Социјализам — разлика између измена

60 бајтова додато ,  пре 1 године
м
popunjavanje sablona Page
м (popunjavanje sablona Page)
[[Датотека:Red flag II.svg|десно|мини|150п|[[Застава|Црвена застава]], симбол радничког и социјалистичког покрета]]
'''Социјализам''' (енгл. socialism; франц. socialisme; нем. sozialismus; порекло према лат. socialis: друштвени; савезнички), појам који означава идеје, теорије, покрете који теже колективном власништву и контроли над средствима производње, размене и дистрибуције<ref>https://en.oxforddictionaries.com/definition/socialism</ref>. Настао је у 18. веку у Европи као реакција на индустријализацију и капитализам.<ref>Sinclair, Upton (1. јануар 1918). Upton Sinclair's: A Monthly Magazine: for Social Justice, by Peaceful Means If Possible. »Socialism, you see, is a bird with two wings. The definition is 'social ownership and democratic control of the instruments and means of production.'«</ref><ref>Nove, Alec. „Socialism”. New Palgrave Dictionary of Economics, Second Edition (2008). »A society may be defined as socialist if the major part of the means of production of goods and services is in some sense socially owned and operated, by state, socialised or cooperative enterprises. The practical issues of socialism comprise the relationships between management and workforce within the enterprise, the interrelationships between production units (plan versus markets), and, if the state owns and operates any part of the economy, who controls it and how.«</ref><ref>Nove, Alec. „Socialism”. New Palgrave Dictionary of Economics, Second Edition (2008). »A society may be defined as socialist if the major part of the means of production of goods and services is in some sense socially owned and operated, by state, socialised or cooperative enterprises. The practical issues of socialism comprise the relationships between management and workforce within the enterprise, the interrelationships between production units (plan versus markets), and, if the state owns and operates any part of the economy, who controls it and how.« Rosser, Mariana V. and J Barkley Jr. (23. јул 2003). Comparative Economics in a Transforming World Economy. {{page1|location=|publisher=MIT Press. {{page|year=|isbn=978-0-262-18234-8|pages=53}}. »Socialism is an economic system characterised by state or collective ownership of the means of production, land, and capital.«</ref> Социјализам се кроз историју свог развоја појављивао унутар различитих политичких концепција и теорија, од којих су најзначајније: утопијски социјализам, анархизам, марксизам различитих струја, анти-ауторитарни комунизам, бољшевизам (ауторитарни комунизам), религијски социјализам (хришћански социјализам и сл.), демократски социјализам, социјалдемократија итд.<ref>„What else does a socialist economic system involve? Those who favor socialism generally speak of social ownership, social control, or socialization of the means of production as the distinctive positive feature of a socialist economic system” N. Scott Arnold. The Philosophy and Economics of Market Socialism : A Critical Study. Oxford University Press. 1998. p. 8</ref><ref>Busky, Donald F. (20. јул 2000). Democratic Socialism: A Global Survey. Praeger. {{page|year=|isbn=978-0-275-96886-1|pages=2}}. »Socialism may be defined as movements for social ownership and control of the economy. It is this idea that is the common element found in the many forms of socialism.«</ref><ref>Bertrand Badie; Dirk Berg-Schlosser; Leonardo Morlino (2011). International Encyclopedia of Political Science. SAGE Publications, Inc. стр. {{page|year=2456|isbn=978-1-4129-5963-6|pages=}} »Socialist systems are those regimes based on the economic and political theory of socialism, which advocates public ownership and cooperative management of the means of production and allocation of resources.«</ref><ref>Zimbalist, Sherman and Brown, Andrew, Howard J. and Stuart (1988). Comparing Economic Systems: A Political-Economic Approach. Harcourt College Pub. {{page|year=|isbn=978-0-15-512403-5|pages=7}}. »Pure socialism is defined as a system wherein all of the means of production are owned and run by the government and/or cooperative, nonprofit groups.«</ref>
 
== Увод ==
Централне вредности заједничке свим облицима социјализма јесу критика приватног власништва и његово социјализовање, тј. подруштвљење (или барем неки облик друштвене контроле над њим), те начело друштвене једнакости.<ref>Brus, Wlodzimierz (5. новембар 2015). The Economics and Politics of Socialism. Routledge. {{page|year=|isbn=978-0-415-86647-7|pages=87}}. »This alteration in the relationship between economy and politics is evident in the very definition of a socialist economic system. The basic characteristic of such a system is generally reckoned to be the predominance of the social ownership of the means of production.«</ref><ref>Michie, Jonathan (1. јануар 2001). Readers Guide to the Social Sciences. Routledge. стр. {{page|year=1516|isbn=978-1-57958-091-9|pages=}} »Just as private ownership defines capitalism, social ownership defines socialism. The essential characteristic of socialism in theory is that it destroys social hierarchies, and therefore leads to a politically and economically egalitarian society. Two closely related consequences follow. First, every individual is entitled to an equal ownership share that earns an aliquot part of the total social dividend…Second, in order to eliminate social hierarchy in the workplace, enterprises are run by those employed, and not by the representatives of private or state capital. Thus, the well-known historical tendency of the divorce between ownership and management is brought to an end. The society — i.e. every individual equally — owns capital and those who work are entitled to manage their own economic affairs.«</ref><ref>„2. (Government, Politics & Diplomacy) any of various social or political theories or movements in which the common welfare is to be achieved through the establishment of a socialist economic system” „Socialism” at The Free dictionary</ref><ref>Arnold, Scott (1994). The Philosophy and Economics of Market Socialism: A Critical Study. {{page1|location=|publisher=Oxford University Press. {{page|year=|isbn=978-0-19-508827-4|pages=7—8}}. »This term is harder to define, since socialists disagree among themselves about what socialism ‘really is.’ It would seem that everyone (socialists and nonsocialists alike) could at least agree that it is not a system in which there is widespread private ownership of the means of production…To be a socialist is not just to believe in certain ends, goals, values, or ideals. It also requires a belief in a certain institutional means to achieve those ends; whatever that may mean in positive terms, it certainly presupposes, at a minimum, the belief that these ends and values cannot be achieved in an economic system in which there is widespread private ownership of the means of production…Those who favor socialism generally speak of social ownership, social control, or socialization of the means of production as the distinctive positive feature of a socialist economic system.«</ref><ref>Hastings, Mason and Pyper, Adrian, Alistair and Hugh (21. децембар 2000). The Oxford Companion to Christian Thought. {{page1|location=|publisher=Oxford University Press. {{page|year=|isbn=978-0-19-860024-4|pages=677}}. »Socialists have always recognized that there are many possible forms of social ownership of which co-operative ownership is one…Nevertheless, socialism has throughout its history been inseparable from some form of common ownership. By its very nature it involves the abolition of private ownership of capital; bringing the means of production, distribution, and exchange into public ownership and control is central to its philosophy. It is difficult to see how it can survive, in theory or practice, without this central idea.«</ref> Појавни облици социјализма међусобно се разликују по начину (средствима) којим ће се те вредности постићи. Иако се садржај појма социјализма може пронаћи већ у раним искуствима човечанства (појединим етичко-религијским учењима<ref>Cort, John C. (1988). Christian Socialism: An Informal History. Maryknoll, New York: Orbis Books. {{page|year=|isbn=978-0-88344-574-7|pages=}}</ref>, у пракси неких религијских заједница, јудео-хришћанском месијанизму, односно у учењима свих оних који су боље друштво покушавали постићи концепцијама праведности утемељеним на једнакости и братству), социјализам је модерна идеја.
 
У том смислу елементи социјалистичког мишљења могу се пронаћи у делима славних утописта (Т. [[Кампанела]], [[Томас Мор]]).<ref>von Mises, Ludwig (1981) [1951]. „Christianity and Socialism”. Socialism. New Heaven: Yale University Press</ref> У делу Утопија из 1516. [[Томас Мор]] држи да »тамо где је власништво приватно, где је новац мерило свих ствари, тешко је и немогуће да заједница има праведну владу«.
1.572.075

измена