Pušenje — разлика између измена

50 бајтова додато ,  пре 1 године
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{{short description|PracticePraksa inu whichkojoj ase substancesupstanca issagoreva, burned and the resultinga smokenastali breatheddim inudiše toda bebi tastedse andokusio absorbedi intoapsorbovao theu bloodstreamkrvotok}}
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'''Pušenje''' is a practice in which a substance is burned and the resulting smoke breathed in to be tasted and absorbed into the [[bloodstream]]. Most commonly, the substance used is the dried leaves of the [[tobacco]] plant, which have been rolled into a small square of rice paper to create a small, round cylinder called a "[[cigarette]]". Smoking is primarily practiced as a [[route of administration]] for [[recreational drug use]] because the [[combustion]] of the dried plant leaves vaporizes and delivers [[active substance]]s into the lungs where they are rapidly absorbed into the bloodstream and reach bodily tissue. In the case of cigarette smoking these substances are contained in a mixture of aerosol particles and gasses and include the pharmacologically active alkaloid [[nicotine]]; the vaporization creates heated aerosol and gas into a form that allows inhalation and deep penetration into the lungs where absorption into the bloodstream of the active substances occurs. In some cultures, smoking is also carried out as a part of various rituals, where participants use it to help induce [[trance]]-like states that, they believe, can lead them to [[Enlightenment (spiritual)|spiritual enlightenment]].
 
'''Pušenje''' je praksa u kojoj se supstanca sagoreva, a nastali dim udiše da bi se okusio i apsorbovao u [[krvotok]]. Najčešće se koristi sušeni listovi biljke [[duvan]]a, koji su valjani u mali kvadrat rižinog papira da bi se stvorio mali, okrugli cilindar koji se zove „[[cigareta]]”. Pušenje se prvenstveno praktikuje kao [[Način primene leka|način primene]] [[Recreational drug use|rekreativne upotrebe lekova]], jer [[Sagorevanje|sagorevanje]] osušenih biljnih listova dovodi do isparavanja i dostavljanja [[Aktivna jedinjenja|aktivnih supstanci]] u pluća, gde se brzo apsorbuju u krvotok i dospevaju do telesnog tkiva. U slučaju pušenja cigareta, ove materije se nalaze u mešavini čestica aerosola i gasova, i uključuju farmakološki aktivni [[alkaloid]] [[nikotin]]; isparavanje stvara zagrejani aerosol i gas u obliku koji omogućava udisanje i duboku penetraciju u pluća gde dolazi do apsorpcije aktivnih supstanci u krvotok. U nekim kulturama pušenje se izvodi i kao deo različitih rituala, gde ga učesnici koriste kako bi izazvali stanje nalik [[trans]]u, koje oni veruju da ih može dovesti do [[Просветљење|duhovnog prosvetljenja]].
Smoking generally has negative health effects, because smoke inhalation inherently poses challenges to various [[physiology|physiologic]] processes such as [[respiration (physiology)|respiration]]. Diseases related to [[tobacco smoking]] have been shown to kill approximately half of long-term smokers when compared to average mortality rates faced by non-smokers. Smoking caused over five million deaths a year from 1990 to 2015.<ref name=Lancet5April2017>{{cite journal|last1=Reitsma|first1=Marissa B|last2=Fullman|first2=Nancy|last3=Ng|first3=Marie|last4=Salama|first4=Joseph S|last5=Abajobir|first5=Amanuel|title=Smoking prevalence and attributable disease burden in 195 countries and territories, 1990–2015: a systematic analysis from the Global Burden of Disease Study 2015|journal=The Lancet|date=April 2017|doi=10.1016/S0140-6736(17)30819-X|pmid=28390697|pmc=5439023|volume=389|issue=10082|pages=1885–906}}</ref>
 
SmokingPušenje generallygeneralno hasima negativenegativne healthzdravstvene effectsefekte, becausejer smokeudisanje inhalationdima inherentlyinherentno posespredstavlja challengesizazove to variousrazličitim [[physiology|physiologicfiziološkim]] processesprocesima suchkao asšto je [[respiration (physiology)|respirationdisanje]]. DiseasesPokazalo relatedse toda bolesti povezane sa [[tobaccoПушење дувана|pušenjem smokingduvana]] haveubijaju beenaproksimativno shownpolovinu todugotrajnih killpušača approximatelyu halfpoređenju ofsa long-termprosečnim smokersstopama whensmrtnosti comparedsa tokojima averagese mortalitynepušači rates faced by non-smokerssuočavaju. SmokingPušenje causedje overuzrokovalo fivepreko millionpet deathsmiliona asmrtnih yearslučajeva fromgodišnje od 1990. todo 2015. godine.<ref name=Lancet5April2017>{{cite journal|last1=Reitsma|first1=Marissa B|last2=Fullman|first2=Nancy|last3=Ng|first3=Marie|last4=Salama|first4=Joseph S|last5=Abajobir|first5=Amanuel|title=Smoking prevalence and attributable disease burden in 195 countries and territories, 1990–2015: a systematic analysis from the Global Burden of Disease Study 2015|journal=The Lancet|date=April 2017|doi=10.1016/S0140-6736(17)30819-X|pmid=28390697|pmc=5439023|volume=389|issue=10082|pages=1885–906}}</ref>
Smoking is one of the most common forms of recreational drug use. Tobacco smoking is the most popular form, being practiced by over one billion people globally, of whom the majority are in the [[Developing country|developing countries]].<ref name=WHO2014>{{cite web|title=Tobacco Fact sheet N°339|url=http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs339/en/|accessdate=13 May 2015|date=May 2014}}</ref> Less common drugs for smoking include [[cannabis smoking|cannabis]] and [[opium]]. Some of the substances are classified as hard [[narcotic]]s, like [[heroin]], but the use of these is very limited as they are usually not commercially available. [[Cigarette]]s are primarily industrially manufactured but also can be hand-rolled from loose tobacco and [[rolling paper]]. Other smoking implements include [[Tobacco pipe|pipes]], [[cigar]]s, [[Beedi|bidis]], [[hookah]]s, and [[bong]]s.
 
Pušenje je jedan od najčešćih oblika rekreativne upotrebe droga. Pušenje duhana je najpopularniji oblik koji u svetu praktikuje preko milijardu ljudi, od kojih je većina u [[Developing country|zemljama u razvoju]].<ref name=WHO2014>{{cite web|title=Tobacco Fact sheet N°339|url=http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs339/en/|accessdate=13 May 2015|date=May 2014}}</ref> Manje uobičajeni lekovi za pušenje uključuju [[kanabis]] i [[opijum]]. Neke supstance su klasifikovane kao teški [[narkotici]], poput [[heroin]]a, ali upotreba istih je vrlo ograničena, jer obično nisu komercijalno dostupni. [[Cigarete]] se prvenstveno industrijski proizvode, ali mogu se i ručno valjati od mlevenog duvana i [[rolling paper|papira]] za uvijanje. Ostali uređaji za pušenje uključuju [[Лула|lule]], [[Цигара|cigare]], [[Beedi|bidije]], [[Nargila|nargile]] i [[bong]].
Smoking can be dated to as early as 5000 BCE, and has been recorded in many different cultures across the world. Early smoking evolved in association with religious ceremonies; as offerings to deities, in cleansing rituals or to allow [[shaman]]s and priests to alter their minds for purposes of divination or spiritual enlightenment. After the European exploration and conquest of the Americas, the practice of smoking tobacco quickly spread to the rest of the world. In regions like India and Sub-Saharan Africa, it merged with existing practices of smoking (mostly of cannabis). In Europe, it introduced a new type of social activity and a form of drug intake which previously had been unknown.
 
Pušenje se može datirati već od 5000 pne, a zabeleženo je u mnogim različitim kulturama širom sveta. Rano pušenje razvijalo se u kontekstu verskih obreda; kao ponuda božanstvima, u ritualima čišćenja ili kao omogućavanje [[šaman]]ima i sveštenicima da menjaju svoje misli u svrhu proricanja ili duhovnog prosvetljenja. Nakon evropskog istraživanja i osvajanja Amerika, praksa pušenja duvana brzo se proširila na ostatak sveta. U regionima poput Indije i subsaharske Afrike, ona se spojila sa postojećim praksama pušenja (uglavnom kanabisa). U Evropi je to dovelo do uvođenja nove vrstu društvene aktivnosti i oblika unosa droga koji do tada nije bio nepoznat.
Perception surrounding smoking has varied over time and from one place to another: holy and sinful, sophisticated and vulgar, a [[panacea (medicine)|panacea]] and deadly health hazard. In the 20th century, smoking came to be viewed in a decidedly negative light, especially in Western countries. This is due to smoking tobacco being among the leading causes of many diseases such as [[lung cancer]], [[Myocardial infarction|heart attack]], [[Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease|COPD]], [[erectile dysfunction]], and [[Congenital disorder|birth defects]].<ref name=WHO2014/> The health hazards of smoking have caused many countries to institute high taxes on tobacco products, run ads to discourage use, limit ads that promote use, and provide help with quitting for those who do smoke.<ref name=WHO2014/>
 
Percepcija o pušenju varirala je tokom vremena i od jednog mesta do drugog: sveta i grešna, sofisticirana i vulgarna, [[Панацеа (медицина)|lekovita]] i smrtonosno opasna po zdravlje. U 20. veku pušenje je posmatrano u negativnom svetlu, posebno u zapadnim zemljama. To je zbog pušenja duvana koji je jedan od vodećih uzroka mnogih bolesti poput [[lung cancer|raka pluća]], [[Myocardial infarction|srčanog udara]], [[Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease|COPD]], [[erectile dysfunction|erektilne disfunkcije]] i [[Kongenitalna anomalija|kongenitalnih anomalija]].<ref name=WHO2014/> Štete po zdravlje od pušenja uzrokovale su da mnoge države uvedu visoke poreze na duvanske proizvode, prikazuju oglase kako bi odvratile upotrebu, ograniče oglase koji promovišu upotrebu, i da pružaju pomoć u odustajanju od pušenja.<ref name=WHO2014/>
 
== Reference ==