Растварање — разлика између измена

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[[Датотека:SaltInWaterSolutionLiquid.jpg|мини|десно|200п|Раствор кухињске соли у води]]
'''Растварање''' је процес диспереговања (равномерног разређивања, распоређивања) једне [[хемијска супстанца|супстанце]] или више њих у другој. Осим код правих [[смеше|смеша]], увек је праћено разменом енергије са околином.<ref name="Atkins7th">{{Atkins7th}}</ref><ref name="McQuarrie1st">{{McQuarrie1st}}</ref>
{{рут}}
Растварач је супстанца која раствара растворак, чиме се формира [[раствор]]. A solvent is usually a liquid but can also be a solid, a gas, or a [[supercritical fluid]]. The quantity of solute that can dissolve in a specific volume of solvent varies with [[temperature]]. Common uses for [[Organic compound|organic]] solvents are in [[dry cleaning]] (e.g. [[tetrachloroethylene]]), as [[paint thinner]]s (e.g. [[toluene]], [[turpentine]]), as nail polish removers and glue solvents ([[acetone]], [[methyl acetate]], [[ethyl acetate]]), in spot removers (e.g. [[hexane]], petrol ether), in detergents ([[D-limonene|citrus terpenes]]) and in [[perfume]]s ([[ethanol]]). Water is a solvent for [[Chemical polarity#Polarity of molecules|polar molecules]] and the most common solvent used by living things; all the ions and proteins in a cell are dissolved in water within a cell. Solvents find various applications in chemical, [[pharmaceutical]], oil, and gas industries, including in [[Chemical synthesis|chemical syntheses]] and purification processes.
 
== Растварач ==
== Растворљивост ==
'''Растворљивост''' неке супстанце представља број грама супстанције који се раствара у 100г растварача на одређеној темпаратури.
 
== Вишекомпонентни ==
 
=== Растварачи ===
{| class="wikitable"
|-
! Име !! Композиција
|-
| Solvent 645 || toluene 50%, butyl acetate 18%, ethyl acetate 12%, butanol 10%, ethanol 10%.
|-
| Solvent 646 || [[toluene]] 50%, [[ethanol]] 15%, [[butanol]] 10%, butyl- or [[amyl acetate]] 10%, [[ethyl cellosolve]] 8%, [[acetone]] 7%<ref>[https://www.dcpt.ru/rastvoritel-646/#tab3 dcpt.ru Solvent 646 Characteristics (ru)]</ref>
|-
| Solvent 647 || butyl- or amyl acetate 29.8%, [[ethyl acetate]] 21.2%, butanol 7.7%, toluene or [[pyrobenzene]] 41.3%<ref>[https://www.dcpt.ru/rastvoritel-647/#tab3 dcpt.ru Solvent 647 Characteristics (ru)]</ref>
|-
| Solvent 648 || [[butyl acetate]] 50%, ethanol 10%, butanol 20%, toluene 20%<ref>[https://www.dcpt.ru/rastvoritel-marki-r-648/ dcpt.ru Solvent 648 Characteristics (ru)]</ref>
|-
| Solvent 649 || ethyl cellosolve 30%, butanol 20%, [[xylene]] 50%
|-
| Solvent 650 || ethyl cellosolve 20%, butanol 30%, xylene 50%<ref>[https://www.dcpt.ru/primenenie-r-650-ximicheskogo-rastvoritelya/ dcpt.ru Solvent 650 Characteristics (ru)]</ref>
|-
| Solvent 651 || [[white spirit]] 90%, butanol 10%
|-
| Solvent KR-36 || butyl acetate 20%, butanol 80%
|-
| Solvent P-4 || toluene 62%, acetone 26%, butyl acetate 12%.
|-
| Solvent P-10 || xylene 85%, acetone 15%.
|-
| Solvent P-12 || toluene 60%, butyl acetate 30%, xylene 10%.
|-
| Solvent P-14 || cyclohexanone 50%, toluene 50%.
|-
| Solvent P-24 || solvent 50%, xylene 35%, acetone 15%.
|-
| Solvent P-40 || toluene 50%, ethyl cellosolve 30%, acetone 20%.
|-
| Solvent P-219 || toluene 34%, cyclohexanone 33%, acetone 33%.
|-
| Solvent P-3160 || butanol 60%, ethanol 40%.
|-
| Solvent RCC || xylene 90%, butyl acetate 10%.
|-
| Solvent RML || ethanol 64%, ethylcellosolve 16%, toluene 10%, butanol 10%.
|-
| Solvent PML-315 || toluene 25%, xylene 25%, butyl acetate 18%, ethyl cellosolve 17%, butanol 15%.
|-
| Solvent PC-1 || toluene 60%, butyl acetate 30%, xylene 10%.
|-
| Solvent PC-2 || white spirit 70%, xylene 30%.
|-
| Solvent RFG || ethanol 75%, butanol 25%.
|-
| Solvent RE-1 || xylene 50%, acetone 20%, butanol 15%, ethanol 15%.
|-
| Solvent RE-2 || Solvent 70%, ethanol 20%, acetone 10%.
|-
| Solvent RE-3 || solvent 50%, ethanol 20%, acetone 20%, ethyl cellosolve 10%.
|-
| Solvent RE-4 || solvent 50%, acetone 30%, ethanol 20%.
|-
| Solvent FK-1 (?) || absolute alcohol (99.8%) 95%, ethyl acetate 5%
|}
 
=== Разређивачи ===
{| class="wikitable"
|-
! Име !! Композиција
|-
|Thinner RKB-1 || butanol 50%, xylene 50%
|-
| Thinner RKB-2 || butanol 95%, xylene 5%
|-
| Thinner RKB-3 || xylene 90%, butanol 10%
|-
| Thinner M || ethanol 65%, butyl acetate 30%, ethyl acetate 5%.
|-
| Thinner P-7 || cyclohexanone 50%, ethanol 50%.
|-
| Thinner R-197 || xylene 60%, butyl acetate 20%, ethyl cellosolve 20%.
|-
| Thinner of WFD || toluene 50%, butyl acetate (or amyl acetate) 18%, butanol 10%, ethanol 10%, ethyl acetate 9%, acetone 3%.
|}
 
== Физичка својства ==
 
=== Табела својстава уобичајених растварача ===
The solvents are grouped into [[nonpolar]], polar [[aprotic]], and polar [[protic]] solvents, with each group ordered by increasing polarity. The [[Property|properties]] of solvents which exceed those of water are bolded.
 
<!-- Here is a table of data; skip past it to edit the text. -->
{| border="1" cellpadding="5" cellspacing="0" style="margin:auto; text-align:center;" class="wikitable"
|-
! Solvent
! [[Chemical formula]]
! [[Boiling point]]<ref name=boil>[http://www.xydatasource.com/xy-showdatasetpage.php?datasetcode=9724855&dsid=1138&searchtext=solvent Solvent Properties – Boiling Point] {{webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20110614130546/http://www.xydatasource.com/xy-showdatasetpage.php?datasetcode=9724855&dsid=1138&searchtext=solvent |date=14 June 2011 }}. Xydatasource.com. Retrieved on 26 January 2013.</ref><br/>(°C)
! [[Dielectric constant]]<ref>[http://macro.lsu.edu/HowTo/solvents/Dielectric%20Constant%20.htm Dielectric Constant] {{webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20100704013154/http://macro.lsu.edu/HowTo/solvents/Dielectric%20Constant%20.htm |date=4 July 2010 }}. Macro.lsu.edu. Retrieved on 26 January 2013.</ref>
! [[Density]]<br/>(g/mL)
! [[Molecular dipole moment|Dipole moment]]<br/>([[Debye|D]])
<!-- ### Non-polar solvents ### -->
|- style="background:#ddd;height: 50px;vertical-align:top"
! colspan="6"|
 
==== [[Nonpolar]] solvents ====
|- style="background:#ddd;"
| [[Pentane]]
| CH<sub>3</sub>CH<sub>2</sub>CH<sub>2</sub>CH<sub>2</sub>CH<sub>3</sub>
| 36
| 1.84
| 0.626
| 0.00
|- style="background:#ddd;"
| [[Cyclopentane]]
| [[File:Cyclopentane 200.svg|100px]]<br/>C<sub>5</sub>H<sub>10</sub>
| 40
| 1.97
| 0.751
| 0.00
|- style="background:#ddd;"
| [[Hexane]]
| CH<sub>3</sub>CH<sub>2</sub>CH<sub>2</sub>CH<sub>2</sub>CH<sub>2</sub>CH<sub>3</sub>
| 69
| 1.88
| 0.655
| 0.00
|- style="background:#ddd;"
| [[Cyclohexane]]
| [[File:Cyclohexane-2D-skeletal.svg|90px]]<br/>C<sub>6</sub>H<sub>12</sub>
| 81
| 2.02
| 0.779
| 0.00
|- style="background:#ddd;"
| [[Benzene]]
| [[File:Benzene 200.svg|90px]]<br/>C<sub>6</sub>H<sub>6</sub>
| 80
| 2.3
| 0.879
| 0.00
|- style="background:#ddd;"
| [[Toluene]]
| C<sub>6</sub>H<sub>5</sub>-CH<sub>3</sub>
| '''111'''
| 2.38
| 0.867
| 0.36
|- style="background:#ddd;"
| [[1,4-Dioxane]]
| [[File:1-4-Dioxane.svg|100px]]<br/>C<sub>4</sub>H<sub>8</sub>O<sub>2</sub>
| '''101'''
| 2.3
| '''1.033'''
| 0.45
|- style="background:#ddd;"
| [[Chloroform]]
| CHCl<sub>3</sub>
| 61
| 4.81
| '''1.498'''
| 1.04
|- style="background:#ddd;"
| [[Diethyl ether]]
| CH<sub>3</sub>CH<sub>2</sub>-O-CH<sub>2</sub>CH<sub>3</sub>
| 35
| 4.3
| 0.713
| 1.15
|- style="background:#ddd;"
| [[Dichloromethane]] (DCM)
| CH<sub>2</sub>Cl<sub>2</sub>
| 40
| 9.1
| '''1.3266'''
| 1.60
|- style="background:#ddd;"
<!-- ### Polar aprotic solvents ### -->
|- style="background:#fcf;height: 50px;vertical-align:top"
! colspan="6"|
 
==== [[Chemical polarity|Поларни]] [[Polar solvent|апротични]] растварачи ====
|- style="background:#fcf;"
| [[Tetrahydrofuran]] (THF)
| [[File:Tetrahydrofuran.svg|100px]]<br/>C<sub>4</sub>H<sub>8</sub>O
| 66
| 7.5
| 0.886
| 1.75
|- style="background:#fcf;"
| [[Ethyl acetate]]
| [[File:Essigsäureethylester.svg]]<br/>CH<sub>3</sub>-C(=O)-O-CH<sub>2</sub>-CH<sub>3</sub>
| 77
| 6.02
| 0.894
| 1.78
|- style="background:#fcf;"
| [[Acetone]]
| [[File:Acetone-2D-skeletal.svg|90px]]<br/>CH<sub>3</sub>-C(=O)-CH<sub>3</sub>
| 56
| 21
| 0.786
| '''2.88'''
|- style="background:#fcf;"
| [[Dimethylformamide]] (DMF)
| [[File:Dimethylformamide.svg|100px]]<br/>H-C(=O)N(CH<sub>3</sub>)<sub>2</sub>
| '''153'''
| 38
| 0.944
| '''3.82'''
|- style="background:#fcf;"
| [[Acetonitrile]] (MeCN)
| CH<sub>3</sub>-C≡N
| 82
| 37.5
| 0.786
| '''3.92'''
|- style="background:#fcf;"
| [[Dimethyl sulfoxide]] (DMSO)
| [[File:Dimethylsulfoxid.svg]]<br/>CH<sub>3</sub>-S(=O)-CH<sub>3</sub>
| '''189'''
| 46.7
| '''1.092'''
| '''3.96'''
|- style="background:#fcf;"
| [[Nitromethane]]
| CH<sub>3</sub>-NO<sub>2</sub>
| '''100–103'''
| 35.87
| '''1.1371'''
| '''3.56'''
|- style="background:#fcf;"
| [[Propylene carbonate]]
| C<sub>4</sub>H<sub>6</sub>O<sub>3</sub>
| '''240'''
| 64.0
| '''1.205'''
| '''4.9'''
<!-- ### Polar protic solvents ### -->
|- style="background:#fcc;height: 50px;vertical-align:top"
! colspan="6"|
 
==== Поларни [[Polar solvent|протични]] растварачи ====
|- style="background:#fcc;"
| [[Formic acid]]
| [[File:Formic acid.svg|100px]]<br/>H-C(=O)OH
| '''101'''
| 58
| '''1.21'''
| 1.41
|- style="background:#fcc;"
| [[n-Butanol|''n''-Butanol]]
| CH<sub>3</sub>CH<sub>2</sub>CH<sub>2</sub>CH<sub>2</sub>OH
| '''118'''
| 18
| 0.810
| 1.63
|- style="background:#fcc;"
| [[Isopropyl alcohol]] (IPA)
| [[File:2-Propanol2.svg|100px]]<br/>CH<sub>3</sub>-CH(-OH)-CH<sub>3</sub>
| 82
| 18
| 0.785
| 1.66
|- style="background:#fcc;"
| [[1-Propanol|''n''-Propanol]]
| CH<sub>3</sub>CH<sub>2</sub>CH<sub>2</sub>OH
| 97
| 20
| 0.803
| 1.68
|- style="background:#fcc;"
| [[Ethanol]]
| CH<sub>3</sub>CH<sub>2</sub>OH
| 79
| 24.55
| 0.789
| 1.69
|- style="background:#fcc;"
| [[Methanol]]
| CH<sub>3</sub>OH
| 65
| 33
| 0.791
| 1.70
|- style="background:#fcc;"
| [[Acetic acid]]
| [[File:Essigsäure - Acetic acid.svg|100px]]<br/>CH<sub>3</sub>-C(=O)OH
| '''118'''
| 6.2
| '''1.049'''
| 1.74
|- style="background:#fcc;"
| [[Water (molecule)|Water]]
| [[File:Wasser Strukturformel V1.svg|75px]]<br/>H-O-H
| 100
| 80
| 1.000
| 1.85
|}
 
 
=== Вредности параметра Хансенове растворљивости ===
The Hansen solubility parameter values<ref name=hansen/><ref name=hansen2/> are based on [[Van der Waals forces|dispersion bonds]] (δD), [[polar bonds]] (δP) and [[hydrogen bonds]] (δH). These contain information about the inter-molecular interactions with other solvents and also with polymers, pigments, nanoparticles, etc. This allows for rational formulations knowing, for example, that there is a good HSP match between a solvent and a polymer. Rational substitutions can also be made for "good" solvents (effective at dissolving the solute) that are "bad" (expensive or hazardous to health or the environment). The following table shows that the intuitions from "non-polar", "polar aprotic" and "polar protic" are put numerically – the "polar" molecules have higher levels of δP and the protic solvents have higher levels of δH. Because numerical values are used, comparisons can be made rationally by comparing numbers. For example, acetonitrile is much more polar than acetone but exhibits slightly less hydrogen bonding.
 
<!-- Here is a table of data; skip past it to edit the text. -->
{| border="1" cellpadding="5" cellspacing="0" style="margin:auto; text-align:center;" class="wikitable"
|-
! Растварач
! [[Chemical formula]]
! δD Dispersion
! δP Polar
! δH Hydrogen bonding
<!-- ### Non-polar solvents ### -->
|- style="background:#ddd;height: 50px;vertical-align:top"
! colspan="5"|
 
==== Неполарни растварачи ====
|- style="background:#ddd;"
| [[n-Hexane]]
| CH<sub>3</sub>CH<sub>2</sub>CH<sub>2</sub>CH<sub>2</sub>CH<sub>2</sub>CH<sub>3</sub>
| 14.9
| 0.0
| 0.0
|- style="background:#ddd;"
| [[Benzene]]
| C<sub>6</sub>H<sub>6</sub>
| 18.4
| 0.0
| 2.0
|- style="background:#ddd;"
| [[Toluene]]
| C<sub>6</sub>H<sub>5</sub>-CH<sub>3</sub>
| 18.0
| 1.4
| 2.0
|- style="background:#ddd;"
| [[Diethyl ether]]
| CH<sub>3</sub>CH<sub>2</sub>-O-CH<sub>2</sub>CH<sub>3</sub>
| 14.5
| 2.9
| 4.6
|- style="background:#ddd;"
| [[Chloroform]]
| CHCl<sub>3</sub>
| 17.8
| 3.1
| 5.7
|- style="background:#ddd;"
| [[1,4-Dioxane]]
| <u>/-CH<sub>2</sub>-CH<sub>2</sub>-O-CH<sub>2</sub>-CH<sub>2</sub>-O-\</u>
| 17.5
| 1.8
| 9.0
|- style="background:#fcf;height: 50px;vertical-align:top"<!-- ### Polar aprotic solvents ### -->
! colspan="5"|
 
==== Поларни апротични растварачи ====
|- style="background:#fcf;"
| [[Ethyl acetate]]
| CH<sub>3</sub>-C(=O)-O-CH<sub>2</sub>-CH<sub>3</sub>
| 15.8
| 5.3
| 7.2
|- style="background:#fcf;"
| [[Tetrahydrofuran]] (THF)
| <u>/-CH<sub>2</sub>-CH<sub>2</sub>-O-CH<sub>2</sub>-CH<sub>2</sub>-\</u>
| 16.8
| 5.7
| 8.0
|- style="background:#fcf;"
| [[Dichloromethane]]
| CH<sub>2</sub>Cl<sub>2</sub>
| 17.0
| 7.3
| 7.1
|- style="background:#fcf;"
| [[Acetone]]
| CH<sub>3</sub>-C(=O)-CH<sub>3</sub>
| 15.5
| 10.4
| 7.0
|- style="background:#fcf;"
| [[Acetonitrile]] (MeCN)
| CH<sub>3</sub>-C≡N
| 15.3
| 18.0
| 6.1
|- style="background:#fcf;"
| [[Dimethylformamide]] (DMF)
| H-C(=O)N(CH<sub>3</sub>)<sub>2</sub>
| 17.4
| 13.7
| 11.3
|- style="background:#fcf;"
| [[Dimethyl sulfoxide]] (DMSO)
| CH<sub>3</sub>-S(=O)-CH<sub>3</sub>
| 18.4
| 16.4
| 10.2
<!-- ### Polar protic solvents ### -->
|- style="background:#fcc;height: 50px;vertical-align:top"
! colspan="5"|
 
==== Поларни протични растварачи ====
|- style="background:#fcc;"
| [[Acetic acid]]
| CH<sub>3</sub>-C(=O)OH
| 14.5
| 8.0
| 13.5
|- style="background:#fcc;"
| [[n-Butanol|''n''-Butanol]]
| CH<sub>3</sub>CH<sub>2</sub>CH<sub>2</sub>CH<sub>2</sub>OH
| 16.0
| 5.7
| 15.8
|- style="background:#fcc;"
| [[Isopropanol]]
| CH<sub>3</sub>-CH(-OH)-CH<sub>3</sub>
| 15.8
| 6.1
| 16.4
|- style="background:#fcc;"
| [[1-Propanol|''n''-Propanol]]
| CH<sub>3</sub>CH<sub>2</sub>CH<sub>2</sub>OH
| 16.0
| 6.8
| 17.4
|- style="background:#fcc;"
| [[Ethanol]]
| CH<sub>3</sub>CH<sub>2</sub>OH
| 15.8
| 8.8
| 19.4
|- style="background:#fcc;"
| [[Methanol]]
| CH<sub>3</sub>OH
| 14.7
| 12.3
| 22.3
|- style="background:#fcc;"
| [[Formic acid]]
| H-C(=O)OH
| 14.6
| 10.0
| 14.0
|- style="background:#fcc;"
| [[Water (molecule)|Water]]
| H-O-H
| 15.5
| 16.0
| 42.3
|-
|}
 
If, for environmental or other reasons, a solvent or solvent blend is required to replace another of equivalent solvency, the substitution can be made on the basis of the [[Hansen solubility parameters]] of each. The values for mixtures are taken as the [[weighted average]]s of the values for the neat solvents. This can be calculated by [[trial-and-error]], a spreadsheet of values, or HSP software.<ref name=hansen>{{cite book | vauthors = Abbott S, Hansen CM | title = Hansen solubility parameters in practice. | publisher = Hansen-Solubility | date = 2008 | isbn = 978-0-9551220-2-6 | url = https://books.google.com/books?id=efMbTvlfc8wC&printsec=frontcover#v=onepage&q=&f=false }}</ref><ref name=hansen2>{{cite book | vauthors = Hansen CM | title = Hansen solubility parameters: a user's handbook. | publisher = CRC press | date = January 2002 | isbn = 978-0-8493-7248-3 | url = https://books.google.com/books?id=gprF31cvT2oC&printsec=frontcover }}</ref> A 1:1 mixture of [[toluene]] and [[1,4 dioxane]] has δD, δP and δH values of 17.8, 1.6 and 5.5, comparable to those of [[chloroform]] at 17.8, 3.1 and 5.7 respectively. Because of the health hazards associated with toluene itself, other mixtures of solvents may be found using a full [[Hansen solubility parameter|HSP]] dataset.
 
== Види још ==
 
== Референце ==
{{reflist|2}}
 
== Литература ==
{{refbegin|30em}}
* {{cite book | vauthors = Lowery TH, Richardson KS | title = Mechanism and Theory in Organic Chemistry | publisher = [[Harper Collins Publishers]] | edition = 3rd | date = 1987 | isbn = 978-0-06-364044-3 }}
{{refend}}
 
== Спољашње везе ==
{{Commonscat|Solvents}}
* -{[http://www.esig.org "European Solvents Industry Group - ESIG - ESIG European Solvents Industry Group"] Solvents in Europe.}-
* -{[https://web.archive.org/web/20041113054037/http://www.usm.maine.edu/~newton/Chy251_253/Lectures/Solvents/Solvents.html Table and text] O-Chem Lecture}-
* -{[https://web.archive.org/web/20041207190740/http://virtual.yosemite.cc.ca.us/smurov/orgsoltab.htm Tables] Properties and toxicities of organic solvents}-
* -{[https://www.cdc.gov/niosh/topics/organsolv/ CDC – Organic Solvents – NIOSH Workplace Safety and Health Topic]}-
* -{[https://www.epa.gov/hwgenerators/final-rule-2013-conditional-exclusions-solid-waste-and-hazardous-waste-solvent EPA – Solvent Contaminated Wipes]}-
 
{{Реакциони механизми}}
 
{{Authority control}}
 
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