Kljunasta flauta — разлика између измена

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{{Infobox instrument-lat
| name = RecorderKljunasta flauta
| image = VariousRecorderFlutes.jpg
| image_size = 250px
| alt =
| caption = ''VariousRazne recorderskljunaste (secondflaute from(drugi thes bottomdna disassembledje intorasklopljen itsu threetri partsdela)''
| background =woodwind
| names = SeePogledajte {{section link||Otherdrugi languagesjezici}}
| classification =
*[[Wind instrument|WindDuvački]]
*[[Woodwind instrument|WoodwindDrveni duvački]]
*[[Аерофони инструменти|Aerofon]]
*[[Aerophone]]
| hornbostel_sachs = 421.221.12
| hornbostel_sachs_desc = FluteFlauta withsa internalunutrašnjim ductotvorima andza fingerkanale holesi prste
| inventors =
| developed =
| attack =
| decay =
| range = Soprano recorderflauta: -{C<sub>5</sub>–D<sub>7</sub>(G<sub>7</sub>)}-[[File:Tonumfang-Sopranblockflöte.jpg|180px|center]]
| pitch =
| related =
*[[Tin whistle|limena frula]]
*[[Flageolet|Flažolet]]
*[[Three-hole pipe|Cev sa tri otvora]]
*[[Csakan]]
| musicians = [[List of recorder players|RecorderSvirači playerskljunaste flaute]]
*[[Three-hole pipe]]
| musicians =[[List of recorder players|Recorder players]]
| builders =
| articles =
}}
{{rut}}
'''Kljunasta flauta''' je [[woodwind instrument|drveni duvački]] [[muzički instrument]] in the group known as ''internal duct flutes''—flutes with a [[whistle]] mouthpiece, also known as [[fipple]] flutes. A recorder can be distinguished from other duct flutes by the presence of a thumb-hole for the upper hand and seven finger-holes: three for the upper hand and four for the lower. It is the most prominent duct flute in the [[Classical music|western classical tradition]].<ref name=":6">{{Cite web|url = http://www.oxfordmusiconline.com/subscriber/article/grove/music/42041|title = Duct flute|date = |access-date = 2016-02-06|website = Grove Music Online|publisher = Oxford University Press|last = Montagu|first = Jeremy}}</ref>
 
'''Kljunasta flauta''' je [[woodwindDrveni instrumentduvački instrumenti|drveni duvački]] [[muzički instrument]] inu thegrupi grouppoznatoj known askao ''internalunutarnje ductkanalne flutesflaute''—flutes with— flaute asa usnim delom [[whistleЗвиждаљка|zviždaljke]] mouthpiece, alsotakođe knownpoznate askao [[fipple|fipl]] flutesflaute. AKljunasta recorderflauta canse berazlikuje distinguishedod fromdrugih otherkanalnih ductflauta flutespo byprisustvu theotvora presenceza ofpalac aza thumb-holegornju foršaku thei uppersedam handotvora andza seven finger-holesprste: threetri forza thegornju upperi handčetiri andza fourdonju for the loweršaku. It is the mostOna prominentje ductnajprominentnija flutekanalna inflauta theu [[Classical music|westernzapadnjačkoj classicalklasičnoj traditiontradiciji]].<ref name=":6">{{Cite web|url = http://www.oxfordmusiconline.com/subscriber/article/grove/music/42041|title = Duct flute|date = |access-date = 2016-02-06|website = Grove Music Online|publisher = Oxford University Press|last = Montagu|first = Jeremy}}</ref>
Recorders are made in different sizes with names and compasses roughly corresponding to different vocal ranges. The sizes most commonly in use today are the soprano (aka "descant", lowest note C<sub>5</sub>), alto (aka "treble", lowest note F<sub>4</sub>), tenor (lowest note C<sub>4</sub>) and bass (lowest note F<sub>3</sub>). Recorders are traditionally constructed from wood and ivory, while most recorders made in recent years are constructed from molded plastic. The recorders' internal and external proportions vary, but the bore is generally reverse conical (i.e. tapering towards the foot) to cylindrical, and all recorder fingering systems make extensive use of [[#Forked fingerings|forked fingerings]].
 
Kljunaste flaute su napravljene u različitim veličinama sa imenima i krugovima koji grubo korespondiraju različitim glasnim rasponima. Veličine koje se danas najčešće koriste su soprano (aka „deskant”, najniža nota -{C}-<sub>5</sub>), alto (aka „trostruk”, najniža nota -{F}-<sub>4</sub>), tenor (najniža nota -{C}-<sub>4</sub>) i bas (najniža nota -{F}-<sub>3</sub>). Kljunaste flaute su tradicionalno pravljene od drveta i [[Слоновача|slonovače]], dok je većina kljunastih flauta napravljena posljednjih godina konstruisana od livene plastike. Unutrašnje i spoljne proporcije kljunastih flauta variraju, ali provrt je uglavnom reverzno koničan (tj. sužava se prema podnožju) do cilindričnog, a svi sistemi za prste flauta ekstenzivno koriste [[#viljuškasti prstenovi|viljuškaste prstenove]] za prste.
The recorder is first documented in Europe in the [[Medieval music|Middle Ages]], and continued to enjoy wide popularity in the [[Renaissance music|Renaissance]] and [[Baroque music|Baroque]] periods, but was little used in the [[Classical period (music)|Classical]] and [[Romantic music|Romantic]] periods. It was revived in the 20th century as part of the [[historically informed performance]] movement, and became a popular amateur and educational instrument. Composers who have written for the recorder include [[Claudio Monteverdi|Monteverdi]], [[Jean-Baptiste Lully|Lully]], [[Henry Purcell|Purcell]], [[George Frideric Handel|Handel]], [[Antonio Vivaldi|Vivaldi]], [[Georg Philipp Telemann|Telemann]], [[Johann Sebastian Bach]], [[Paul Hindemith]], [[Benjamin Britten]], [[Leonard Bernstein]], [[Luciano Berio]], and [[Arvo Pärt]]. Today, there are many professional [[List of recorder players|recorder players]] who demonstrate the instrument's full solo range and a large community of amateurs.<ref name=":5">For example, Eve O'Kelly describes how [[Frans Brüggen]] "achieved worldwide recognition as a recorder virtuoso" in her book ''The Recorder Today'', Cambridge University Press, 1990. {{ISBN|0-521-36681-X}}. p. 62</ref>
 
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The sound of the recorder is often described as clear and sweet,<ref name=":7"/> and has historically been associated with birds and shepherds. It is notable for its quick response and its corresponding ability to produce a wide variety of articulations. This ability, coupled with its open finger holes, allow it to produce a wide variety of tone colors and special effects. Acoustically, its tone is relatively pure and odd harmonics predominate in its sound.<ref name=":4">{{Citation |first=Jean-Marc |last=Bonard |date=January 2001 |title=The Physicist's Guide to the Orchestra |journal= European Journal of Physics |volume=22 |issue=1 |pages=89–101 |doi=10.1088/0143-0807/22/1/309 |arxiv=physics/0008053|bibcode=2001EJPh...22...89B }}</ref><ref name=":7">{{Cite web|url = http://www.oxfordmusiconline.com:80/subscriber/article/grove/music/23022|title = Recorder|date = |access-date = 2016-02-06|website = Grove Music Online|publisher = Oxford University Press|last = Lasocki|first = David}}</ref>
 
TheZvuk soundkljunaste offlaute thečesto recorderse isopisuje oftenkao describedčist asi clear and sweetsladak,<ref name=":7"/> andi hasistorijski historicallyje beenbio associatedpovezan withsa birdspticama andi shepherdspastirima. ItOdlikuje isse notablebrzim forodzivom itsi quickodgovarajućom responsesposobnošću andstvaranja itsširokog correspondingspektra ability to produce a wide variety of articulationsartikulacija. ThisOva abilitysposobnost, coupledzajedno withsa itsotvorenim openrupama fingerza holesprste, allowomogućava itda tose produceproizvede aširoka widepaleta varietytonskih ofboja tonei colorsspecijalnih and special effectsefekata. AcousticallyAkustično, itsnjen toneton isje relativelyrelativno purečist, anda oddu harmonicsnjegovom predominatezvuku inpreovlađuju itsneobični soundharmonici.<ref name=":4">{{Citation |first=Jean-Marc |last=Bonard |date=January 2001 |title=The Physicist's Guide to the Orchestra |journal= European Journal of Physics |volume=22 |issue=1 |pages=89–101 |doi=10.1088/0143-0807/22/1/309 |arxiv=physics/0008053|bibcode=2001EJPh...22...89B }}</ref><ref name=":7">{{Cite web|url = http://www.oxfordmusiconline.com:80/subscriber/article/grove/music/23022|title = Recorder|date = |access-date = 2016-02-06|website = Grove Music Online|publisher = Oxford University Press|last = Lasocki|first = David}}</ref>
 
== Reference ==