Сунизам — разлика између измена

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{{legend|#66004a|[[Шиизам|Шиити]]}}
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'''Сунизам''' или '''сунитски ислам''' је највећи [[правци у исламу|огранак]] [[ислам]]а којег слиједи између 85% и 90% [[муслимани|муслимана]].<ref>{{cite encyclopedia|title=Sunni Islam|editor=John L. Esposito|encyclopedia=The Oxford Dictionary of Islam|publisher=Oxford University Press|location=Oxford|year=2014|url=http://www.oxfordislamicstudies.com/article/opr/t125/e2280}}</ref><ref>{{Cite book|last=Press|first=Oxford University|title=Sunni Islam: Oxford Bibliographies Online Research Guide|url=http://books.google.com/books?id=D5_N97bAiJ0C&pg=PA3|year=2010|publisher=Oxford University Press|isbn=978-0-19-980429-0|pages=3–}}</ref><ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.thefreedictionary.com/Sunnism|title= Sunnism|work=-Ologies & -Isms|publisher=The Gale Group|access-date=Oct 5, 2016 }}</ref> Сунитски муслимани су ({{јез-арап|أهل السنة والجماعة}}, „вјерници који слиједе [[суна|сунет]] [[Мухамед|посланика Мухамеда]] и чине већину [[uma|умета]]”).<ref name=EMMENA>{{cite encyclopedia|author=Tayeb El-Hibri, Maysam J. al Faruqi|title=Sunni Islam|editor=Philip Mattar|encyclopedia=The Encyclopedia of the Modern Middle East and North Africa|publisher=MacMillan Reference|year=2004|edition=Second}}</ref> Краће, најчешће се зову '''сунитским муслиманима''' или '''сунитима'''. Сунитски ислам се најчешће наводи као ортодоксни облик ислама.<ref>[http://www.answers.com/topic/sunni| Галеова енциклопедија Блиског истока и сјеверне Африке (ен)] "Највећи огранак ислама, некада означен као 'ортодоксни ислам'..." </ref> Ријеч ''сунит'' води поријекло од ријечи ''[[суна|сунет]]'' ({{јез-арап|سنة}}) које означава све оно што је говорио и радио [[Мухамед]], а што је потврђено у [[хадис]]има.
 
Сунити методологију црпе из [[Куран]]а и [[хадис]]а садржаних у [[Ел Кутуб ел Ситах]]у. Закони се такође доносе према ова два основна извора с додатком метода правног образложења ([[кијас]]а) и концензуса учењака ([[иџма]]). Постоји више мишљења учењака по питању свих сегмената изучавања вјере те су она временом сврстана у један од четири главна [[мезхеб]]а или се одговори на питања траже у Исламском Закону ([[иџтихад]]). Сунити вјерују да су учења све четири школе исправна и да се не разликују у темељним [[Имански шарти|увјерењима]] и [[Исламски шарти|практиковању]] [[ислам]]а, већ у различитим схватањима [[фикх]]а од стране имама, оснивача мезхеба, те њихових ученика.
 
Према сунитској традицији, Мухамед није јасно одредио наследника и муслиманска заједница је поступала у складу са његовом [[Суна|суном]] те изабрала његовог таста [[Abu Bakr|Ебу Бекра]] као првог [[Калифат|калифа]].<ref name=EMMENA/> То је у супротности са [[Шиизам|шиистингчким гледиштем]], према коме је Мухамед објавио током [[the event of Ghadir Khumm|догађаја на Гадир-Хуму]] да његов зет и рођак [[Алија|Али ибн Аби Талиб]] треба да буде његов наследник.<ref>{{cite book |last=Jafri|first= Syed Husain Mohammad|date= 27 August 1976 |title=The Origins and Early Development of Shi'a Islam (Millennium (Series)) (The Millennium (Series).)|location= Karachi, Pakistan |publisher=Oxford University Press (First Published By Longman Group Ltd and Librairie du Liban 1979)|pages= 19–21 |isbn= 9780195793871| quote= The Shi'a unequivocally take the word in the meaning of leader, master, and patron, and therefore the explicitly nominated successor of the Prophet. The Sunnis, on the other hand, interpret the word mawla in the meaning of a friend, or the nearest kin and confidant.}}</ref><ref>{{cite web|url= http://www.alimamali.com/html/eng/index.html|title= Chapter IV Iamhood|author= <!--Not stated-->|date= <!--Not stated-->|website= Imam Ali (a.s.) Foundation|publisher= Imam Ali (a.s.) Foundation, an affiliate website of the Grand Ayatullah al-Sayyid Ali al-Hussani al-Sistani|access-date= 24 December 2017|quote= Appointing the heir was done when the Prophet [P] returned from the (Departure Pilgrimage); he [p] gathered all the pilgrims in a place called (Ghadeer khum) addressing them with a lengthy speech through which he asked:(Do not I own thy souls more that thou do, they said: aye). Then he [p] took Imam Ali [p] by the shoulder, holding him in front of the people and said:(He whom I am his guardian, Ali be his guardian). Thus he [p] certified Imam Ali's [p] heavenly guardianship; so everybody who was present then paid tribute to him, including the second Caliph ( i. e Omar Ben Al-Khattab), who congratulated Ali [p] saying: (Blassed be thee O! Ali, thou became my guardian and the guardian of every Mo'men.)|archive-url= https://web.archive.org/web/20171211173515/http://www.alimamali.com/html/eng/index.html|archive-date= 2017-12-11|dead-url= no|df= }}</ref><ref>{{cite web |url=https://www.al-islam.org/articles/beliefs-did-prophet-s-appoint-successor |title=Beliefs: Did the Prophet (s) Appoint a Successor |last=<!--Not stated--> |first=<!--Not stated--> |date=<!--Not stated--> |website=Al-Islam.org |publisher=<!--Not stated--> |access-date=25 December 2017 |quote=The Shi'ah believe that the proclamation mentioned by the Qur'anic verse was fulfilled by the Prophet (s) when he appointed Imam 'Ali bin Abi Talib (a) as his successor on the day of Ghadir Khumm. |archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20171225203104/https://www.al-islam.org/articles/beliefs-did-prophet-s-appoint-successor |archive-date=2017-12-25 |dead-url=no |df= }}</ref><ref>{{cite web |url=https://ismailignosis.com/2015/07/07/imam-ali-declared-the-successor-of-prophet-muhammad-in-sunni-hadith-literature/ |title=Imam Ali declared the Successor of Prophet Muhammad in Sunni Hadith Literature |author=Mawlana Hazar Imam |date=<!--Not stated--> |website=Ismaili Gnosis |publisher=Ismaili Gnosis |access-date=25 December 2017 |quote=As you know, the Shi'a divided from the Sunni after the death of Prophet Muhammad. Hazrat Ali, the cousin and son-in-law of the Prophet, was in Shia belief, named by the Prophet to be the Legitimate Authority for the interpretation of the faith. For Shi'a today all over the world, he is regarded as the first imam. |archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20171226020706/https://ismailignosis.com/2015/07/07/imam-ali-declared-the-successor-of-prophet-muhammad-in-sunni-hadith-literature/ |archive-date=2017-12-26 |dead-url=no |df= }}</ref><ref name="NYT-20160103">{{cite news |last=Harney |first=John |title=How Do Sunni and Shia Islam Differ? |url=https://www.nytimes.com/2016/01/04/world/middleeast/q-and-a-how-do-sunni-and-shia-islam-differ.html |date=January 3, 2016 |work=The New York Times |accessdate=January 4, 2016 |quote=Shiites believe that he chose Ali, his cousin and son-in-law |archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20160103215745/http://www.nytimes.com/2016/01/04/world/middleeast/q-and-a-how-do-sunni-and-shia-islam-differ.html |archive-date=2016-01-03 |dead-url=no |df= }}</ref> Политичке тензије између сунита и шиија наставиле су се различитим интензитетом током целе [[History of Islam|исламске историје]] и оне су у последње време погоршане етничким сукобима и успоном [[Wahhabism|бахабизма]].<ref name=EMMENA/>
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Године 2009, Sunni Muslims constituted 87–90% of the world's Muslim population.<ref name=PEW2009>{{cite web|title=Mapping the Global Muslim Population|url=http://www.pewforum.org/2009/10/07/mapping-the-global-muslim-population/|accessdate=10 December 2014|date=2009-10-07|archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20151214172939/http://www.pewforum.org/2009/10/07/mapping-the-global-muslim-population/|archive-date=2015-12-14|dead-url=no|df=}}</ref> Sunni Islam is the world's largest religious denomination, followed by [[Catholic Church|Catholicism]].<ref>Connie R. Green, Sandra Brenneman Oldendorf, ''Religious Diversity and Children's Literature: Strategies and Resources'', Information Age Publishing, 2011, p.&nbsp;156. Quote: "Catholicism is the second largest religious body after Sunni Muslims"</ref> Its adherents are referred to in [[Arabic language|Arabic]] as ''{{transl|ar|ALA|ahl as-sunnah wa l-jamāʻah}}'' ("the people of the sunnah and the community") or ''{{transl|ar|ALA|ahl as-sunnah}}'' for short.<ref name=marmura-term>{{cite encyclopedia|author=Michael E. Marmura|title=Sunnī Islam. Historical Overview|encyclopedia=The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Islamic World|editor=John L. Esposito|publisher=Oxford University Press|location=Oxford|year=2009|chapter-url=http://www.oxfordreference.com/view/10.1093/acref/9780195305135.001.0001/acref-9780195305135-e-0764|subscription=yes|ref=harv|quote=Sunnī Muslims have thus referred to themselves as ahl al-sunnah wa al-jamāʿah (people of the sunnah and the community).|doi=10.1093/acref/9780195305135.001.0001|isbn=9780195305135|chapter=Sunnī Islam}}</ref><ref name=lucas-term>{{cite encyclopedia|encyclopedia=Encyclopedia of Christianity Online|author=Lucas, Scott C.|title=Sunnism, Sunni|publisher=Brill|year=2011|quote=The terms "Sunnism" and "Sunni" are anglicizations of Arab. ahl al-sunnah (the people of the Sunna [lit. "custom, way"]) or ahl al-sunnah wa-l-jamāʿa (the people of the Sunna and community).|doi=10.1163/2211-2685_eco_SI.100}}</ref> In English, its doctrines and practices are sometimes called ''Sunnism'',<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.thefreedictionary.com/Sunnism|title= Sunnism|work=-Ologies & -Isms|publisher=The Gale Group|access-date=Oct 5, 2016 }}</ref> while adherents are known as Sunni Muslims, Sunnis, Sunnites and Ahlus Sunnah. Sunni Islam is sometimes referred to as "orthodox Islam".<ref>{{cite book|author1=John Richard Thackrah|title=Dictionary of Terrorism|date=2013|publisher=Routledge|isbn=978-1-135-16595-6|page=252|edition=2, revised}}</ref><ref>{{cite book|editor1-last=Nasir|editor1-first=Jamal J.|title=The Status of Women Under Islamic Law and Modern Islamic Legislation|date=2009|publisher=Brill|isbn=9789004172739|page=11|edition=revised}}</ref><ref>{{cite book|author1=George W. Braswell|title=What You Need to Know about Islam & Muslims|date=2000|publisher=B&H Publishing Group|isbn=978-0-8054-1829-3|page=62|edition=illustrated}}</ref> However, other scholars of Islam, such as John Burton believe that there is no such thing as "orthodox Islam".<ref>An Introduction to the Hadith. John Burton. Published by Edinburgh University Press. 1996. p. 201. Cite: "Sunni: Of or pertaining ''sunna'', especially the ''Sunna'' of the Prophet. Used in conscious opposition to Shi'a, Shi'í. There being no ecclesia or centralized magisterium, the translation 'orthodox' is inappropriate. To the Muslim 'unorthodox' implies heretical, ''mubtadi'', from ''bid'a'', the contrary of ''sunna'', and so 'innovation'."</ref>
 
Године 2009, Sunniсунити Muslimsсу constitutedсачињавали 87–90% ofмуслиманске theпопулације world'sширом Muslim populationсвета.<ref name=PEW2009>{{cite web|title=Mapping the Global Muslim Population|url=http://www.pewforum.org/2009/10/07/mapping-the-global-muslim-population/|accessdate=10 December 2014|date=2009-10-07|archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20151214172939/http://www.pewforum.org/2009/10/07/mapping-the-global-muslim-population/|archive-date=2015-12-14|dead-url=no|df=}}</ref> SunniСунизам Islamје isнајвећа theсветска world's largest religiousверска denominationденоминација, followedчему byследи [[Catholic Church|Catholicismкатолицизам]].<ref>Connie R. Green, Sandra Brenneman Oldendorf, ''Religious Diversity and Children's Literature: Strategies and Resources'', Information Age Publishing, 2011, p.&nbsp;156. Quote: "Catholicism is the second largest religious body after Sunni Muslims"</ref> ItsЊегове adherentsпристалице areсе referred toназивају inу [[Arabic language|Arabicарапском]] as ''{{transl|ar|ALA|ahl as-sunnah wa l-jamāʻah}}'' ("the„људи peopleсуне ofи theзаједнице”) sunnahили and the community") orскраћено ''{{transl|ar|ALA|ahl as-sunnah}}'' for short.<ref name=marmura-term>{{cite encyclopedia|author=Michael E. Marmura|title=Sunnī Islam. Historical Overview|encyclopedia=The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Islamic World|editor=John L. Esposito|publisher=Oxford University Press|location=Oxford|year=2009|chapter-url=http://www.oxfordreference.com/view/10.1093/acref/9780195305135.001.0001/acref-9780195305135-e-0764|subscription=yes|ref=harv|quote=Sunnī Muslims have thus referred to themselves as ahl al-sunnah wa al-jamāʿah (people of the sunnah and the community).|doi=10.1093/acref/9780195305135.001.0001|isbn=9780195305135|chapter=Sunnī Islam}}</ref><ref name=lucas-term>{{cite encyclopedia|encyclopedia=Encyclopedia of Christianity Online|author=Lucas, Scott C.|title=Sunnism, Sunni|publisher=Brill|year=2011|quote=The terms "Sunnism" and "Sunni" are anglicizations of Arab. ahl al-sunnah (the people of the Sunna [lit. "custom, way"]) or ahl al-sunnah wa-l-jamāʿa (the people of the Sunna and community).|doi=10.1163/2211-2685_eco_SI.100}}</ref> InСунизам English,се itsпонекад doctrinesназива and„ортодоксним practices are sometimes called ''Sunnism'',<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.thefreedictionary.com/Sunnism|title= Sunnism|work=-Ologies & -Isms|publisher=The Gale Group|access-date=Oct 5, 2016 }}</ref> while adherents are known as Sunni Muslims, Sunnis, Sunnites and Ahlus Sunnah. Sunni Islam is sometimes referred to as "orthodox Islam"исламом”.<ref>{{cite book|author1=John Richard Thackrah|title=Dictionary of Terrorism|date=2013|publisher=Routledge|isbn=978-1-135-16595-6|page=252|edition=2, revised}}</ref><ref>{{cite book|editor1-last=Nasir|editor1-first=Jamal J.|title=The Status of Women Under Islamic Law and Modern Islamic Legislation|date=2009|publisher=Brill|isbn=9789004172739|page=11|edition=revised}}</ref><ref>{{cite book|author1=George W. Braswell|title=What You Need to Know about Islam & Muslims|date=2000|publisher=B&H Publishing Group|isbn=978-0-8054-1829-3|page=62|edition=illustrated}}</ref> However,Поједини otherучењаци scholars of Islamислама, suchкао asшто Johnје BurtonЏон believeБартон, thatмеђутим thereсматрају isда noне suchпостоји thing„ортодоксни as "orthodox Islam"ислам”.<ref>An Introduction to the Hadith. John Burton. Published by Edinburgh University Press. 1996. p. 201. Cite: "Sunni: Of or pertaining ''sunna'', especially the ''Sunna'' of the Prophet. Used in conscious opposition to Shi'a, Shi'í. There being no ecclesia or centralized magisterium, the translation 'orthodox' is inappropriate. To the Muslim 'unorthodox' implies heretical, ''mubtadi'', from ''bid'a'', the contrary of ''sunna'', and so 'innovation'."</ref>
The [[Quran]], together with [[hadith]] (especially those collected in [[Kutub al-Sittah]]) and [[Ijma|binding juristic consensus]] form the basis of all [[Fiqh|traditional jurisprudence]] within Sunni Islam. [[Sharia]] rulings are derived from these basic sources, in conjunction with [[Qiyas|analogical reasoning]], [[Istislah|consideration]] of [[Maslaha|public welfare]] and [[Istihsan|juristic discretion]], using the [[Principles of Islamic jurisprudence|principles of jurisprudence]] developed by the traditional [[Madhhab|legal schools]].
 
[[Куран]], заједно са [[хадис]]ом<ref name="Forte-1978-2">{{cite journal|last1=Forte|first1=David F.|title=Islamic Law; the impact of Joseph Schacht|journal=Loyola of Los Angeles International and Comparative Law Review |date=1978|volume=1|page=2 |url=http://www.soerenkern.com/pdfs/islam/IslamicLawTheImpactofJosephSchacht.pdf |accessdate=19 April 2018}}</ref><ref>{{cite book|title=Hans Wehr English&Arabic Dictionary |url=https://archive.org/details/HansWehrEnglishArabicDctionarySearchableFormat}}</ref><ref name="Modarresi">{{cite book|author=Mohammad Taqi al-Modarresi|authorlink=Mohammad Taqi al-Modarresi|title=The Laws of Islam|date=26 March 2016|publisher=Enlight Press|isbn=978-0994240989|url=http://almodarresi.com/en/books/pdf/TheLawsofIslam.pdf|accessdate=22 December 2017|ref=Modarresi|language=English}}</ref> (посебно онима које је прикупио [[Kutub al-Sittah|Кутуб ас-Сита]]) и [[Ijma|иџмом]] формира основу целокупног [[Fiqh|традиционалног права]] у сунизму. [[Sharia|Шеријатске]] одлуке су изведене из тих основних извора, у споју са [[Qiyas|аналогним расуђивањем]], [[Istislah|разматрањем]] [[Maslaha|јавне добробити]] и [[Istihsan|правне дискреције]], користећи [[Principles of Islamic jurisprudence|принципе судске праксе]] које су развиле традиционалне [[Madhhab|правне школе]].
In matters of [[Aqidah|creed]], the Sunni tradition upholds the six pillars of ''[[Iman (concept)|iman]]'' (faith) and comprises the [[Ash'ari]] and [[Maturidi]] schools of [[Kalam|rationalistic theology]] as well as the textualist school known as [[Traditionalist Theology (Islam)|traditionalist theology]].
 
У стварима [[Aqidah|вере]], сунитска традиција подупире шест стубова [[Iman (concept)|имана]] (вере) и обухвата [[Ash'ari|асхари]] и [[Maturidi|матуридске]] школе [[Kalam|рационалистичке]] теологије, као и текстуалистичку школу познату као [[Traditionalist Theology (Islam)|традиционалистичка]] теологија.
 
== Школе шеријатског права (''мезхеба'') ==