Марсел Пруст — разлика између измена

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'''Марсел Пруст''' ({{јез-фр|Marcel-Valentin-Louis-Eugène-Georges Proust}}; [[Париз]], [[10. јул]] [[1871]] — [[Париз]], [[22. новембар]] [[1922]]) био је француски интелектуалац, романописац, есејиста и критичар, најпознатији по делу ''[[У трагању за изгубљеним временом]]'' у 7 томова, које је издавано у периоду од 14 година (последња три постхумно) и које је оставило дубок траг, не само у [[Француска|Француској]], већ и у европској књижевности [[20. век]]а и извршило велики утицај на многе књижевнике.<ref>Harold Bloom, ''Genius'', pp. 191–224.</ref><ref>{{cite web|url=https://www.nytimes.com/books/first/w/white-proust.html|title=Marcel Proust|work=New York Times|accessdate=13 October 2016}}</ref> Један је од представника [[импресионизам|импресионизма]].
 
== Биографија ==
[[Датотека:Marcel Proust et Lucien Daudet.jpg|thumb|лево|Марсел Пруст (седи), [[Роберт де Флер]] (лево), [[Лусијен Доде]] (десно)]]
 
Рођен у богатој лекарској породици, нежан и осетљив, у детињству је боловао од астме, што је обележило читав његов потоњи живот. Прустов отац, [[Ахил Адријан Пруст]], био је угледан патолог и епидемиолог, заслужан за проучавање и покушаје излечења узрока и ширења [[колера|колере]], која се у то време ширила кроз Европу и Азију; био је аутор бројних чланака и књига о медицини и хигијени. Прустова мајка, Жан Клеманс Вил, била је кћи из богате и културне јеврејске породице из Елзаса.<ref>http://www.literaryreview.co.uk/massie_10_07.html</ref> Била је веома начитана; њена писма показују развијен смисао за хумор и довољно познавање енглеског језика да пружи помоћ сину у превођењу дела [[Џон Раскин|Џона Раскина]].<ref name="Tadié">Tadié, J-Y. (Euan Cameron, trans.) ''Marcel Proust: A life''. New York: Penguin Putnam, 2000.</ref> Пруст је одгојен у очевој католичкој вери.<ref>http://www.nysoclib.org/travels/proust.html</ref> Крштен је 5. августа 1871. и касније се потврдио као католик, али никада није формално практиковао своју веру. Када је имао 9 година, доживео је први тежи напад астме и отад су га сматрали болешљивим дететом. Године 1882. постао је ученик школе ''-{Lycée Condorcet}-'' у [[Париз]]у. Због болести је прекинуо школовање. Упркос лошем здрављу, Пруст је одслужио једну годину у француској војсци у [[Орлеан]]у. Ово искуство му је послужило за трећи део циклуса романа „У трагању за изгубљеним временом“, „Војвоткиња де Германтес“.
 
== Стваралаштво ==
Као изображен и префињен младић кретао се у модерним грађанским, уметничких и аристократским круговима, писао и преводио, посебно дела енглескога естетичара Џона Раскина, који је пресудно утицао на његово касније стваралаштво. Из тог периода потичу чланци из младости скупљени под насловом „Ужици и дани“ (1896) и аутобиографски роман „Жан Сантеј“ (постхумно 1952).
 
=== Рани радови ===
 
Proust was involved in writing and publishing from an early age. In addition to the literary magazines with which he was associated, and in which he published while at school (''La Revue verte'' and ''La Revue lilas''), from 1890 to 1891 he published a regular society column in the journal ''Le Mensuel''.<ref name="Tadié"/> In 1892 he was involved in founding a literary review called ''Le Banquet'' (also the French title of [[Plato]]'s ''[[Symposium (Plato)|Symposium]]''), and throughout the next several years Proust published small pieces regularly in this journal and in the prestigious ''La Revue Blanche''.
 
In 1896 ''Les Plaisirs et les Jours'', a compendium of many of these early pieces, was published. The book included a foreword by [[Anatole France]], drawings by Mme [[Madeleine Lemaire|Lemaire]] in whose ''salon'' Proust was a frequent guest, and who inspired Proust's Mme Verdurin. She invited him and [[Reynaldo Hahn]] to her [[Réveillon, Marne|château de Réveillon]] (the model for Mme Verdurin's La Raspelière) in summer 1894, and for three weeks in 1895. This book was so sumptuously produced that it cost twice the normal price of a book its size.
 
That year Proust also began working on a novel, which was eventually published in 1952 and titled ''[[Jean Santeuil]]'' by his posthumous editors. Many of the themes later developed in ''In Search of Lost Time'' find their first articulation in this unfinished work, including the enigma of memory and the necessity of reflection; several sections of ''In Search of Lost Time'' can be read in the first draft in ''Jean Santeuil''. The portrait of the parents in ''Jean Santeuil'' is quite harsh, in marked contrast to the adoration with which the parents are painted in Proust's masterpiece. Following the poor reception of ''Les Plaisirs et les Jours'', and internal troubles with resolving the plot, Proust gradually abandoned ''Jean Santeuil'' in 1897 and stopped work on it entirely by 1899.
 
Beginning in 1895 Proust spent several years reading [[Thomas Carlyle|Carlyle]], [[Ralph Waldo Emerson|Emerson]], and [[John Ruskin]]. Through this reading he refined his theories of art and the role of the artist in society. Also, in ''[[Le Temps retrouvé|Time Regained]]'' Proust's universal protagonist recalls having translated Ruskin's ''Sesame and Lilies''. The artist's responsibility is to confront the appearance of nature, deduce its essence and retell or explain that essence in the work of art. Ruskin's view of artistic production was central to this conception, and Ruskin's work was so important to Proust that he claimed to know "by heart" several of Ruskin's books, including ''The Seven Lamps of Architecture'', ''The Bible of Amiens'', and ''Praeterita''.<ref name="Tadié"/>
 
Proust set out to translate two of Ruskin's works into French, but was hampered by an imperfect command of English. To compensate for this he made his translations a group affair: sketched out by his mother, the drafts were first revised by Proust, then by Marie Nordlinger, the English cousin of his friend and sometime lover<ref name="carter">{{citation|title=Proust in Love|first=William C.|last=Carter|year=2006|publisher=YaleUniversity Press|isbn=0-300-10812-5|pages=31–35}}</ref> [[Reynaldo Hahn]], then finally polished by Proust. Questioned about his method by an editor, Proust responded, "I don't claim to know English; I claim to know Ruskin".<ref name="Tadié"/><ref>Karlin, Daniel (2005) ''Proust's English''; p. 36</ref> ''The Bible of Amiens'', with Proust's extended introduction, was published in French in 1904. Both the translation and the introduction were well-reviewed; [[Henri Bergson]] called Proust's introduction "an important contribution to the psychology of Ruskin", and had similar praise for the translation.<ref name="Tadié"/> At the time of this publication, Proust was already translating Ruskin's ''Sesame and Lilies'', which he completed in June 1905, just before his mother's death, and published in 1906. Literary historians and critics have ascertained that, apart from Ruskin, Proust's chief literary influences included [[Louis de Rouvroy, duc de Saint-Simon|Saint-Simon]], [[Michel de Montaigne|Montaigne]], [[Stendhal]], [[Gustave Flaubert|Flaubert]], [[George Eliot]], [[Fyodor Dostoyevsky]], and [[Leo Tolstoy]].
 
1908 was an important year for Proust's development as a writer. During the first part of the year he published in various journals [[pastiches]] of other writers. These exercises in imitation may have allowed Proust to solidify his own style. In addition, in the spring and summer of the year Proust began work on several different fragments of writing that would later coalesce under the working title of ''Contre Sainte-Beuve''. Proust described his efforts in a letter to a friend: "I have in progress: a study on the nobility, a Parisian novel, an essay on [[Charles Augustin Sainte-Beuve|Sainte-Beuve]] and [[Gustave Flaubert|Flaubert]], an essay on women, an essay on [[pederasty]] (not easy to publish), a study on stained-glass windows, a study on tombstones, a study on the novel".<ref name="Tadié"/>
 
From these disparate fragments Proust began to shape a novel on which he worked continually during this period. The rough outline of the work centered on a first-person narrator, unable to sleep, who during the night remembers waiting as a child for his mother to come to him in the morning. The novel was to have ended with a critical examination of Sainte-Beuve and a refutation of his theory that biography was the most important tool for understanding an artist's work. Present in the unfinished manuscript notebooks are many elements that correspond to parts of the ''Recherche'', in particular, to the "Combray" and "Swann in Love" sections of Volume 1, and to the final section of Volume 7. Trouble with finding a publisher, as well as a gradually changing conception of his novel, led Proust to shift work to a substantially different project that still contained many of the same themes and elements. By 1910 he was at work on ''À la recherche du temps perdu''.
 
=== У трагању за изгубљеним временом ===
== Референце ==
{{reflist|30em}}
 
== Литература ==
{{refbegin|30em}}
* Aciman, André (2004), ''The Proust Project''. New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux
* [[Theodor W. Adorno|Adorno, Theodor]] (1967), ''Prisms''. Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press
* Adorno, Theodor, "Short Commentaries on Proust," Notes to Literature, trans. S. Weber-Nicholsen (New York: Columbia University Press, 1991).
* Albaret, Céleste ([[Barbara Bray]], trans.) (2003), ''Monsieur Proust''. New York: The New York Review of Books
* [[Samuel Beckett|Beckett, Samuel]], ''Proust'', London: Calder
* [[Walter Benjamin|Benjamin, Walter]], "The Image of Proust," Illuminations, trans. Harry Zohn (New York: [[Schocken Books]], 1969); pp.&nbsp;201–215.
* Bernard, Anne-Marie (2002), ''The World of Proust, as seen by Paul Nadar''. Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press
* Bersani, Leo, ''Marcel Proust: The Fictions of Life and of Art'' (2013), Oxford: Oxford U. Press
* [[Malcolm Bowie|Bowie, Malcolm]], ''Proust Among the Stars'', London: Harper Collins
* [[Demetrios Capetanakis|Capetanakis, Demetrios]], "A Lecture on Proust", in ''Demetrios Capetanakis A Greek Poet in England'' (1947)
* Carter, William C. (2002), ''Marcel Proust: a life''. New Haven: Yale University Press
* Carter, William C. (2006), ''Proust in Love''. New Haven: Yale University Press
* Chardin, Philippe (2006), ''Proust ou le bonheur du petit personnage qui compare''. Paris: Honoré Champion
* Chardin, Philippe ''et alii'' (2010), ''Originalités proustiennes''. Paris: Kimé
* Compagnon, Antoine, ''Proust Between Two Centuries,'' Columbia U. Press
* [[Richard Davenport-Hines|Davenport-Hines, Richard]] (2006), ''A Night at the Majestic''. London: Faber and Faber {{ISBN|9780571220090}}
* [[Alain de Botton|De Botton, Alain]] (1998), ''How Proust Can Change Your Life''. New York: Vintage Books
* [[Gilles Deleuze|Deleuze, Gilles]] (2004), ''Proust and Signs: the complete text''. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press
* [[Paul De Man|De Man, Paul]] (1979), ''Allegories of Reading: Figural Language in Rousseau, Nietzsche, Rilke, and Proust'' {{ISBN|0-300-02845-8}}
* [[Vincent Descombes|Descombes, Vincent]], ''Proust: Philosophy of the Novel''. Stanford, CA: Stanford U. Press
* Forssgren, Ernest A. (William C. Carter, ed.) (2006), ''The Memoirs of Ernest A. Forssgren: Proust’s Swedish Valet''. New Haven: Yale University Press
* [[Gérard Genette|Genette, Gérard]], ''Narrative Discourse: An Essay in Method''. Ithaca, NY: Cornell U. Press
* [[Julien Gracq|Gracq, Julien]], "Proust Considered as An End Point," in Reading Writing (New York: Turtle Point Press,), 113–130.
* Green, F. C. ''The Mind of Proust'' (1949)
* Harris, Frederick J. (2002), ''Friend and Foe: Marcel Proust and André Gide''. Lanham: University Press of America
* Hillerin, Laure [http://www.comtessegreffulhe.fr/ ''La comtesse Greffulhe, L'ombre des Guermantes''], Paris, Flammarion, 2014. Part V, ''La Chambre Noire des Guermantes''. About Marcel Proust and comtesse Greffulhe's relationship, and the key role she played in the genesis of ''La Recherche''.
* Karlin, Daniel (2005), ''Proust's English''. Oxford: Oxford University Press {{ISBN|978-0199256884}}
* [[Julia Kristeva|Kristeva, Julia]], ''Time and Sense. Proust and the Experience of Literature''. New York: Columbia U. Press, 1996
* Ladenson, Elisabeth (1991), ''Proust’s Lesbianism''. Ithaca, NY: Cornell U. Press
* [[Joshua Landy|Landy, Joshua]], ''Philosophy as Fiction: Self, Deception, and Knowledge in Proust''. Oxford: Oxford U. Press
* O'Brien, Justin. "Albertine the Ambiguous: Notes on Proust's Transposition of Sexes", PMLA 64: 933–52, 1949
* [[George D. Painter|Painter, George D.]] (1959), ''Marcel Proust: a biography''; Vols. 1 & 2. London: Chatto & Windus
* [[Georges Poulet|Poulet, Georges]], ''Proustian Space''. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins U. Press
* Prendergast, Christopher ''[http://press.princeton.edu/titles/10020.html Mirages and Mad Beliefs: Proust the Skeptic]'' {{ISBN|9780691155203}}
* Sedgwick, Eve Kosofsky (1992), "Epistemology of the Closet". Berkeley: University of California Press
* Shattuck, Roger (1963), ''Proust's Binoculars: a study of memory, time, and recognition in "À la recherche du temps perdu"''. New York: Random House
* [[Leo Spitzer|Spitzer, Leo]], "Proust's Style," [1928] in ''Essays in Stylistics'' (Princeton, Princeton U. P., 1948).
* [[Roger Shattuck|Shattuck, Roger]] (2000), ''Proust's Way: a field guide to "In Search of Lost Time"''. New York: W. W. Norton
* [[Jean-Yves Tadié|Tadié, Jean-Yves]] (2000), ''Marcel Proust: A Life''. New York: Viking
* [[Edmund White|White, Edmund]] (1998), ''Marcel Proust''. New York: Viking Books
{{refend}}
 
== Спољашње везе ==
{{портал|Биографија}}
{{Commonscat|Marcel Proust}}
* [http://pulse.rs/o-dokolici-samrtnika/ Марсел Пруст, У потрази за изгубљеним временом]
* [http://www.gay-serbia.com/queer/proust-marcel/index.jsp Биографија]
* {{Britannica|480557}}
* {{Dmoz|Arts/Literature/Authors/P/Proust%2C_Marcel/}}
* -{[http://www.bbc.co.uk/programmes/p00548wx BBC audio file]. ''[[In Our Time (BBC Radio 4)|In Our TIme]]'' discussion, Radio 4.}-
* -{[https://www.library.illinois.edu/rbx/kolbproust/ The Kolb-Proust Archive for Research]. [[University of Illinois]].}-
* {{Gutenberg author |id=Proust,+Marcel | name=Marcel Proust}}
* {{FadedPage|id=Proust, Marcel|name=Marcel Proust|author=yes}}
* -{[http://gutenberg.net.au/plusfifty-n-z.html#letterP Works by Marcel Proust] at [[Project Gutenberg Australia]]}-
* {{Internet Archive author |sname=Marcel Proust}}
* {{Librivox author |id=4253}}
* -{[http://www.gerard-bertrand.net/aproustprem.htm The Album of Marcel Proust]}-
* -{[https://www.nytimes.com/2013/02/15/books/marcel-proust-and-swanns-way-at-the-morgan-library.html?ref=arts Swann's Way Exhibited at The Morgan Library]}-
* -{[http://partners.nytimes.com/library/books/041300proust.html "Why Proust? And Why Now?"]}-
* -{[https://web.archive.org/web/20060214035025/http://etext.library.adelaide.edu.au/p/proust/marcel/ University of Adelaide Library]}-
 
{{Authority control}}
{{Портал бар|Биографија|Француска|ЛГБТ}}
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[[Категорија:Рођени 1871.]]
[[Категорија:Умрли 1922.]]