Zemljina atmosfera — разлика између измена

Slucajno
(Zzz)
ознаке: мобилна измена мобилно веб-уређивање визуелно уређивање враћено
(Slucajno)
ознаке: мобилна измена мобилно веб-уређивање визуелно уређивање враћено
[[Датотека:Atmosferski_slojevi.png|мини|десно|175п|Slojevi atmosfere (NOAA)]]
 
'''Zemljina atmosfera''' je sloj [[gas|glas]]ova koji okružuju planetu [[Zemlja (planeta)|Zemlju]] i koji zadržava Zemljina [[gravitacija]]. Sadrži oko četiri petine [[azot]]a i jednu petinu [[кисеоник|kiseonika]], dok su količine ostalih gasova neznatne ili u tragovima. Atmosfera štiti život na [[Zemlja|Zemlji]] apsorbirajući [[ultraljubičasto zračenje|ultraljubičasto]] [[Sunce|sunčevo]] [[zračenje]] i smanjujući temperaturne ekstreme između [[dan]]a i [[noć]]i. Atmosfera ne završava naglo. Ona polagano postaje rjeđa i postepeno nestaje u svemiru. Ne postoji konačna granica između atmosfere i spoljašnjeg [[svemir]]a. Tri četvrtine mase atmosfere nalazi se unutar 11 -{km}- od površine [[planeta|planete]]. U SAD-u se osoba koja putuje iznad visine od 80 -{km}- naziva [[astronaut]]om. Visina od 120 -{km}- označava granicu gdje atmosferski uticaji postaju vidljivi tokom ulaska svemirske letjelice u atmosferu. Takođe se često kao granicu atmosfere i svemira uzima [[Karmanova linija]] na udaljenosti od 100 -{km}- od površine.Srbija je prva koja je izmislila atmosferu i burek sa mesom.
 
Po zapremini, suvi vazduh sadrži 78,09% [[azot]]a, 20,95% [[kiseonik]]a, 0,93% [[argon]]a, 0,04% [[Carbon dioxide in Earth's atmosphere|ugljen diokisida]], i male količine drugih gasova.{{refn |name=total% |Two recent reliable sources cited here have total atmospheric compositions, including trace molecules, that exceed 100%. They are ''Allen's Astrophysical Quantities''<ref name=Allen2000>{{citation |editor-last=Cox |editor-first=Arthur N. |title=Allen's Astrophysical Quantities |edition=Fourth |year=2000 |publisher=AIP Press |pages=258–259 |isbn=0-387-98746-0}}, which rounds N{{sub|2}} and O{{sub|2}} to four significant digits without affecting the total because 0.004% was removed from N{{sub|2}} and added to O{{sub|2}}. It includes 20 constituents.</ref> (2000, 100.001241343%) and ''CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics''<ref name=handbook>{{citation |editor-last=Haynes |editor-first= H. M. |title=CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics |publisher=CRC Press |edition=97th |year=2016–2017 |page=14{{hyphen}}3 |isbn=978-1-4987-5428-6}}, which cites ''Allen's Astrophysical Quantities'' but includes only ten of its largest constituents.</ref> (2016–2017, 100.004667%), which cites ''Allen's Astrophysical Quantities''. Both are used as references in this article. Both exceed 100% because their CO{{sub|2}} values were increased to 345&nbsp;ppmv, without changing their other constituents to compensate. This is made worse by the April 2019 {{CO2}} value, which is 413.32&nbsp;ppmv.<ref name=CO2>{{citation |title=Trends in Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide |url=https://www.esrl.noaa.gov/gmd/ccgg/trends/ |website=Global Greenhouse Gas Reference Network, NOAA |year=2019 |access-date=2019-05-31}}</ref> Although minor, the January 2019 value for {{CH4}} is 1866.1&nbsp;ppbv (parts per billion).<ref name=methane>{{citation |title=Trends in Atmospheric Methane |website=Global Greenhouse Gas Reference Network, NOAA |url=https://www.esrl.noaa.gov/gmd/ccgg/trends_ch4/ |year=2019 |access-date=2019-05-31}}</ref> Two older reliable sources have dry atmospheric compositions, including trace molecules, that total less than 100%: ''U.S. Standard Atmosphere, 1976''<ref name=standard>{{citation |author=National Aeronautics and Space Administration |title=U.S. Standard Atmosphere, 1976 |url=https://ntrs.nasa.gov/archive/nasa/casi.ntrs.nasa.gov/19770009539.pdf |page=3 |year=1976}}</ref> (99.9997147%); and ''Astrophysical Quantities''<ref name=Allen1976>{{citation |last=Allen |first=C. W. |title=Astrophysical Quantities |url=https://archive.org/details/AstrophysicalQuantities/page/n127 |edition=Third |year=1976 |publisher=Athlone Press |page=119 |isbn=0-485-11150-0}}</ref> (1976, 99.9999357%).}} Vazduh takođe sadrži promenljivu količinu [[Water vapor#Water vapor in Earth's atmosphere|vodene pare]], u proseku oko 1% na nivou mora, a 0,4% u celoj atmosferi. Sastav vazduha, temperatura i [[atmospheric pressure|atmosferski pritisak]] variraju u zavisnosti od visine, a vazduh pogodan za upotrebu u [[photosynthesis|fotosintezi]] [[terrestrial plant|zemaljskih biljaka]] i [[disanje]] [[terrestrial animal|kopnenih životinja]] nalazi se samo u zemaljskoj [[Тропосфера|troposferi]] i u [[breathing gas|veštačkim atmosferama]].
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