Хемијске једначине — разлика између измена

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== Уобичајени симболи ==
[[File:Baker-Venkataraman-Rearrangement V.1.svg|thumb|250px|<small>BakerБејкер-VenkataramanВенкатараманово rearrangementпреуређење</small>]]
Symbols are used to differentiate between different types of reactions. To denote the type of reaction:<ref name="goldbook" />
 
Симболи се користе за разликовање различитих типова реакција. Да се означи тип реакције:<ref name="goldbook" />
* "<math>=</math>" symbol is used to denote a [[stoichiometric]] relation.
 
* "<math>\rightarrow</math>" symbol is used to denote a net forward reaction.
* „<math>=</math>” симбол се користи за означавање [[Стехиометрија|стехиометријске]] релације.
* "<math>\rightleftarrows</math>" symbol is used to denote a reaction in both directions.<ref>The notation <math>\rightleftarrows</math> was proposed in 1884 by the Dutch chemist [[Jacobus Henricus van 't Hoff]]. See: {{cite book|last1=van 't Hoff|first1=J.H.|title=Études de Dynamique Chemique|trans-title=Studies of chemical dynamics|date=1884|publisher=Frederik Muller & Co.|location=Amsterdam, Netherlands|pages=4–5|url=https://archive.org/stream/etudesdedynamiqu00hoff#page/4/mode/2up|language=fr}} Van 't Hoff called reactions that didn't proceed to completion "limited reactions". From pp. 4–5: ''"Or M. Pfaundler a relié ces deux phénomênes … s'accomplit en même temps dans deux sens opposés."'' (Now Mr. Pfaundler has joined these two phenomena in a single concept by considering the observed limit as the result of two opposing reactions, driving the one in the example cited to the formation of sea salt [i.e., NaCl] and nitric acid, [and] the other to hydrochloric acid and sodium nitrate. This consideration, which experiment validates, justifies the expression "chemical equilibrium", which is used to characterize the final state of limited reactions. I would propose to translate this expression by the following symbol:
* „<math>\rightarrow</math>” симбол се користи за означавање нето реакције унапред.
* "<math>\rightleftarrows</math>" symbolсимбол isсе usedкористи toза denoteозначавање aреакције reactionу inоба both directionsсмера.<ref>The notation <math>\rightleftarrows</math> was proposed in 1884 by the Dutch chemist [[Jacobus Henricus van 't Hoff]]. See: {{cite book|last1=van 't Hoff|first1=J.H.|title=Études de Dynamique Chemique|trans-title=Studies of chemical dynamics|date=1884|publisher=Frederik Muller & Co.|location=Amsterdam, Netherlands|pages=4–5|url=https://archive.org/stream/etudesdedynamiqu00hoff#page/4/mode/2up|language=fr}} Van 't Hoff called reactions that didn't proceed to completion "limited reactions". From pp. 4–5: ''"Or M. Pfaundler a relié ces deux phénomênes … s'accomplit en même temps dans deux sens opposés."'' (Now Mr. Pfaundler has joined these two phenomena in a single concept by considering the observed limit as the result of two opposing reactions, driving the one in the example cited to the formation of sea salt [i.e., NaCl] and nitric acid, [and] the other to hydrochloric acid and sodium nitrate. This consideration, which experiment validates, justifies the expression "chemical equilibrium", which is used to characterize the final state of limited reactions. I would propose to translate this expression by the following symbol:
: HCl + NO<sub>3</sub> Na <math>\rightleftarrows</math> NO<sub>3</sub> H + Cl Na.
I thus replace, in this case, the = sign in the chemical equation by the sign <math>\rightleftarrows</math>, which in reality doesn't express just equality but shows also the direction of the reaction. This clearly expresses that a chemical action occurs simultaneously in two opposing directions.)</ref>
* "<chem><=></chem>" symbolсимбол isсе usedкористи toза denote anозначавање [[chemical equilibrium|equilibriumравнотеже]].<ref>The notation <chem><=></chem> was suggested by [[Hugh Marshall]] in 1902. See: {{cite journal |last1=Marshall |first1=Hugh |date=1902 |title=Suggested Modifications of the Sign of Equality for Use in Chemical Notation |journal=Proceedings of the Royal Society of Edinburgh |volume=24 |pages=85–87 |doi=10.1017/S0370164600007720 }}</ref>
 
Физичко стање хемикалија се такође врло често наводи у заградама после хемијског симбола, посебно за јонске реакције. Када се наводи физичко стање, (-{s}-) означава чврсту материју, (-{l}-) означава течност, (-{g}-) означава гас и (-{aq}-) означава [[aqueous solution|водени раствор]].
The physical state of chemicals is also very commonly stated in parentheses after the chemical symbol, especially for ionic reactions. When stating physical state, (s) denotes a solid, (l) denotes a liquid, (g) denotes a gas and (aq) denotes an [[aqueous solution]].
 
IfАко theреакција reactionзахтева requires energyенергију, itто isје indicatedназначено aboveизнад the arrowстрелице. AВелико capitalгрчко Greek letterслово deltaделта (<math>\Delta</math><ref>The symbol is more properly denoted as a simple triangle (△), which was originally the alchemical symbol for fire.</ref>) isсе putставља onна theреакциону reactionстрелицу arrowкако toби showсе thatпоказало energyда inсе theреакција formдодаје ofенергија heatу isоблику added to the reactionтоплоте. The expressionИзраз <math>h\nu</math><ref>This symbol comes from the Planck equation for the energy of a photon, <math>E = h\nu</math>. It is sometimes mistakenly written with a 'v' ("vee") instead of the Greek letter '<math>\nu</math>' ("nu")</ref> isсе usedкористи asкао aсимбол symbolза forдодавање theенергије additionу of energy in the form ofоблику lightсветлости. OtherДруги symbolsсимболи areсе usedкористе forза otherдруге specificспецифичне typesврсте of energyенергије orили radiationзрачења.
 
== Балансирање хемијских једначина ==