Deca u vojsci — разлика између измена

6 бајтова уклоњено ,  пре 1 месеца
м
Враћене измене корисника 62.4.55.50 (разговор) на последњу измену корисника Жељко Тодоровић
ознаке: мобилна измена мобилно веб-уређивање визуелно уређивање враћено
м (Враћене измене корисника 62.4.55.50 (разговор) на последњу измену корисника Жељко Тодоровић)
ознака: враћање
 
'''DjecaDeca u vojsci''' su djecadeca (definisana prema [[Конвенција о правима детета|Konvencija o pravima deteta]] kao osobe ispod 18 godina) koja su u vezi sa vojnim organizacijama, kao što su državne [[naoružane jedinice]] i [[nedržavne naoružane grupe]].<ref name=":0">UNICEF (2007). [https://www.unicef.org/emerg/files/ParisPrinciples310107English.pdf "The Paris Principles: Principles and guidelines on children associated with armed forces or armed groups"] (PDF). [https://web.archive.org/web/20161030083755/http://www.unicef.org/emerg/files/ParisPrinciples310107English.pdf Archived] (PDF) from the original on 30 October 2016. Приступљено 24 January 2018.</ref> Tokom istorije i u mnogim kulturama, deca su bila uključena u vojne kampanje.<ref name=":1">{{Cite journal|last=Wessells|first=Mike|date=1. 11. 1997|title=Child Soldiers|url=https://doi.org/10.1080/00963402.1997.11456787|journal=Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists|volume=53|issue=6|doi=10.1080/00963402.1997.11456787|issn=0096-3402|pages=32-39}}</ref> Na primer, hiljade djecedece je učestvovalo na svim stranama u Prvom svetskom ratu i u Drugom svetskom ratu.<ref name=":2">{{Cite web|url=http://www.bbc.co.uk/guides/zcvdhyc|title=How did Britain let 250,000 underage soldiers fight in WW1?|website=BBC Guides|language=en-GB|accessdate=19. 5. 2019}}</ref><ref name=":3">{{Cite book|url=https://books.google.rs/books?id=Jzxt9FFBDPwC&pg=PA603&redir_esc=y|title=Rising '44: The Battle for Warsaw|last=Davies|first=Norman|year=2008|publisher=Pan Macmillan|isbn=9780330475747|language=en|pages=}}</ref><ref name=":4">{{Cite book|url=https://books.google.rs/books?id=zQYQ0tho6mAC&pg=PA55&redir_esc=y#v=onepage&q&f=false|title=Armies of the Young: Child Soldiers in War and Terrorism|last=Rosen|first=David M.|year=2005|publisher=Rutgers University Press|isbn=9780813535685|language=en|pages=}}</ref><ref name=":5">{{Cite book|url=https://books.google.rs/books?id=92R8Pmr6xoAC&pg=PR3-IA96&redir_esc=y#v=onepage&q&f=false|title=Little Soldiers: How Soviet Children Went to War, 1941-1945|last=Kucherenko|first=Olga|year=2011|publisher= Oxford University Press | location = Oxford|isbn=9780191610998|language=en|pages=}}</ref> DjecaDeca mogu biti obučena i korišćena u borbama, mogu im biti dodeljene uloge poput prenosioca ili kurira, i korišćena za taktičku prednost kao [[ljudski štit]], ili za političku prednost u [[Пропаганда|propagandama]].<ref name=":0" /><ref name=":6">{{Cite web|url=https://www.historyextra.com/period/children-at-war/|title=Children at war|website=History Extra|language=en|accessdate=19. 5. 2019}}</ref>
 
DjecaDeca su lake mete za [[vojnu regrutaciju]] zato što su podložnija uticaju za razliku od odraslih.<ref name=":7">{{Cite journal|last=Blattman|first=Christopher|last2=Beber|first2=Bernd|date=2013/01|title=The Logic of Child Soldiering and Coercion|url=https://www.cambridge.org/core/journals/international-organization/article/logic-of-child-soldiering-and-coercion/EB8CC2FE13CC49C2846EEDE4FFD432FE|journal=International Organization|language=en|volume=67|issue=1|doi=10.1017/S0020818312000409|issn=0020-8183|pages=65-104}}</ref><ref name=":8">{{Cite book|url=https://www.worldcat.org/title/on-killing-the-psychological-cost-of-learning-to-kill-in-war-and-society/oclc/427757599|title=On killing: the psychological cost of learning to kill in war and society|last=Grossman|first=Dave|year=2009|publisher=Little, Brown and Co.|isbn=9780316040938|location=New York|language=English|oclc=427757599}}</ref><ref name=":1" /><ref name=":9">McGurk, Dennis; Cotting, Dave I.; Britt, Thomas W.; Adler, Amy B. (2006). "Joining the ranks: The role of indoctrination in transforming civilians to service members". In Adler, Amy B.; Castro, Carl Andrew; Britt, Thomas W. (eds.). ''Military life: The psychology of serving in peace and combat''. volume 2: Operational stress. Westport: Praeger Security International. pp. 13–31. {{ISBN|978-0275983024}}.</ref> Neki su regrutovani od strane vojske, dok drugi biraju da se priključe, često da bi pobegli od siromaštva i zato što očekuju da im vojni život nudi [[obred prelaska u zrelo doba]].<ref name=":1" /><ref name=":10">{{Cite book|url=https://www.worldcat.org/title/young-soldiers-why-they-choose-to-fight/oclc/53830868|title=Young soldiers: why they choose to fight|last=Brett|first=Rachel|last2=Specht|first2=Irma|year=2004|publisher=Lynne Rienner Publishers|isbn=9781588262851|location=Boulder, Colo.|language=English|oclc=53830868}}</ref><ref name=":11">{{Cite journal|last=Gee|first=David|last2=Taylor|first2=Rachel|date=1. 11. 2016|title=Is it Counterproductive to Enlist Minors into the Army?|url=https://doi.org/10.1080/03071847.2016.1265837|journal=The RUSI Journal|volume=161|issue=6|doi=10.1080/03071847.2016.1265837|issn=0307-1847|pages=36-48}}</ref><ref>Coalition to Stop the Use of Child Soldiers (2008). [https://www.child-soldiers.org/Handlers/Download.ashx?IDMF=26c0549d-aa35-4f1a-8e34-5956f8e2ec51 "Child Soldiers Global Report 2008"]. [https://web.archive.org/web/20181010192928/https://www.child-soldiers.org/Handlers/Download.ashx?IDMF=26c0549d-aa35-4f1a-8e34-5956f8e2ec51 Archived] from the original on 10 October 2018. Приступљено 16 May 2018.</ref><ref name=":12">Machel, G (1996). [https://www.unicef.org/graca/a51-306_en.pdf "Impact of armed conflict on children"] (PDF). [https://web.archive.org/web/20170708004644/https://www.unicef.org/graca/a51-306_en.pdf Archived](PDF) from the original on 8 July 2017. Приступљено 28 January 2018.</ref>
 
Regrutovana djecadeca koja prežive naoružan konflikt često pate od psihičkih oboljenja, slabo su pismena i loša su sa brojevima, i imaju probleme sa ponašanjem poput povećane [[Агресивност|agresivnosti]], što vodi ka većem riziku od siromaštva i nezaposlenosti u odraslom dobu.<ref name=":13">{{Cite web|url=https://www.scribd.com/document/328943706/Child-Soldiering-Impact-on-Childhood-Development-and-Learning-Capacity|title=Child Soldiering: Impact on Childhood Development and Learning Capacity {{!}} Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (214 views)|website=Scribd|language=en|accessdate=19. 5. 2019}}</ref> Istraživanja u UK i SAD-u su otkrila da je regrutacija dece adolescenata, i kada nisu poslata u rat propraćeno višim rizikom od pokušaja samoubistava,<ref name=":14">{{Cite journal|last=Ursano|first=Robert J.|last2=Kessler|first2=Ronald C.|last3=Stein|first3=Murray B.|last4=Naifeh|first4=James A.|last5=Aliaga|first5=Pablo A.|last6=Fullerton|first6=Carol S.|last7=Wynn|first7=Gary H.|last8=Vegella|first8=Patti L.|last9=Ng|first9=Tsz Hin Hinz|date=1. 7. 2016|title=Risk Factors, Methods, and Timing of Suicide Attempts Among US Army Soldiers|url=https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4937827/|journal=JAMA psychiatry|volume=73|issue=7|doi=10.1001/jamapsychiatry.2016.0600|issn=2168-622X|pmc=PMCPMC4937827|pmid=27224848|pages=741-749}}</ref><ref>UK, Ministry of Defence (2017). "UK armed forces suicide and open verdict deaths: 1984-2017". Приступљено 24 May 2018.</ref> mentalnim poremećajima povezanim sa stresom,<ref name=":15">{{Cite journal|last=Fear|first=N. T.|last2=Hull|first2=L.|last3=Rona|first3=R. J.|last4=Greenberg|first4=N.|last5=Jones|first5=M.|last6=Hotopf|first6=M.|last7=Wessely|first7=S.|last8=Goodwin|first8=L.|date=2015/07|title=Are common mental disorders more prevalent in the UK serving military compared to the general working population?|url=https://www.cambridge.org/core/journals/psychological-medicine/article/are-common-mental-disorders-more-prevalent-in-the-uk-serving-military-compared-to-the-general-working-population/B93009A3084218BCDB1D7AD3AAA6B7BF|journal=Psychological Medicine|language=en|volume=45|issue=9|doi=10.1017/S0033291714002980|issn=0033-2917|pages=1881-1891}}</ref><ref name=":16">{{Cite journal|last=Ryan|first=Donna H.|last2=Alfonso|first2=Anthony J.|last3=Williamson|first3=Donald A.|last4=Martin|first4=Pamela Davis|date=1. 2. 2006|title=Psychological Adjustment during Army Basic Training|url=https://academic.oup.com/milmed/article/171/2/157/4577874|journal=Military Medicine|language=en|volume=171|issue=2|doi=10.7205/MILMED.171.2.157|issn=0026-4075|pages=157-160}}</ref> zloupotrebom alkohola<ref name=":17">{{Cite journal|last=Head|first=M.|last2=Goodwin|first2=L.|last3=Debell|first3=F.|last4=Greenberg|first4=N.|last5=Wessely|first5=S.|last6=Fear|first6=N. T.|year=2016|title=Post-traumatic stress disorder and alcohol misuse: comorbidity in UK military personnel|url=https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4977328/|journal=Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology|volume=51|doi=10.1007/s00127-016-1177-8|issn=0933-7954|pmc=PMCPMC4977328|pmid=26864534|pages=1171-1180}}</ref><ref name=":18">{{Cite journal|last=Mattiko|first=Mark J.|last2=Olmsted|first2=Kristine L. Rae|last3=Brown|first3=Janice M.|last4=Bray|first4=Robert M.|date=2011-6|title=Alcohol use and negative consequences among active duty military personnel|url=https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21376475|journal=Addictive Behaviors|volume=36|issue=6|doi=10.1016/j.addbeh.2011.01.023|issn=1873-6327|pmid=21376475|pages=608-614}}</ref> i nasilnim ponašanjem.<ref name=":19">{{Cite journal|last=Fear|first=Nicola T.|last2=Wessely|first2=Simon|last3=Fahy|first3=Tom|last4=Hull|first4=Lisa|last5=Greenberg|first5=Neil|last6=Rona|first6=Roberto J.|last7=Jones|first7=Margaret|last8=Dean|first8=Kimberlie|last9=MacManus|first9=Deirdre|date=16. 3. 2013|title=Violent offending by UK military personnel deployed to Iraq and Afghanistan: a data linkage cohort study|url=https://www.thelancet.com/journals/lancet/article/PIIS0140-6736(13)60354-2/abstract|journal=The Lancet|language=English|volume=381|issue=9870|doi=10.1016/S0140-6736(13)60354-2|issn=0140-6736|pmid=23499041|pages=907-917}}</ref><ref name=":20">{{Cite journal|last=Bouffard|first=Leana Allen|year=2005|month=01|title=The Military as a Bridging Environment in Criminal Careers: Differential Outcomes of the Military Experience|url=https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/10.1177/0095327X0503100206|journal=Armed Forces & Society|language=en|volume=31|issue=2|doi=10.1177/0095327x0503100206|issn=0095-327X|pages=273-295}}</ref><ref name=":21">{{Cite journal|last=Milner|first=Joel S.|last2=Guimond|first2=Jennifer|last3=Thomsen|first3=Cynthia J.|last4=Crouch|first4=Julie L.|last5=Merrill|first5=Lex L.|date=1. 8. 2005|title=Perpetration of Severe Intimate Partner Violence: Premilitary and Second Year of Service Rates|url=https://academic.oup.com/milmed/article/170/8/705/4577714|journal=Military Medicine|language=en|volume=170|issue=8|doi=10.7205/MILMED.170.8.705|issn=0026-4075|pages=705-709}}</ref>
 
Brojni sporazumi zahtevaju obuzdavanje učešća dece u naoružanim konfliktima. Prema organizaciji [[Međunarodna deca vojnici]] ovi dogovori su pomogli u sprečavanju regrutacije dece,<ref name=":22">{{Cite web|url=https://www.child-soldiers.org/where-are-there-child-soldiers|title=Where are child soldiers?|website=Child Soldiers International|language=en|accessdate=19. 5. 2019|archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20180201210707/https://www.child-soldiers.org/where-are-there-child-soldiers|archive-date=01. 02. 2018|url-status=dead}}</ref> ali praksa ostaje široko raširena i deca nastavljaju da učestvuju u neprijateljstvima širom sveta.<ref name=":23">Child Soldiers International (2012). [https://www.child-soldiers.org/Handlers/Download.ashx?IDMF=da92581e-7130-40e6-bf3a-a86b944f17dd "Louder than words: An agenda for action to end state use of child soldiers"] {{Wayback|url=https://www.child-soldiers.org/Handlers/Download.ashx?IDMF=da92581e-7130-40e6-bf3a-a86b944f17dd |date=20190308184421 }}. Приступљено 19 January 2018.</ref><ref name=":24">Child Soldiers International (2016). [https://www.child-soldiers.org/Handlers/Download.ashx?IDMF=38e90749-3a76-4441-82dc-bd49f1217599 "A law unto themselves? Confronting the recruitment of children by armed groups"] {{Wayback|url=https://www.child-soldiers.org/Handlers/Download.ashx?IDMF=38e90749-3a76-4441-82dc-bd49f1217599 |date=20190308184421 }}. Приступљено 19 January 2018.</ref> Neke ekonomski jake nacije nastavljaju da se oslanjaju na vojne regrute od 16 ili 17 godina, a korišćenje mlađe dece u naoružanim konfliktima se povećalo poslednjih godina kao kod vojnih [[Исламизам|Islamski]]<nowiki/>h pokreta i grupa koje se bore sa njima koje regrutuju decu u velikim brojevima.<ref name=":25">United Nations Secretary-General (2017). [https://www.un.org/ga/search/view_doc.asp?symbol=S/2017/821&Lang=E&Area=UNDOC "Report of the Secretary-General: Children and armed conflict, 2017"]. ''un.org''. [https://web.archive.org/web/20180125015450/http://www.un.org/ga/search/view_doc.asp?symbol=S%2F2017%2F821&Lang=E&Area=UNDOC Archived] from the original on 25 January 2018. Приступљено 24 January 2018.</ref>