство [[ћелијски зид|ћелијског зида]] и могућност аутотрофије. Са развојем биологије, полако се одустаје од овако широког схватања појма биљка. Под зеленим биљкама подразумевамо монофилетску групу биљака са хлорофилима а и б, у оквиру које можемо издвојити две велике скупине:
примарно водену групу [[Зелене алге|зелених алги]], и из њих еволуиралу групу [[Копнене биљке|копнених биљака]].
 
Зелене биљке имају [[ћелијски зид|ћелијске зидове]] који садрже [[целулоза|целулозу]] и добијају веће део своје енергије од [[Сунце|сунчеве светлости]] путем [[фотосинтеза|фотосинтезе]] у примарним [[хлоропласт]]има, изведеним путем [[Ендосимбиотска теорија|ендосимбиозе]] са [[цијанобактерија]]ма. Њигови хлоропласти садрже [[хлорофил]]е а и б, који им дају зелену боју. Неке биљке су [[Паразитске биљке|паразитске]] и стога су изгубиле способност да производе нормалне количине хлорофила или да врше фотосинтезу. Оваква трансформација енергије олакшава везивање неорганског [[угљен-диоксид|угљеник(IV)-оксида]] у [[органска једињења]] - [[угљени хидрат|угљене хидрате]], који представљају основну [[храна|храну]] организама (тј, биљке су аутотрофни организми). Могуће је, дакле, биљке дефинисати и као фотоаутотрофне организме. За биљке је карактеристична [[сексуална репродукција]] и [[измена генерација]], мада је [[Bespolno razmnožavanje|асексуална репродукција]] такође распрострањена.
Под зеленим биљкама подразумевамо монофилетску групу биљака са хлорофилима а и б, у оквиру које можемо издвојити две велике скупине -
# примарно водену групу [[Зелене алге|зелених алги]], и
# из њих еволуиралу групу [[Копнене биљке|копнених биљака]].
 
Постоји око 300–315 хиљада [[врста]] биљки, од којих велика већина, неких 260–290 хиљада, су [[семењаче]] (погледајте [[#Разноврсност|табелу испод]]).<ref name="IUCNdata">{{cite web |title= Numbers of threatened species by major groups of organisms (1996–2010) |publisher= International Union for Conservation of Nature |date= 11. 3. 2010 |url= http://www.iucnredlist.org/documents/summarystatistics/2010_1RL_Stats_Table_1.pdf |format= PDF }}</ref> Зелене биљке производе највећи део светског молекуларног кисеоника<ref name=behrenfeld>{{cite journal | last=Field | first=C.B. |author2=Behrenfeld, M.J. |author3=Randerson, J.T. |author4=Falkowski, P. | year=1998 | title=Primary production of the biosphere: Integrating terrestrial and oceanic components | journal=[[Science (journal)|Science]] | volume=281 | pages=237–240 | doi=10.1126/science.281.5374.237 | pmid=9657713 | issue=5374 |bibcode = 1998Sci...281..237F }}</ref> и основа су највећег дела Зељине екологије, посебно на копну. Биљке производе [[житарице]], [[воће]] и [[поврће]] који су основна храна човечанства, и биле су [[доместикација|доместиковане]] миленијумима. Биљке изграју [[Биљке у култури|мноштво улога у култури]]. Оне се користе као орнаменти и до недавно су на мноштво начина служиле коа извор највећег дела [[лек]]ова. Наука која изучава биљке се зове [[ботаника]], и грана је [[Биологија|биологије]].
 
== Дефиниција ==
{{рут}}
Биљке су једна од две групе у које су сва жива бића до недавно дељена; друга група су животиње. Ова подела датира још из времена [[Аристотел]]а (384&nbsp;BC – 322&nbsp;BC), who distinguished between plants, which generally do not move, and animals, which often are mobile to catch their food. Much later, when [[Carolus Linnaeus|Linnaeus]] (1707–1778) created the basis of the modern system of [[scientific classification]], these two groups became the [[kingdom (biology)|kingdoms]] Vegetabilia (later Metaphyta or Plantae) and [[Animalia]] (also called Metazoa). Since then, it has become clear that the plant kingdom as originally defined included several unrelated groups, and the [[fungus|fungi]] and several groups of [[algae]] were removed to new kingdoms. However, these organisms are still often considered plants, particularly in popular contexts.
 
Outside of formal scientific contexts, the term "plant" implies an association with certain traits, such as being multicellular, possessing [[cellulose]], and having the ability to carry out photosynthesis.<ref name="urlplant[2] – Definition from the Merriam-Webster Online Dictionary">{{cite web |url=http://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/plant%5B2%5D |title=plant[2] – Definition from the Merriam-Webster Online Dictionary |work= |accessdate=2009-03-25}}</ref><ref name="urlplant (life form) -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia">{{cite web |url=http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/463192/plant |title=plant (life form) -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia |work= |accessdate=2009-03-25}}</ref>
 
=== Садашње дефиниције царства -{''Plantae''}-{{anchor|Current definitions of Plantae}} ===
[[Датотека:Spermatophyta.png|мини|центар|400п|Најважније групе васкуларних биљака]]
 
When the name Plantae or plant is applied to a specific group of organisms or [[taxon]], it usually refers to one of four concepts. From least to most inclusive, these four groupings are:
{| class="wikitable"
|-
! Име(на)
! Поље
! Опис
|-
| [[Embryophyte|Копнене биљке]], такође познате као -{''Embryophyta''}-
| -{''Plantae''}- ''[[Glossary of botanical terms#sensu strictissimo|sensu strictissimo]]''
| '''Plants in the strictest sense''' include the [[liverworts]], [[hornworts]], [[mosses]], and [[vascular plant]]s, as well as fossil plants similar to these surviving groups (e.g., Metaphyta <small>Whittaker, 1969</small>,<ref name="ib.usp.br">{{cite journal | last1 = Whittaker | first1 = R. H. | year = 1969 | title = New concepts of kingdoms or organisms | url = http://www.ib.usp.br/inter/0410113/downloads/Whittaker_1969.pdf | format = PDF | journal = Science | volume = 163 | issue = 3863| pages = 150–160 | doi=10.1126/science.163.3863.150 | pmid=5762760}}</ref> Plantae <small>[[Lynn Margulis|Margulis]], 1971</small><ref>{{cite journal | last1 = Margulis | first1 = L | year = 1971 | title = Whittaker's five kingdoms of organisms: minor revisions suggested by considerations of the origin of mitosis | url = | journal = Evolution | volume = 25 | issue = | pages = 242–245 | doi=10.2307/2406516}}</ref>).
|-
| '''Green plants''', also known as '''[[Viridiplantae]]''', '''Viridiphyta''' or '''Chlorobionta'''
| Plantae ''[[Glossary of botanical terms#sensu stricto|sensu stricto]]''
| '''Plants in a strict sense''' include the [[green algae]], and land plants that emerged within them, including [[stonewort]]s. The names given to these groups vary considerably {{as of|2011|July|lc=yes}}. Viridiplantae encompass a group of organisms that have [[cellulose]] in their [[cell wall]]s, possess [[chlorophyll]]s ''a'' and ''b'' and have [[plastid]]s that are bound by only two membranes that are capable of storing starch. It is this [[clade]] that is mainly the subject of this article (e.g., Plantae <small>[[Herbert Copeland|Copeland]], 1956</small><ref>Copeland, H. F. (1956). The Classification of Lower Organisms. Palo Alto: Pacific Books, p. 6, [https://archive.org/details/classificationof00cope].</ref>).
|-
| [[Archaeplastida]], also known as Plastida or Primoplantae
| Plantae ''[[Glossary of botanical terms#sensu lato|sensu lato]]''
| '''Plants in a broad sense''' comprise the green plants listed above plus [[Rhodophyta]] (red algae) and [[Glaucophyta]] (glaucophyte algae). This clade includes the organisms that eons ago acquired their [[chloroplast]]s directly by engulfing [[cyanobacteria]] (e.g., Plantae <small>Cavalier-Smith, 1981</small><ref>{{cite journal | last1 = Cavalier-Smith | first1 = T. | year = 1981 | title = Eukaryote Kingdoms: Seven or Nine?". | url = | journal = BioSystems | volume = 14 | issue = 3–4| pages = 461–481 | doi=10.1016/0303-2647(81)90050-2 | pmid=7337818}}</ref>).
|-
| [[List of systems of plant taxonomy|Old definitions of plant]] (obsolete)
| Plantae ''[[Glossary of botanical terms#sensu amplo|sensu amplo]]''
| '''Plants in an ample sense''' refers to older, obsolete classifications that placed diverse algae, fungi or bacteria in Plantae (e.g., Plantae or Vegetabilia <small>Linnaeus</small>,<ref>Linnaeus, C. (1751). ''[https://books.google.com/books?id=D18OAAAAQAAJ&pg=PA37 Philosophia botanica]'', 1st ed., p. 37.</ref> Plantae <small>Haeckel 1866</small>,<ref>{{cite book |author= Haeckel, E. |year= 1866 |title= Generale Morphologie der Organismen |publisher= Verlag von Georg Reimer |location= Berlin |pages= vol.1: i–xxxii, 1–574, pls I–II; vol. 2: i–clx, 1–462, pls I–VIII}}</ref> Metaphyta <small>Haeckel, 1894</small>,<ref>Haeckel, E. (1894). ''[https://archive.org/details/systematischephy01haec Die systematische Phylogenie]''.</ref> Plantae <small>Whittaker, 1969</small><ref name="ib.usp.br" />).
|}
 
Another way of looking at the relationships between the different groups that have been called "plants" is through a [[cladogram]], which shows their evolutionary relationships. The evolutionary history of plants is not yet completely settled, but one accepted relationship between the three groups described above is shown below.<ref>Based on {{Citation|last=Rogozin |first=I.B. |last2=Basu |first2=M.K.|last3=Csürös |first3=M.|last4=Koonin|first4=E.V. |year=2009 |title=Analysis of Rare Genomic Changes Does Not Support the Unikont–Bikont Phylogeny and Suggests Cyanobacterial Symbiosis as the Point of Primary Radiation of Eukaryotes |journal=Genome Biology and Evolution|pmid=20333181 |volume=1|pmc=2817406|pages=99–113 |doi=10.1093/gbe/evp011 |lastauthoramp=yes}} and {{Citation |last=Becker |first=B. |last2=Marin |first2=B. |year=2009 |title=Streptophyte algae and the origin of embryophytes |journal=Annals of Botany |volume=103 |issue=7 |pages=999–1004 |doi=10.1093/aob/mcp044 |lastauthoramp=yes |pmid=19273476 |pmc=2707909}}; see also the slightly different cladogram in {{Citation |last=Lewis |first=Louise A. |last2=McCourt |first2=R.M. |year=2004 |title=Green algae and the origin of land plants |journal=Am. J. Bot. |volume=91 |issue=10 |pages=1535–1556 |doi=10.3732/ajb.91.10.1535 |lastauthoramp=yes |pmid=21652308}}</ref><ref>{{Cite journal|title = Estimating the timing of early eukaryotic diversification with multigene molecular clocks|url = http://www.pnas.org/content/108/33/13624|journal = Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences|date = 2011-08-16|issn = 0027-8424|pmc = 3158185|pmid = 21810989|pages = 13624–13629|volume = 108|issue = 33|doi = 10.1073/pnas.1110633108|first = Laura Wegener|last = Parfrey|first2 = Daniel J. G.|last2 = Lahr|first3 = Andrew H.|last3 = Knoll|first4 = Laura A.|last4 = Katz}}</ref><ref>{{Cite journal|title = Bacterial proteins pinpoint a single eukaryotic root|url = http://www.pnas.org/content/112/7/E693|journal = Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences|date = 2015-02-17|issn = 0027-8424|pmc = 4343179|pmid = 25646484|pages = E693-E699|volume = 112|issue = 7|doi = 10.1073/pnas.1420657112|first = Romain|last = Derelle|first2 = Guifré|last2 = Torruella|first3 = Vladimír|last3 = Klimeš|first4 = Henner|last4 = Brinkmann|first5 = Eunsoo|last5 = Kim|first6 = Čestmír|last6 = Vlček|first7 = B. Franz|last7 = Lang|first8 = Marek|last8 = Eliáš}}</ref><ref>{{Cite journal|title = The Glaucophyta: the blue-green plants in a nutshell|url = http://dx.doi.org/10.5586/asbp.2015.020|journal = Acta Societatis Botanicorum Poloniae|date = 2015-01-01|volume = 84|issue = 2|doi = 10.5586/asbp.2015.020|first = Christopher|last = Jackson|first2 = Susan|last2 = Clayden|first3 = Adrian|last3 = Reyes-Prieto|pages=149–165}}</ref> Those which have been called "plants" are in bold.
{{barlabel
|size=6
|at=3|label=groups traditionally<br />included in the "algae"
|cladogram=
{{cladex
|label1='''Archaeplastida'''&nbsp;
|1={{cladex
|1=[[Glaucophyta]] (glaucophyte algae)|bar1=darkgreen|barbegin1=darkgreen
|2={{cladex
|1=[[Rhodophyta]] (red algae)|bar1=darkgreen
|2={{cladex
|label1='''Green plants'''
|1={{cladex
|1=[[Chlorophyta]] (part of green algae)|bar1=darkgreen
|label2=[[Streptophyta]]&nbsp;
|2={{cladex
|1=streptophyte algae (part of green algae)|state1=double|bar1=darkgreen
|2={{cladex
|1=[[Charales]] (stoneworts, often included&nbsp;<br />in green algae)|barend1=darkgreen
|2='''land plants''' or [[embryophyte]]s
}}
}}
}}
}}
}}
}}
}}
}}
The way in which the groups of green algae are combined and named varies considerably between authors.
 
=== Алге ===
[[File:Haeckel Siphoneae.jpg|thumb|[[Green algae]] from [[Ernst Haeckel]]'s ''[[Kunstformen der Natur]]'', 1904.]]
{{Main|Алге}}
 
Algae comprise several different groups of organisms which produce energy through photosynthesis and for that reason have been included in the plant kingdom in the past. Most conspicuous among the algae are the [[seaweed]]s, multicellular algae that may roughly resemble land plants, but are classified among the [[brown algae|brown]], [[red algae|red]] and [[green algae]]. Each of these algal groups also includes various microscopic and single-celled organisms. There is good evidence that some of these algal groups arose independently from separate non-photosynthetic ancestors, with the result that the [[brown algae]], for example, are no longer classified within the plant kingdom as it is defined here.<ref>{{cite journal |last=Margulis |first=L. |year=1974 |title=Five-kingdom classification and the origin and evolution of cells |journal=Evolutionary Biology |volume=7 |pages=45–78 |doi=10.1007/978-1-4615-6944-2_2}}</ref><ref name="Raven 2005" />
 
The Viridiplantae, the green plants – green algae and land plants – form a [[clade]], a group consisting of all the descendants of a common ancestor. With a few exceptions among green algae, the green plants have the following features in common; cell walls containing [[cellulose]], [[chloroplast]]s containing [[chlorophyll]]s ''a'' and ''b'', and food stores in the form of [[starch]] contained within the plastids. They undergo closed [[mitosis]] without [[centriole]]s, and typically have [[mitochondrion|mitochondria]] with flat cristae. The [[chloroplast]]s of green plants are surrounded by two membranes, suggesting they originated directly from endosymbiotic [[cyanobacteria]].
 
Two additional groups, the [[Rhodophyta]] (red algae) and [[Glaucophyta]] (glaucophyte algae), also have chloroplasts that appear to be derived directly from endosymbiotic [[cyanobacteria]], although they differ in the pigments which are used in photosynthesis from those of the Viridiplantae and so are different in colour. In these groups, the storage polysaccharide is [[floridean starch]] and is stored in the cytoplasm rather than in the plastids. These groups appear to have had a common origin with Viridiplantae and the three groups form the clade [[Archaeplastida]], whose name implies that their chloroplasts were derived from a single ancient endosymbiotic event. This is the broadest modern definition of the term 'plant'.
 
In contrast, most other algae (e.g. [[heterokont|brown algae/diatoms]], [[haptophyte]]s, [[dinoflagellate]]s, and [[euglenid]]s) not only have different pigments but also have chloroplasts with three or four surrounding membranes. They are not close relatives of the Archaeplastida, presumably having acquired chloroplasts separately from ingested or symbiotic green and red algae. They are thus not included in even the broadest modern definition of the plant kingdom, although they were in the past.
 
The green plants or Viridiplantae were traditionally divided into the green algae (including the stoneworts) and the land plants. However, it is now known that the land plants evolved from within a group of green algae, so that the green algae by themselves are a [[paraphyly|paraphyletic]] group, i.e. a group that excludes some of the descendants of a common ancestor. Paraphyletic groups are generally avoided in modern classifications, so that in recent treatments the Viridiplantae have been divided into two clades, the [[Chlorophyta]] and the [[Streptophyta]] (including the land plants and Charophyta).<ref name="LewisMcCourt2004">{{Citation |last=Lewis |first=Louise A. |last2=McCourt |first2=R.M. |year=2004 |title=Green algae and the origin of land plants |journal=Am. J. Bot. |volume=91 |issue=10 |pages=1535–1556 |doi=10.3732/ajb.91.10.1535 |lastauthoramp=yes |pmid=21652308}}</ref><ref name="BeckerMarin2009">{{Citation |last=Becker |first=B. |last2=Marin |first2=B. |year=2009 |title=Streptophyte algae and the origin of embryophytes |journal=Annals of Botany |volume=103 |issue=7 |pages=999–1004 |doi=10.1093/aob/mcp044 |lastauthoramp=yes |pmid=19273476 |pmc=2707909}}</ref>
 
The Chlorophyta (a name that has also been used for ''all'' green algae) are the sister group to the group from which the land plants evolved. There are about 4,300 species<ref name="Algaebase">{{cite web |url= http://www.algaebase.org/browse/taxonomy/?id=4307 |publisher= ''AlgaeBase version 4.2'' World-wide electronic publication, National University of Ireland, Galway |accessdate= 2007-09-23 |title= Phylum: Chlorophyta taxonomy browser |author1=Guiry, M.D. |author2=Guiry, G.M. |lastauthoramp=yes |year= 2007 }}</ref> of mainly marine organisms, both unicellular and multicellular. The latter include the sea lettuce, ''[[Ulva (genus)|Ulva]]''.
 
The other group within the Viridiplantae are the mainly freshwater or terrestrial Streptophyta, which consists of the land plants together with the Charophyta, itself consisting of several groups of green algae such as the [[desmid]]s and [[Charales|stoneworts]]. Streptophyte algae are either unicellular or form multicellular filaments, branched or unbranched.<ref name="BeckerMarin2009" /> The genus ''[[Spirogyra]]'' is a filamentous streptophyte alga familiar to many, as it is often used in teaching and is one of the organisms responsible for the algal "scum" that pond-owners so dislike. The freshwater stoneworts strongly resemble land plants and are believed to be their closest relatives. Growing in fresh water, they consist of a central stalk with whorls of branchlets, giving them a superficial resemblance to horsetails, species of the genus ''[[Equisetum]]'', which are true land plants.
 
=== Гљиве ===
{{Main|Гљиве }}
 
The classification of [[Fungus|fungi]] has been controversial until quite recently in the history of biology. [[Carl Linnaeus|Linnaeus']] original classification placed the fungi within the Plantae, since they were unquestionably not animals or minerals and these were the only other alternatives. With later developments in [[microbiology]], in the 19th century [[Ernst Haeckel]] felt that another kingdom was required to classify newly discovered micro-organisms. The introduction of the new kingdom Protista in addition to Plantae and Animalia, led to uncertainty as to whether fungi truly were best placed in the Plantae or whether they ought to be reclassified as protists. Haeckel himself found it difficult to decide and it was not until 1969 that a solution was found whereby [[Robert Whittaker]] proposed the creation of the kingdom Fungi. Molecular evidence has since shown that the [[most recent common ancestor]] (concestor), of the Fungi was probably more similar to that of the Animalia than to that of Plantae or any other kingdom.<ref>{{cite book |author=Deacon, J.W. |year=2005 |title=Fungal Biology |publisher=Wiley |isbn=978-1-4051-3066-0 |url=https://books.google.com/books?id=FMSn4RIoGGoC }}</ref>
 
Whittaker's original reclassification was based on the fundamental difference in nutrition between the Fungi and the Plantae. Unlike plants, which generally gain carbon through photosynthesis, and so are called [[autotroph]]s, fungi generally obtain carbon by breaking down and absorbing surrounding materials, and so are called [[heterotroph]]ic [[saprotrophs]]. In addition, the substructure of multicellular fungi is different from that of plants, taking the form of many chitinous microscopic strands called [[hypha]]e, which may be further subdivided into cells or may form a [[syncytium]] containing many [[eukaryotic]] [[cell nucleus|nuclei]]. Fruiting bodies, of which [[mushroom]]s are the most familiar example, are the reproductive structures of fungi, and are unlike any structures produced by plants.
 
== Разноврсност ==
The table below shows some species count estimates of different green plant (Viridiplantae) divisions. It suggests there are about 300,000 species of living Viridiplantae, of which 85–90% are flowering plants. (Note: as these are from different sources and different dates, they are not necessarily comparable, and like all species counts, are subject to a degree of uncertainty in some cases.)
 
{| class="wikitable" style="float:left; margin-left:1em;"
|+'''Diversity of living green plant (Viridiplantae) divisions'''
|-
! style="background:lightgreen; text-align:center;"| Informal group
! style="background:lightgreen; text-align:center;"| Division name
! style="background:lightgreen; text-align:center;"| Common name
! style="background:lightgreen; text-align:center;"| No. of living species
! style="background:lightgreen; text-align:center;"| Approximate No. in informal group
|-
| rowspan="2" style="background:lightgrey; vertical-align:top;"| [[Green algae]]
| '''[[Chlorophyta]]'''
| style="text-align:left;"| [[green algae]] (chlorophytes)
| style="text-align:right;"| 3,800–4,300 <ref>Van den Hoek, C., D. G. Mann, & H. M. Jahns, 1995. ''Algae: An Introduction to Phycology''. pages 343, 350, 392, 413, 425, 439, & 448 (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press). ISBN 0-521-30419-9</ref><ref name=AlgaeBase_Chlorophyta>{{Citation |last=Guiry |first=M.D. |last2=Guiry |first2=G.M. |year=2011 |title=AlgaeBase : Chlorophyta |publisher=World-wide electronic publication, National University of Ireland, Galway |url=http://www.algaebase.org/browse/taxonomy/?searching=true&gettaxon=Chlorophyta |accessdate=2011-07-26 |lastauthoramp=yes }}</ref>
| rowspan="2" style="text-align:right; vertical-align:top;"| 8,500
(6,600–10,300)
|-
| '''[[Charophyta]]'''
| style="text-align:left;"| [[green algae]] (e.g. [[desmid]]s & [[stonewort]]s)
| style="text-align:right;"| 2,800–6,000 <ref name=AlgaeBase_Charophyta>{{Citation |last=Guiry |first=M.D. |last2=Guiry |first2=G.M. |year=2011 |title=AlgaeBase : Charophyta |publisher=World-wide electronic publication, National University of Ireland, Galway |url=http://www.algaebase.org/browse/taxonomy/?searching=true&gettaxon=Charophyta |accessdate=2011-07-26 |lastauthoramp=yes }}</ref><ref>Van den Hoek, C., D. G. Mann, & H. M. Jahns, 1995. ''Algae: An Introduction to Phycology''. pages 457, 463, & 476. (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press). ISBN 0-521-30419-9</ref>
|-
| rowspan="3" style="background:lightgrey; vertical-align:top;"| [[Bryophyte]]s
| '''[[Marchantiophyta]]'''
| style="text-align:left;"| liverworts
| style="text-align:right;"| 6,000–8,000 <ref>Crandall-Stotler, Barbara. & Stotler, Raymond E., 2000. "Morphology and classification of the Marchantiophyta". page 21 ''in'' A. Jonathan Shaw & Bernard Goffinet (Eds.), ''Bryophyte Biology''. (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press). ISBN 0-521-66097-1</ref>
| rowspan="3" style="text-align:right; vertical-align:top;"| 19,000
(18,100–20,200)
|-
| '''[[Anthocerotophyta]]'''
| style="text-align:left;"| hornworts
| style="text-align:right;"| 100–200 <ref>Schuster, Rudolf M., ''The Hepaticae and Anthocerotae of North America'', volume VI, pages 712–713. (Chicago: Field Museum of Natural History, 1992). ISBN 0-914868-21-7.</ref>
|-
| '''[[Moss|Bryophyta]]'''
| style="text-align:left;"| mosses
| style="text-align:right;"| 12,000 <ref name="Goffinet & Buck 2004">{{cite journal |last=Goffinet |first= Bernard |author2=William R. Buck |year=2004 |title=Systematics of the Bryophyta (Mosses): From molecules to a revised classification |journal=Monographs in Systematic Botany |volume=98 |pages=205–239 |publisher= Missouri Botanical Garden Press }}</ref>
|-
| rowspan="2" style="background:lightgrey; vertical-align:top;"| [[Pteridophyte]]s
| '''[[Lycopodiophyta]]'''
| style="text-align:left;"| club mosses
| style="text-align:right;"| 1,200 <ref name="Raven 2005">{{cite book |last=Raven |first=Peter H. |first2=Ray F. |last2=Evert |first3=Susan E. |last3=Eichhorn |year=2005 |title=Biology of Plants |edition=7th |location=New York |publisher=W. H. Freeman and Company |isbn=0-7167-1007-2 }}</ref>
| rowspan="2" style="text-align:right; vertical-align:top;"| 12,000
(12,200)
|-
| '''[[Fern|Pteridophyta]]'''
| style="text-align:left;"| ferns, whisk ferns & horsetails
| style="text-align:right;"| 11,000 <ref name="Raven 2005" />
|-
| rowspan="5" style="background:lightgrey; vertical-align:top;"| [[Seed plant]]s
| '''[[Cycad]]ophyta'''
| style="text-align:left;"| cycads
| style="text-align:right;"| 160 <ref>{{cite book |last=Gifford |first=Ernest M. |first2=Adriance S. |last2=Foster |year=1988 |title=Morphology and Evolution of Vascular Plants |edition=3rd |page=358 |location=New York |publisher=W. H. Freeman and Company |isbn=0-7167-1946-0 }}</ref>
| rowspan="5" style="text-align:right; vertical-align:top;"| 260,000
(259,511)
|-
| '''[[Ginkgophyta]]'''
| style="text-align:left;"| ginkgo
| style="text-align:right;"| 1 <ref>{{cite book |last=Taylor |first=Thomas N. |first2=Edith L. |last2=Taylor |year=1993 |title=The Biology and Evolution of Fossil Plants |page=636 |location=New Jersey |publisher=Prentice-Hall |isbn=0-13-651589-4 }}</ref>
|-
| '''[[Pinophyta]]'''
| style="text-align:left;"| conifers
| style="text-align:right;"| 630 <ref name="Raven 2005" />
|-
| '''[[Gnetophyta]]'''
| style="text-align:left;"| gnetophytes
| style="text-align:right;"| 70 <ref name="Raven 2005" />
|-
| '''[[Flowering plant|Magnoliophyta]]'''
| style="text-align:left;"| flowering plants
| style="text-align:right;"| 258,650 <ref>International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources, 2006. ''[http://www.iucnredlist.org/ IUCN Red List of Threatened Species:Summary Statistics]''</ref>
|}
{{Clear}}
The naming of plants is governed by the [[International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants]] and [[International Code of Nomenclature for Cultivated Plants]] (see [[cultivated plant taxonomy]]).
 
== Галерија слика ==
<center><gallery widths="180px" heights="120px" perrow="4">
Datoteka:Drosera lanata 2 Darwiniana.jpg|[[Росуља]]
Datoteka:Borassus flabellifer.jpg|-{''[[Borassus flabellifer]]''}-
Datoteka:GntTaatiFruit.jpg|-{''[[Borassus flabellifer]]''}-
Datoteka:Turmericroot.jpg|-{''Curcuma longa''}-
Datoteka:Starr 050407-6233 Ipomoea batatas.jpg|-{''Ipomoea batatas''}-
Datoteka:Pandan wangi.JPG|-{''Pandanus amaryllifolius''}-
Datoteka:Papaya sunset.jpg|-{''Carica papaya''}-
Datoteka:Prepared lemon grass.JPG|-{''Cymbopogon citratus''}-
Datoteka:Bangkuang 070612-056 stgd.jpg|-{''Pachyrhizus erosus''}-
Datoteka:KIKU brak-ontree.JPG|[[Jabuka]]
Datoteka:SauropusAndrogynus.jpg|-{''Sauropus androgynus''}-
Datoteka:Ilaneer.jpg|-{''Cocos nucifera''}-
</gallery></center>
 
== Види још ==
{{columns-list|4|
* [[Биљке (астрологија)]]
* [[Биосфера]]
* [[Шума]]
* [[Поврће]]
}}
 
== Референце ==
{{Reflist|colwidth=30em|refs=
 
}}
 
== Литература ==
;Опште:
* -{Evans, L. T. (1998). ''Feeding the Ten Billion – Plants and [[Population]] Growth''. [[Cambridge University Press]]. Paperback, 247 pages. ISBN 0-521-64685-5.}-
* -{Kenrick, Paul & Crane, Peter R. (1997). ''The Origin and Early Diversification of Land Plants: A Cladistic Study''. Washington, D. C.: Smithsonian Institution Press. ISBN 1-56098-730-8.}-
* -{Raven, Peter H., Evert, Ray F., & Eichhorn, Susan E. (2005). ''Biology of Plants'' (7th ed.). New York: W. H. Freeman and Company. ISBN 0-7167-1007-2.}-
* -{Taylor, Thomas N. & Taylor, Edith L. (1993). ''The Biology and Evolution of Fossil Plants''. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall. ISBN 0-13-651589-4.}-
* {{cite journal |author= Trewavas A |year= 2003 |title= Aspects of Plant Intelligence |url= http://aob.oxfordjournals.org/cgi/content/full/92/1/1 |journal= Annals of Botany |volume= 92 |issue= 1 |pages= 1–20 |doi= 10.1093/aob/mcg101 |pmid=12740212 |pmc=4243628}}
 
;Процене броја врста:
* -{International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN) Species Survival Commission (2004). [[IUCN Red List]] [http://www.iucnredlist.org/].}-
* {{cite journal |author= Prance G. T. |year= 2001 |title= Discovering the Plant World |journal= Taxon |volume= 50 |issue= 2, Golden Jubilee Part 4 |pages= 345–359 |publisher= International Association for Plant Taxonomy |issn= 0040-0262 |doi=10.2307/1223885 |jstor=1223885}}
 
== Спољашње везе ==
* [http://www.bionet-skola.com/w/Biljke Бионет школа]
* [http://www.svetbiljaka.com/ Форум Свет биљака]
* [http://covijekipriroda.blogspot.com LekovitoЛековито biljeбиље]
* {{en}} [http://tolweb.org/tree?group=Green_plants&contgroup=Eukaryotes -{Tree of Life}-]
* {{cite journal |author= Jones, T. M. |author2= Reid, C. S. |author3= Urbatsch, L. E |title=Visual study of divisional Plantae|url=http://www.herbarium.lsu.edu/keys/aca/}} (requires [[Microsoft Silverlight]])
* {{pdf}} [http://mbe.library.arizona.edu/data/1997/1401/7chaw.pdf Molecular Phylogeny of Extant Gymnosperms and Seed Plant Evolution]
* {{EOL}}
* {{cite journal|author=Chaw, S.-M.|url=http://mbe.library.arizona.edu/data/1997/1401/7chaw.pdf|title=Molecular Phylogeny of Extant Gymnosperms and Seed Plant Evolution: Analysis of Nuclear 18s rRNA Sequences|journal=Molec. Biol. Evol.|volume=14|issue=1|pages=56–68|year=1997 |pmid=9000754|doi=10.1093/oxfordjournals.molbev.a025702|display-authors=etal}}
* [http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/INA.html Index Nominum Algarum]
* [http://florabase.calm.wa.gov.au/phylogeny/cronq88.html Interactive Cronquist classification]
* [http://www.prota.org/uk/About+Prota/ Plant Resources of Tropical Africa]
 
=== Базе података ===
* -{[http://www.aluka.org/action/doBrowse?sa=1&sa_sel= African Plants Initiative database]}-
* [http://www.efloras.org/index.aspx e-Floras (Flora of China, Flora of North America and others)]
* -{[http://plantswww.usdaanbg.gov.au/cpbr/databases/ United States of AmericaAustralia]}-
* -{[http://www.chilebosque.cl/ Chilean plants at ''Chilebosque'']}-
* [http://rbg-web2.rbge.org.uk/FE/fe.html Flora Europaea]
* -{[http://www.efloras.org/index.aspx e-Floras (Flora of China, Flora of North America and others)]}-
* [http://www.anbg.gov.au/cpbr/databases/ Australia]
* -{[http://rbg-web2.rbge.org.uk/FE/fe.html Flora Europaea]}-
* [http://davesgarden.com/pdb/ 'Dave's Garden' horticultural plant database]
* -{[http://www.floraweb.de/ Flora of Central Europe]}- {{de icon}}
* -{[http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=1 Flora of North America]}-
* -{[http://www.alpine-plants-jp.com/botanical_name/list_of_japanese_wild_plants_abelia_buxus.htm List of Japanese Wild Plants Online]}-
* -{[http://www.ntbg.org/plants/choose_a_plant.php Meet the Plants-National Tropical Botanical Garden]}-
* -{[http://www.wildflower.org/ Lady Bird Johnson Wildflower Center – Native Plant Information Network at University of Texas, Austin]}-
* -{[http://www.theplantlist.org/ The Plant List]}-
* -{[http://plants.usda.gov/ United States Department of Agriculture] not limited to continental US species}-
 
{{Authority control}}
{{клица-биљке}}
 
[[Категорија:Биљке|*]]