Малајалам (језик) — разлика између измена

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{{КутијицаShort заdescription|Дравидски језик}}{{rut}}
{{Infobox language
| име=малајалам
| name = Малајалам
| изговор= /mæləˈjɑːləm/
| изворноимеnativename = {{lang|ml|മലയാളം - malayāḷam<br>മലയാണ്മ - malayāṇma}}, ''Malayalam''
| pronunciation = {{IPA-ml|mɐlɐjäːɭɐm|}}; {{Audio|Malayalam.ogg|pronunciation|help=}}
| слика =Word Malayalam.svg
| states = [[Индија]] <br /> [[Малезија|Малезији]]
| опис_слике =Реч ''малајалам'', написана малајалам писмом
| region = [[Керала]] са пограничним заједницама у Кодагу и Дакшина Канада из округа Карнатака, Нилгирис, Канјакумари у Тамил Надуу, [[Лакадиви]] и [[Mahé district|Махе]] ([[Пудушери]])
| боја=Дравидски
| ethnicity = [[Малајали]]
| државе=[[Индија]]
| speakers = {{sigfig|35|2}} милионa
| број = 38 милиона (2007)
| date = 2011–2019
| позиција =
| ref =<ref>{{cite web |url= http://www.censusindia.gov.in/2011census/C-16.html |title= Office of the Registrar General & Census Commissioner, India
|пор1=[[Дравидски језици|дравидски]]
Ministry of Home Affairs, Government of India }}</ref><ref>{{cite web |url= https://web.archive.org/web/20131020100448/http://media.johnwiley.com.au/product_data/excerpt/47/04706745/0470674547-196.pdf |title= Chapter 1, Global Religious Populations, 1910–2010 in The World’s Religions in Figures: An Introduction to International Religious Demography |edition= First |author= Todd M. Johnson |author2= Brian J. Grim |date = 2013 |publisher = John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. |date = 2013}}</ref><ref name="Ethnologue_mal">{{e22|mal}}</ref><ref>Statement 1: Abstract of speakers' strength of languages and mother tongues – 2011". www.censusindia.gov.in. Office of the Registrar General & Census Commissioner, India. [http://www.censusindia.gov.in/2011Census/Language-2011/Statement-1.pdf] {{Webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20181114073426/http://www.censusindia.gov.in/2011Census/Language-2011/Statement-1.pdf |date=14 November 2018 }}</ref>
|пор2=[[Јужнодравидски језици|јужнодравидски]]
| speakers2 = [[Second language|Л2 говорника]]: {{sigfig|695,000|2}}<ref name="Ethnologue_mal"/>
|пор3=[[Тамил-канада језици|тамил-канада]]
| familycolor = Дравидски
|пор4=[[Тамил-кодава језици|тамил-кодава]]
| fam2 = [[Дравидски језици|Јужни дравидски]]<ref>{{Cite web|url=https://www.ethnologue.com/subgroups/dravidian|title=Dravidian |website=[[Ethnologue]]|archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20170416125646/https://www.ethnologue.com/subgroups/dravidian |archive-date=16 April 2017}}</ref>
|пор5=[[Тамил-малајалам језици|тамил-малајалам]]
| fam3 = [[Tamil–Kannada languages|Тамил–Канада]]
|пор6=[[Малајалам језици|малајалам]]
| fam4 = [[Tamil–Kodagu languages|Тамил–Кодагу]]
|писмо=[[малајаламско писмо]]
| fam5 = [[Middle Tamil|Тамил-малајалам]]
|службени= {{застава|Индија}}<br/>(савезна држава [[Керала]],<br> савезне територије [[Лакадиви]] и [[Територија Пондишери|Пондишери]])
| dia1 = [[Jeseri dialect|Jeseri]] ([[Lakshadweep|Лакадиви]]), [[Arabi Malayalam|араби малајалам]], [[Suriyani Malayalam|суријани]], [[Judeo-Malayalam|јудео-малајалам]], [[Beary dialect|Beary]]
|регулише=
| ancestor = [[Karintamil]]
|iso1= ml
| ancestor2 = [[Old Malayalam]]
|iso2= mal
| ancestor3 = [[Middle Malayalam]]
|iso3= mal
| script = {{plainlist|
|мапа=Idioma malayalam.png
*[[Malayalam script]] ([[Brahmic scripts|Brahmic]])
|опис_мапе=<center>Распрострањеност малајаламског језика</center><div align=left>
*[[Malayalam Braille]]
{{legend|#0062FF|Већински језик}}
*[[Vatteluttu alphabet|Vattezhuth]] (историјски)
{{legend|#74B4FF|Мањински језик}}</div>
*[[Kolezhuthu]] (историјски)
*[[Malayanma]] (историјски)
*[[Grantha alphabet|Гранта]] (историјски)
*[[Arabi Malayalam script|араби малајалам]] (историјски/сада се ретко користи)
*[[Suriyani Malayalam|Суријани малајалам]] (историјски)
*[[Хебрејско писмо]]
*[[Латиница]] (неформално )}}
| nation = {{flag|Индија}}
* [[Керала]]<ref name="india_os">{{Citation |url=http://portal.unesco.org/education/en/ev.php-URL_ID=22495&URL_DO=DO_TOPIC&URL_SECTION=201.html |archive-url=https://wayback.archive-it.org/all/20050928184458/http://portal.unesco.org/education/en/ev.php-URL_ID=22495&URL_DO=DO_TOPIC&URL_SECTION=201.html |url-status=dead |archive-date=28 September 2005 |title=Official languages |access-date=10 May 2007 |publisher=UNESCO}}</ref>
* [[Lakshadweep|Лакадиви]]
* [[Puducherry (union territory)|Puducherry]] ([[Mahé, Puducherry|Махе]])
| agency = [[Kerala Sahitya Akademi]], [[Government of Kerala]]
| iso1 = ml
| iso2 = mal
| iso3 = mal
| lingua = 49-EBE-ba
| map = IN-KL.svg
| imagesize = 220px
| imagecaption = ''Малајалам'' у [[Malayalam script|Малајамском писму]]
| glotto = mala1464
| glottorefname = Malayalam
| image = Word Malayalam.svg
| notice = Indic
| notice2 = IPA
| fam6 = [[Malayalam languages|Малајамски језици]]
}}
[[File:WIKITONGUES- Netha speaking Malayalam.webm|thumb|250п|Говорник малајалама, снимљен у [[South Africa|Јужној Африци]]]]
 
'''Малајалам језик''' (''Malayalam'', മലയാളം, malayālam)<ref>Laurie Bauer, 2007, ''The Linguistics Student's Handbook'', Edinburgh, p. 300.</ref> је језик близак [[Тамилски језик|тамилском]] језику из групе [[Дравидски језици|дравидских језика]]<ref name=":0" /> spoken in the Indian state of [[Kerala]] and the union territories of [[Лакадиви]] and [[Puducherry (union territory)|Puducherry]] ([[Mahé district]]) by the [[Malayali]] people. Овај језик говори више од 35 милиона људи, пре свега у [[Индија|индијској]] савезној држави [[Керала]] и територији [[Лакадиви]]. Један је од 2322 званично [[Languages with official status in India|призната]] језика Индије и њиме говори 2,88% Индијаца. Malayalam has [[official language]] status in Kerala, Лакадиви and Puducherry ([[Mahé, Puducherry|Mahé]]),<ref>{{cite web |url=http://www.kerala.gov.in/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=2877&Itemid=2330 |title=Official Language (Legislative) Commission |access-date=5 April 2015 |url-status=dead |archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20150325003422/http://kerala.gov.in/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=2877&Itemid=2330 |archive-date=25 March 2015}}</ref><ref>{{cite web |url=http://www.kerala.gov.in/index.php?option=com_content&view=category&layout=blog&id=1337&Itemid=3311 |title=P&ARD Official Languages |access-date=5 April 2015 |archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20150401153821/http://kerala.gov.in/index.php?option=com_content&view=category&layout=blog&id=1337&Itemid=3311 |archive-date=1 April 2015 |url-status=dead}}</ref><ref>{{cite web |url=http://www.mapsofindia.com/lakshadweep/languages.html |title=Languages in Lakshadweep |access-date=5 April 2015 |archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20150411215005/http://www.mapsofindia.com/lakshadweep/languages.html |archive-date=11 April 2015 |url-status=live}}</ref> and is spoken by 34 million people worldwide.<ref>https://web.archive.org/web/20131020100448/http://media.johnwiley.com.au/product_data/excerpt/47/04706745/0470674547-196.pdf</ref> Malayalam is also spoken by linguistic minorities in the neighbouring states; with significant number of speakers in the [[Kodagu]] and [[Dakshina Kannada]] districts of [[Karnataka]], and [[Nilgiris District|Nilgiris]] and [[Kanyakumari district|Kanyakumari]], districts of [[Tamil Nadu]]. Due to Malayali expatriates in the [[Persian Gulf]], Malayalam is also widely spoken in the [[Gulf countries]].
 
Malayalam was designated a "[[Classical Language of India]]" in 2013.<ref>{{cite news|date=24 May 2013|title='Classical' status for Malayalam|work=[[The Hindu]]|location=Thiruvananthapuram, India|url=http://www.thehindu.com/todays-paper/tp-national/classical-status-for-malayalam/article4744630.ece|url-status=live|access-date=25 May 2013|archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20130927134256/http://www.thehindu.com/todays-paper/tp-national/classical-status-for-malayalam/article4744630.ece|archive-date=27 September 2013}}</ref> The mainstream view holds that Malayalam descends from early [[Middle Tamil]] and separated from it sometime after the {{circa|9th century}} CE.<ref>{{cite book |last=Ayyar |first=Ramaswami |url=https://archive.org/stream/TheEvolutionOfMalayalamMorphology/The-Evolution-of-Malayalam-Morphology|page=1-37 | title=The Evolution of Malayalam Morphology|year=1936 |publisher=Cochin government press |location=Cochin, Kerala |edition=1st}}</ref> A second view argues for the development of the two languages out of "Proto-Dravidian" or "Proto-Tamil-Malayalam" in the prehistoric era,{{sfn|Asher|Kumari|1997|p=xxiv}} although this is generally rejected by historical linguists.<ref>S.V. Shanmugam (1976). "Formation and Development of Malayalam", ''Indian Literature'', Vol. 19, No. 3 (May–June 1976), pp. 5–30. {{jstor|24157306}} "Yet, some scholars of Malayalam still believe that Malayalam should have originated independently from the Proto-Dravidian at a very early stage [...] The native scholars are unwilling to accept Malayalam as an ''ausbau'' language; instead they take it to be an ''abstand'' language 'language by distance' contrary to historical evidence (pp.9–10)".</ref> It is generally agreed that the [[Quilon Syrian copper plates]] of 849/850 CE is the available oldest inscription written in [[Old Malayalam]]. The oldest literary work in Malayalam, distinct from the Tamil tradition, is dated from between the 9th and 11th centuries.{{sfn|Asher|Kumari|1997|p=xxiv}}
За писање малајалам језика користи се посебно писмо, [[малајалам писмо]]. Оно је, као и већина индијских писама, настало из [[Брами писмо|брами писма]] у [[12. век]]у, заједно са [[Тамилско писмо|тамилским писмом]] као јужноиндијске варијанте брами писма.
 
The earliest script used to write Malayalam was the [[Vatteluttu alphabet|Vatteluttu script]].<ref name=":0" /> The current [[Malayalam script]] is based on the Vatteluttu script, which was extended with [[Grantha script]] letters to adopt [[Indo-Aryan languages|Indo-Aryan]] loanwords.<ref name=":0">{{cite book|last=Krishnamurti|first=Bhadriraju|url=https://books.google.com/books?id=54fV7Lwu3fMC&q=grantha+script|title=The Dravidian Languages|publisher=Cambridge University Press|year=2003|isbn=978-1-139-43533-8|location=}}</ref><ref>{{Cite book |title=Guide to OCR for Indic Scripts: Document Recognition and Retrieval – Advances in Pattern Recognition |author=Venu Govindaraju |author2=Srirangaraj Setlur |publisher=Springer |year=2009 |url=https://books.google.com/books?id=WdSR9OJ0kxYC |page=126 |isbn=978-1-84800-329-3 |access-date=15 November 2015 |archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20160429090130/https://books.google.com/books?id=WdSR9OJ0kxYC |archive-date=29 April 2016 |url-status=live|author-link=Venu Govindaraju }}</ref> It bears high similarity with the [[Tigalari script]], a historical script that was used to write the [[Tulu language]] in [[South Canara]], and [[Sanskrit]] in the adjacent [[Malabar District|Malabar region]].<ref name="Tulu Unicode 2017" /> The modern Malayalam grammar is based on the book ''[[Kerala Panineeyam]]'' written by [[A. R. Raja Raja Varma]] in late 19th century CE.<ref name="clt">{{Cite book|title=Mathrubhumi Yearbook Plus - 2019|publisher=P. V. Chandran, Managing Editor, Mathrubhumi Printing & Publishing Company Limited, Kozhikode|year=2018|location=Kozhikode|pages=454|id={{ASIN|8182676444|country=in}}|edition=Malayalam}}</ref> The first travelogue in any Indian language is the Malayalam ''[[Varthamanappusthakam]]'', written by [[Paremmakkal Thoma Kathanar]] in 1785.<ref>{{cite book |last=Menon |first=A. Sreedhara |title=The legacy of Kerala |year=2008 |publisher=D C Books |location=Kottayam, Kerala |isbn=978-81-264-2157-2 |edition=1st DCB}}</ref><ref>{{cite web |url=http://nasrani.net/2010/08/23/the-varthamanappusthakam-cathanar-paremmakkal/ |title=August 23, 2010 Archives |url-status=dead |archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20130427073541/http://nasrani.net/2010/08/23/the-varthamanappusthakam-cathanar-paremmakkal/ |archive-date=27 April 2013}}</ref>
 
== Пример текста ==
 
<pre>
മനുഷ്യരെല്ലാവരും തുല്യാവകാശങ്ങളോടും അന്തസ്സോടും
സ്വാതന്ത്ര്യത്തോടുംകൂടി ജനിച്ചവരാണ്.
മനുഷ്യന്നു വിവേകബുദ്ധിയും മനസ്സാക്ഷിയും സിദ്ധമായിരിക്കുന്നത്.
</pre>
 
<pre>
Превод: Сва људска бића се рађају слободна и
једнака по достојанству и правима.
Обдарена су разумом и савешћу, и треба да се
односе једна према другима у духу братства.
</pre>
 
== Референце ==
{{reflist|refs=
<ref name="Tulu Unicode 2017">{{cite web|author1=Vaishnavi Murthy K Y|author2=Vinodh Rajan|title=L2/17-378 Preliminary proposal to encode Tigalari script in Unicode|url=https://www.unicode.org/L2/L2017/17378-tigalari.pdf|access-date=28 June 2018|website=www.unicode.org}}</ref>
 
}}
 
== Литература ==
{{refbegin|30em}}
* {{cite book |last=Gopinathan Nair |first=B. |year=2009 |chapter=Malayalam |editor1=Keith Brown |editor2=Sarah Ogilvie |title=Concise Encyclopedia of Languages of the World |pages=680–683}}
* {{cite book |last1=Karashima |first1=Noboru |author-link1=Noboru Karashima |title=A Concise History of South India: Issues and Interpretations |date=2014 |publisher=Oxford University Press |isbn=978-0-19-809977-2 |url=https://books.google.com/books?id=fpdVoAEACAAJ |language=en }}
* {{cite book |last1=Mahapatra |first1=B. P. |title=Constitutional Languages |series=The Written Languages of the World: A Survey of the Degree and Modes of Use |volume=Volume 2: India. Book 1 |date=1989 |publisher=Presses Université Laval |isbn=978-2-7637-7186-1 |url=https://books.google.com/books?id=yU8nq-C6wnoC |language=en }}
* {{cite book |last1=Asher |first1=R. E. |last2=Kumari |first2=T. C. |title=Malayalam |date=1997 |publisher=Psychology Press |isbn=978-0-415-02242-2 |url=https://books.google.com/books?id=uFQG2DCaIsIC |language=en }}
* Govindankutty, A. "From Proto-Tamil-Malayalam to West Coast Dialects," 1972. Indo-Iranian Journal, Vol. XIV, Nr. 1/2, pp. 52 - 60.
* {{Cite book |publisher=[[VDM Publishing|VDM]] |isbn=978-3-639-21333-1 |last=Pillai |first=Anitha Devi |title=Singaporean Malayalam |location=Saarbrücken |year=2010}}
* {{cite book |title=A Short History of Malayalam Literature |author= K. Ayyappa Panicker |url=https://archive.org/details/ASHORTHISTORYOFMALAYALAMLITERATURE |year=2006 |location=Thiruvananthapuram |publisher=Department of Information and Public Relations, Kerala}}
* Pillai, A.D. & Arumugam, P. (2017). From Kerala to Singapore: Voices of the Singapore Malayalee Community. Singapore: Marshall Cavendish International (Asia). Pte. Ltd. {{ISBN|9789814721837}}
* {{cite book|author=Menon A. Sreedhara |title=A Survey of Kerala History|url=https://books.google.com/books?id=FVsw35oEBv4C|year=2007|publisher=DC Books|isbn=9788126415786}}
* {{Cite book|title=Mathrubhumi Yearbook Plus - 2019|publisher=P. V. Chandran, Managing Editor, Mathrubhumi Printing & Publishing Company Limited, Kozhikode|year=2018|location=Kozhikode|id={{ASIN|8182676444|country=in}}|edition=Malayalam}}
* {{cite book |chapter-url=https://books.google.com/books?id=lMmSFw8G4wgC&q=Arabi-Malayalam&pg=PA186 |chapter=4: Middle Eastern Migration From Kerala
|author=Prema Kurien
|author-link=Prema Kurien
|title=Kaleidoscopic ethnicity: international migration and the reconstruction of community identities in India
|publisher=Rutgers University Press |year=2002|isbn=9780813530895
}}
*{{cite web
|url=http://www.ssrc.org/workspace/images/crm/new_publication_3/%7Baeb05f75-7250-de11-afac-001cc477ec70%7D.pdf
|title=A Socio-Cultural Perspective on Migration and Economic Development: Middle Eastern Migration from Kerala, India
|author=Prema A. Kurien
|publisher=Syracuse University
|url-status=dead
|archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20120306050600/http://www.ssrc.org/workspace/images/crm/new_publication_3/%7Baeb05f75-7250-de11-afac-001cc477ec70%7D.pdf
|archive-date=2012-03-06
}}
*{{cite web |url=http://eprints.soas.ac.uk/5178/1/ch9_osellas.pdf |title=Chapter 9, "I am Gulf": The production of cosmopolitanism among the Koyas of Kozhikode, Kerala
|author=Filippo Osella |others= University of Sussex & Caroline Osella, SOAS, University of London}}
 
{{refend}}
 
== Спољашње везе ==
* [https://web.archive.org/web/20090404082827/http://www.geocities.com/malayalamgrammar Граматика говорног језика малајалам]
* [http://www.languageshome.com/English-Malayalam.htm Фразе језика малајалам са преводом на енглески и друге језике Индије]
* {{DMOZ|Science/Social_Sciences/Linguistics/Languages/Natural/Dravidian/Malayalam/}}
 
* [https://www.britannica.com/topic/Malayalam-language Malayalam language] at ''[[Encyclopædia Britannica]]''
* [https://www.unicode.org/charts/PDF/U0D00.pdf Unicode Code Chart for Malayalam (PDF Format)]
 
{{Језици Индије}}
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[[Категорија:Језици Индије]]