Једнопартијска држава — разлика између измена

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(Nakon opštih izbora 2022. godine više nije jednopartijska.)
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{{Short description|Држава у којој само једна странка има право да формира владу}}
{{Облик државне власти}}
 
'''Једнопартијска држава''' или '''једнопартијски систем''' је [[Ауторитарност|ауторитативни]] и [[Тоталитаризам|тоталитарни]] облик државног уређења са једном [[Политичка партија|политичком партијом]], која поставља све државне функционере из својих редова и врши утицај на све делове [[Друштво|друштва]]. У највећем броју случајева, друге партије бивају стављене ван закона. Идеологија политичке партије у једнопартијској држави је готово увек екстремна, било да се односи на левицу, тј. [[бољшевизам|комунизам]] или [[Десница|десницу]], тј. [[национал-социјализам|нацизам]], [[фашизам]], [[војна диктатура|националистичке војне диктатуре]], те [[апсолутистичка монархија|апсолутистичке монархије]].
'''Једнопартијска држава''' или '''једнопартијски систем''' је [[Ауторитарност|ауторитативни]] и [[Тоталитаризам|тоталитарни]] облик државног уређења са једном [[Политичка партија|политичком партијом]], која поставља све државне функционере из својих редова и врши утицај на све делове [[Друштво|друштва]].<ref>{{Cite book|url=https://books.google.com/books?id=2KFvJwi8_jwC&pg=PA611|title=Principles of Comparative Politics|last1=Clark|first1=William Roberts|last2=Golder|first2=Matt|last3=Golder|first3=Sona Nadenichek|date=23 March 2012|publisher=SAGE|isbn=9781608716791|language=en}}</ref> У највећем броју случајева, друге партије бивају стављене ван закона. Идеологија политичке партије у једнопартијској држави је готово увек екстремна, било да се односи на левицу, тј. [[бољшевизам|комунизам]] или [[Десница|десницу]], тј. [[национал-социјализам|нацизам]], [[фашизам]], [[војна диктатура|националистичке војне диктатуре]], те [[апсолутистичка монархија|апсолутистичке монархије]].
 
Понекад, у држави формално влада [[вишепартијски систем]] ([[Вишепартијски систем|страначки плурализам]]), али и даље постоји владајућа партија која има доминантан утицај у [[Влада|влади]] и [[скупштина|парламенту]].
 
Владавина [[Committee of Union and Progress|Комитета уније и напретка]] (-{CUP}-) у Османском царству након [[1913 Ottoman coup d'état|Отоманског државног удара 1913.]] сматра се првом једнопартијском државом.<ref>{{cite book |last1=Bozarslan |first1=Hamit |title=End of the Ottomans - The Genocide of 1915 and the Politics of Turkish Nationalism |date=2019 |publisher=I. B. Tauris |isbn=978-1-7867-3604-8 |page=330 |language=en |chapter=Afterword: Talaat’s Empire: A Backward Country, but a State Well Ahead of Its Time}}</ref>
== Државе са једнопартијским системом ==
 
=== Тренутно ===
== Концепт ==
* {{зас|Саудијска Арабија}} [[Саудијска Арабија]]
{{рут}}
* {{зас|Оман}} [[Оман]]
One-party states explain themselves through various methods. Most often, proponents of a one-party state argue that the existence of separate parties runs counter to national unity. Others argue that the one party is the [[Vanguardism|vanguard]] of the people, and therefore its right to rule cannot be legitimately questioned. The [[Government of the Soviet Union|Soviet government]] argued that multiple parties represented the [[Class conflict|class struggle]] and because of this the [[Soviet Union]] legally authorized and recognized a single party leading the proletariat, namely the [[Communist Party of the Soviet Union]].
* {{зас|Брунеј}} [[Брунеј]]
 
* {{зас|Есватини}} [[Есватини]]
Some one-party states only outlaw [[Opposition (politics)|opposition parties]], while allowing allied parties to exist as part of a permanent [[coalition]] such as a [[popular front]]. However, these parties are largely or completely subservient to the ruling party and must accept the ruling party's monopoly of power as a condition of their existence. Examples of this are the [[List of political parties in China|People's Republic of China]] under the [[United Front (China)|United Front]], the [[National Front of the German Democratic Republic|National Front]] in former [[East Germany]] and the [[Democratic Front for the Reunification of Korea]] in [[North Korea]]. Others may outlaw all other parties yet allow non-party members to run for legislative seats as [[Independent politician|independent]], as was the case with [[Taiwan]]'s [[Tangwai movement]] in the 1970s and 1980s, as well as the [[elections in the Soviet Union|elections]] in the former [[Soviet Union]]. Still others may both outlaw all other parties and include party membership as a prerequisite for holding public office, such as in [[Turkmenistan]] under the rule of [[Saparmurat Niyazov]] or [[Zaire]] under [[Mobutu Sese Seko]].
* {{зас|Еритреја}} [[Еритреја]]
 
* {{зас|Западна Сахара}} [[Западна Сахара]]
Within their own countries, dominant parties ruling over one-party states are often referred to simply as ''the Party''. For example, in reference to the [[Soviet Union]], ''the Party'' meant the [[Communist Party of the Soviet Union]]; in reference to the pre-1991 [[Zambia|Republic of Zambia]], it referred to the [[United National Independence Party]].
* {{зас|Ватикан}} [[Ватикан]]
 
* {{зас|Кина}} [[Кина]]
Most one-party states have been ruled by one of the following:
* {{зас|Куба}} [[Куба]]
#A party which supports the ideology of [[Marxism–Leninism]] and [[vanguardism]] (sometimes described as "[[communist states]]", such as the Soviet Union)
* {{зас|Лаос}} [[Лаос]]
#A party which supports a [[Nationalism|nationalist]] or [[Fascism|fascist]] ideology (such as the [[Kingdom of Italy]] under the [[National Fascist Party]] or [[Germany]] under the [[Nazi Party]])
* {{зас|Северна Кореја}} [[Северна Кореја]]
#A party that came to power in the wake of independence from [[Colonization|colonial rule]]. One-party systems often arise from decolonization because a single party gains an overwhelmingly dominant role in liberation or in independence struggles.
* {{зас|Вијетнам}} [[Вијетнам]]
 
One-party states are usually considered to be [[Authoritarianism|authoritarian]], to the extent that they are occasionally [[Totalitarianism|totalitarian]]. On the other hand, not all authoritarian or totalitarian states operate upon one-party rule. Some, especially amongst [[Absolute monarchy|absolute monarchies]] and [[military dictatorship]]s, have no need for a ruling party, and therefore make all political parties illegal.
{{clear}}
 
== Садашње једнопартијске државе ==
Према подацима из 2022 the following countries are legally constituted as one-party states:
 
{|class="wikitable sortable"
!Земља
!Шеф странке
!Назив лидера
!Партија
!Идеологија
!Датум успостваљања
!Трајање
!Напомене
|-
|{{flagicon image|Flag of the People's Republic of China.svg}} [[Кина]]
|[[File:Xi Jinping 2016.jpg|100px|center]] [[Xi Jinping]]
|[[General Secretary of the Chinese Communist Party|Генерални секретар]]
|{{flagicon image|Flag of the Chinese Communist Party.svg}} [[Chinese Communist Party]]
|[[Socialism with Chinese characteristics]]
|1 October 1949
|{{ayd|1949|10|1}}
|Leads the [[United Front (China)|United Front]]
|-
|{{flagicon image|Flag of Cuba.svg}} [[Куба]]
|[[File:Miguel Díaz-Canel (cropped).jpg|100px|center]] [[Miguel Díaz-Canel]]
|[[First Secretary of the Communist Party of Cuba|First Secretary]]
|{{flagicon image|Red flag.svg}} [[Communist Party of Cuba]]
|[[Marxism–Leninism]], [[Castroism]], [[Guevarism]], [[left-wing nationalism]]
|16 April 1961
|{{ayd|1961|04|16}}
|
|-
|{{flagicon image|Flag of Eritrea.svg}} [[Eritrea]]
|[[File:Isaias_Afwerki_in_2002.jpg|100px|center]] [[Isaias Afwerki]]
|[[Party chair|Chairperson]]
|{{flagicon image|Flag of the EPLF.svg}} [[People's Front for Democracy and Justice]]
|[[Eritrean nationalism]], [[statism]]
|24 May 1993
|{{ayd|1993|05|24}}
|
|-
|{{flagicon image|Flag of Laos.svg}} [[Laos]]
|[[File:Mr. Thongloun Sisoulith.jpg|100px|center]] [[Thongloun Sisoulith]]
|[[General Secretary of the Lao People's Revolutionary Party|General Secretary]]
|{{flagicon image|Flag of LPRP.svg}} [[Lao People's Revolutionary Party]]
|[[Kaysone Phomvihane Thought]]
|2 December 1975
|{{ayd|1975|12|02}}
|
|-
|{{flagicon image|Flag of North Korea.svg}} [[North Korea]]
|[[File:Kim Jong-un April 2019 (cropped).jpg|100px|center]] [[Kim Jong-un]]
|[[General Secretary of the Workers' Party of Korea|General Secretary]]
|{{flagicon image|Flag of the Workers' Party of Korea.svg}} [[Workers' Party of Korea]]
|''[[Juche]], [[Songun]]''
|10 October 1945
|{{ayd|1945|10|10}}
|Leads the [[Democratic Front for the Reunification of Korea]]
|-
|{{flagicon image|Flag of Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic.svg}} [[Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic]]
|[[File:Brahim Ghali.jpg|100px|center]] [[Brahim Ghali]]
|[[Polisario Front#Structure|Secretary General]]
|{{flagicon image|Flag of the Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic.svg}} [[Polisario Front]]
|[[Sahrawi nationalism]], [[social democracy]]
|27 February 1976
|{{ayd|1976|02|27}}
|
|-
|{{flagicon image|Flag of Vietnam.svg}} [[Vietnam]]
|[[File:Mr. Nguyen Phu Trong.jpg|100px|center]] [[Nguyễn Phú Trọng]]
|[[General Secretary of the Communist Party of Vietnam|General Secretary]]
|{{flagicon image|Flag of the Communist Party of Vietnam.svg}} [[Communist Party of Vietnam]]
|[[Ho Chi Minh Thought]], [[socialist-oriented market economy]]
|2 September 1945
|{{ayd|1945|09|02}}
|
|}
 
== Бивше јенопартијске државе ==
{| class="wikitable sortable"
!Земља
!Партија
!Идеологија
!Датум успостављања
!Датум расформирања
!Континент
|-
|{{flag|Османско царство}}
|[[Committee of Union and Progress|Union and Progress Party]]<ref>{{cite book |last1=Bozarslan |first1=Hamit |title=End of the Ottomans - The Genocide of 1915 and the Politics of Turkish Nationalism |date=2019 |publisher=I. B. Tauris |isbn=978-1-7867-3604-8 |page=330 |language=en |chapter=Afterword: Talaat’s Empire: A Backward Country, but a State Well Ahead of Its Time}}</ref>
|[[İttihadism]]
|{{DTS|1913|June|11|format=dmy}}
|1918
|Азија/Европа
|-
|{{flagicon image|State Flag of Costa Rica (1906-1964).svg}} [[Dictatorship of the Tinoco Brothers|Tinoquista Costa Rica]]
|[[Peliquista Party]]
|[[Nationalism]]
|1917
|1919
|Северна Америка
|-
|{{flag|Турска}} ([[One-party period of the Republic of Turkey|one-party period]])
|{{flagicon image|Flag of the Republican People's Party (Turkey).svg}} [[Republican People's Party (Turkey)|Republican People's Party]]
|[[Kemalism]]
|1923
|1945
|Asia/Europe
|-
|{{flag|Cambodia}} ([[Cambodia under Sihanouk (1954–1970)|Sangkum era]])
|[[Sangkum]]
|[[Khmer nationalism]], [[National conservatism]], [[Royalism]], [[Statism]], [[Buddhist socialism]], [[Economic nationalism]]
|1955
|1970
|Asia
|-
|{{flag|Cameroon}}
|[[Cameroon People's Democratic Movement]]
|[[Big tent]], [[Nationalism]], [[Francophilia]]
|1975
|1990
|Africa
|-
|{{flag|Tunisia|1959}}
|[[Neo Destour]]
|[[Tunisian nationalism]], [[Bourguibism]]
|1963
|1964
|Africa
|-
|{{flag|Tunisia|1959}}
|[[Socialist Destourian Party]]
|[[Tunisian nationalism]], [[Secularism]], [[Bourguibism]]
|1964
|1981
|Africa
|-
|{{flag|Turkmenistan}}
|[[Democratic Party of Turkmenistan]]
|[[Turkmens|Turkmen]] [[nationalism]], [[Secularism]], [[Social conservatism]], [[Big tent|Catch-all party]]
|1992
|2008
|Asia
|-
|{{flag|Republic of China (1912-1949)|name=Republic of China}}{{refn|The [[Republic of China (1912–1949)|Republic of China]] controlled the [[Mainland China|mainland]] from 1912 to 1949 and the island of Taiwan since 1945, in which the ROC currently administers [[Free area of the Republic of China|the Free area]]. This government served China in the [[United Nations]] from 1945 to 1971. See [[Political status of Taiwan]] and the [[One-China policy]] for various viewpoints.|name=Zhongguo|group=Note}}/[[Taiwan]]
|{{flagicon image|Naval Jack of the Republic of China.svg}} [[Kuomintang]]
|[[Tridemism]]
|{{DTS|1925|July|1|format=dmy}}
|{{DTS|1987|July|15|format=dmy}}
|Asia
|-
|{{flagdeco|Syria|1932}} [[Syrian Republic (1930–1963)|Syrian Republic]]
|[[Arab Liberation Movement]]
|[[Pan-Arabism]], [[Modernization theory|Modernization]], [[Western world|Pro-Western]]
|1953
|1954
|Asia
|-
|{{flagicon image|Flag of Afghanistan (1974–1978).svg}} [[Republic of Afghanistan (1973—1978)|Republic of Afghanistan]]
|[[National Revolutionary Party of Afghanistan|National Revolutionary Party]]
|[[Pashtun nationalism]], [[Pashtunization]], [[Anti-communism]], [[Republicanism]], [[Secularism]]
|{{dts|1977|2|14}}<ref>[https://books.google.com/books?id=X0CLyC39MEgC&pg=PA70#v=onepage&q&f=false Afghanistan: A Country Study]</ref><ref>{{cite web|url=https://www.princeton.edu/~pcwcr/reports/afghan1977.html|title=Afghanistan 1977|website=Princeton University|url-status=dead|archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20120406234448/https://www.princeton.edu/~pcwcr/reports/afghan1977.html|archive-date=6 April 2012}}</ref>
|{{dts|1978|4|28}}
|Asia
|-
|{{flag|Algeria}}
|{{flagicon image|Variant flag of the GPRA (1958-1962).svg}} [[National Liberation Front (Algeria)|National Liberation Front]]
|[[Arab socialism]], [[Algerian nationalism]], [[Pan-Arabism]], [[Anti-imperialism]]
|1962
|1989
|Africa
|-
|{{flag|Bangladesh}}
|[[Bangladesh Krishak Sramik Awami League]]
|[[Bengali nationalism]], [[Socialism]]
|1975
|1975
|Asia
|-
|{{flagicon|Burma|1974}} [[Socialist Republic of the Union of Burma|Burma]]
|{{Flagicon image|Burma Socialist Programme Party flag.svg}} [[Burma Socialist Programme Party]]
|[[Burmese Way to Socialism]]
|1962
|1988
|Asia
|-
|{{flag|Cape Verde|1975}}
|{{Flagicon image|Flag of PAIGC.svg}} [[African Party for the Independence of Guinea and Cape Verde]]
|[[Communism]], [[Marxism–Leninism]]
|1975
|1980
|Africa
|-
|{{flag|Cape Verde|1975}}
|[[African Party for the Independence of Cape Verde]]
|[[Communism]], [[Marxism–Leninism]]
|1980
|1990
|Africa
|-
|{{flag|Central African Republic}}
|[[Movement for the Social Evolution of Black Africa]]
|[[African nationalism]], [[Anti-colonialism]], [[Progressivism]], [[Anti-imperialism]]
|1962
|1980
|Africa
|-
|{{flag|Djibouti}}
|[[People's Rally for Progress]]
|[[Issa (clan)|Issa interests]]
|1977
|1992
|Africa
|-
|{{flag|Equatorial Guinea}}
|[[United National Workers' Party]]
|[[African nationalism]], [[Personalism]], [[Anti-imperialism]], [[Anti-colonialism]], [[Anti-racism]], [[Pan-Africanism]], [[Anti-intellectualism]]
|1970
|1979
|Africa
|-
|{{flag|Egypt|1972}}
|[[Arab Socialist Union (Egypt)|Arab Socialist Union]]
|[[Arab nationalism]], [[Arab socialism]], [[Pan-Arabism]], [[Nasserism]]
|1962
|1976
|Africa
|-
|{{flag|Eritrea|1993}}
|{{Flagicon image|Flag of the EPLF.svg}} [[Eritrean People's Liberation Front]]
|[[Left-wing nationalism]]
|1991 <small>(Provisional government)</small>
1993 <small>(Recognized state)</small>
|1994
|Africa
|-
|{{flag|Ghana|1964}}
|[[Convention People's Party]]
|[[Nkrumaism]], [[African socialism]], [[African nationalism]], [[Pan-Africanism]]
|1964
|1966
|Africa
|-
|{{flag|Guinea}}
|[[Democratic Party of Guinea – African Democratic Rally]]
|[[African nationalism]], [[African socialism]], [[Pan-Africanism]]
|1958
|1984
|Africa
|-
|{{flag|Guinea-Bissau}}
|[[African Party for the Independence of Guinea and Cape Verde]]
|[[Communism]], [[Marxism–Leninism]]
|1974
|1991
|Africa
|-
|{{flag|Indonesia}}
|[[Indonesian National Party]]
|[[Nationalism]], [[Marhaenism]]
|{{dts|1945|8|17}}
|{{dts|1945|11|3}}
|Asia
|-
|{{flagicon image|Flag of Iraq (1959-1963).svg}}{{flagicon image|Flag of Iraq (1963-1991).svg}} [[Iraqi Republic (1958–1968)|Iraq]]
|[[Arab Socialist Union (Iraq)|Iraqi Arab Socialist Union]]
|[[Arab nationalism]], [[Arab socialism]], [[Pan-Arabism]], [[Nasserism]]
|1964
|1968
|Asia
|-
|{{flagicon image|Flag of Iraq (1963-1991).svg}}{{flagicon image|Flag of Iraq (1991-2004).svg}} [[Ba'athist Iraq|Iraq]]
|{{Flagicon image|Flag of the Ba'ath Party.svg}} [[Arab Socialist Ba'ath Party – Iraq Region|Arab Socialist Ba'ath Party]] ([[National Progressive Front (Iraq)|National Progressive Front]])
|[[Saddamist Ba'athism]]
|1968
|2003
|Asia
|-
|{{flagicon|Libya|1969}} [[History of Libya under Muammar Gaddafi#Libyan Arab Republic|Libya]]
|[[Libyan Arab Socialist Union]]
|[[Arab nationalism]], [[Arab socialism]], [[Pan-Arabism]], [[Nasserism]], [[Nationalism]]
|1971
|1977
|Africa
|-
|{{flagicon|Madagascar}} [[Democratic Republic of Madagascar]]
|[[Association for the Rebirth of Madagascar|National Front for the Defense of the Revolution]]
|[[Left-wing nationalism]], [[Scientific socialism]]
|1976
|1989
|Africa
|-
|{{Flagicon image|Flag of Mali (1959–1961).svg}}{{flag|Mali}}
|[[Sudanese Union – African Democratic Rally]]
|[[African nationalism]], [[Pan-Africanism]], [[African socialism]]
|1960
|1968
|Africa
|-
|{{flag|Mali}}
|[[Democratic Union of the Malian People]]
|[[African socialism]], [[Democratic centralism]]
|1976
|1991
|Africa
|-
|{{flag|Mauritania|1959}}
|[[Mauritanian People's Party]]
|[[Nationalism]], [[Centralism]], [[Islamic socialism]]
|1961
|1978
|Africa
|-
|{{flag|São Tomé and Príncipe}}
|[[Movement for the Liberation of São Tomé and Príncipe/Social Democratic Party]]
|[[Communism]], [[Marxism–Leninism]]
|1975
|1990
|Africa
|-
|{{flag|Senegal}}
|[[Socialist Party of Senegal]]
|[[African nationalism]], [[African socialism]]
|1966
|1974
|Africa
|-
|{{flag|Seychelles|1977}}
|[[United Seychelles Party|Seychelles People's Progressive Front]]
|[[Communism]], [[Marxism-Leninism]]
|1977
|1991
|Africa
|-
|{{flag|Sierra Leone}}
|[[All People's Congress]]
|[[African nationalism]], [[Democratic socialism]]
|1978
|1991
|Africa
|-
|{{flagicon|Sudan}} [[Democratic Republic of the Sudan]]
|{{Flagicon image|Flag of the Sudanese Socialist Union.svg}} [[Sudanese Socialist Union]]
|[[Arab nationalism]], [[Arab socialism]], [[Anti-communism]]
|1971
|1985
|Africa
|-
|{{flag|Syria}}
|{{Flagicon image|Flag of the Ba'ath Party.svg}} [[Arab Socialist Ba'ath Party – Syria Region|Arab Socialist Ba'ath Party]] ([[National Progressive Front (Syria)|National Progressive Front]])
|[[Ba'athism#Neo-Ba'athism|Neo-Ba'athism]]
|1963
|{{dts|2012|2|27}}<ref>{{cite web|date=28 February 2012|title=Presidential Decree on Syria's New Constitution|url=http://www.sana.sy/eng/21/2012/02/28/403103.htm|access-date=14 March 2012|publisher=[[Syrian Arab News Agency]]}}</ref><ref>{{cite web|author=Chulov, Martin|date=27 February 2012|title=Syrian regime rockets bombard Homs|url=https://www.theguardian.com/world/2012/feb/27/syrian-rockets-bombard-homs|access-date=14 March 2012|work=[[The Guardian]]|publisher=Guardian News and Media}}</ref>
|Asia
|-
|}
 
== Напомене ==
{{reflist|group=Note}}
{{напомене}}
 
== Референце ==
{{Reflist}}
 
== Спољашње везе ==
{{Commons category|One-party state}}
* [http://users.erols.com/mwhite28/oneparty.htm Map of One Party States, 1945-95]
* [http://www.bbc.co.uk/worldservice/africa/features/storyofafrica/14chapter11.shtml One-party states in Africa] BBC
* [https://web.archive.org/web/20091027093132/http://geocities.com/kfzhouy/Party/Onepartye.html List of One-Party Regimes]
 
{{нормативна контрола}}