Дивизија — разлика између измена

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{{Short description|Велика војна јединица или формација}}{{rut}}
[[Датотека:Military Symbol - Friendly Division (Solid Light 1.5x1 Frame)- Infantry (NATO APP-6).svg|мини|десно|200п|Стандардни НАТО симбол за пешадијски дивизију.]]
'''Дивизија''' је основна оперативно-тактичка војна формација у саставу [[корпус]]а или [[Армија|армије]].
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Постоји у сва три рода оружаних снага: [[Копнена војска|копненој војсци]], [[Ваздухопловство|ваздухопловству]] и [[ратна морнарица|морнарици]], али се најчешће користи у копненој војсци. Дивизија може бити: моторизована, оклопна, дјелимично моторизована и пјешадијска.
! [[NATO Joint Military Symbology|NATO симболи на картама]]<ref name="auto1">{{cite book |title=APP-6C Joint Military Symbology |date=May 2011 |publisher=NATO |url=http://armawiki.zumorc.de/files/NATO/APP-6(C).pdf|archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20150921231042/http://armawiki.zumorc.de/files/NATO/APP-6(C).pdf |archive-date=2015-09-21 }}</ref>
| [[File:NATO Map Symbol - Unit Size - Division.svg|80px| ]]<br/>[[File:Military Symbol - Friendly Unit (Solid Light 1.5x1 Frame)- Unspecified or Composite All-Arms (NATO APP-6).svg|80px]]
| пријатељска комбинована дивизија
| [[File:NATO Map Symbol - Unit Size - Division.svg|80px| ]]<br/>[[File:Military Symbol - Hostile Unit (Solid Diamond Frame)- Unspecified or Composite All-Arms (NATO APP-6A).svg|80px]]
| непријатељска комбинована дивизија
| [[File:NATO Map Symbol - Unit Size - Division.svg|80px| ]]<br/>[[File:Military Symbol - Friendly Unit (Solid Light 1.5x1 Frame)- Infantry (NATO APP-6).svg|80px]]
| пријатељска пешадијска дивизија
| [[File:NATO Map Symbol - Unit Size - Division.svg|80px| ]]<br/>[[File:Military Symbol - Friendly Unit (Solid Light 1.5x1 Frame)- Infantry - Airborne (NATO APP-6).svg|80px]]
| пријатељска ваздушно-десантна пешадијска дивизија
| [[File:NATO Map Symbol - Unit Size - Division.svg|80px| ]]<br/>[[File:Military Symbol - Hostile Unit (Solid Diamond Frame)- Armour (NATO APP-6).svg|80px]]
| непријатељска тенковска дивизија
'''Дивизија''' је основна оперативно-тактичка војна формација у саставу [[корпус]]а или [[Армија|армије]]. Постоји у сва три рода оружаних снага: [[Копнена војска|копненој војсци]], [[Ваздухопловство|ваздухопловству]] и [[ратна морнарица|морнарици]], али се најчешће користи у копненој војсци. Дивизија може бити: моторизована, оклопна, дјелимично моторизована и пјешадијска. Дивизија у копненој војсци се обично састоји од 3-5 [[пук]]ова, односно 3-4 [[Бригада|бригаде]] те тако броји од 10.000 до 20.000 припадника. Командант дивизије има ранг [[генерал]]а, а најчешће је то [[генерал-мајор]], [[генерал-потпуковник]] или [[дивизијски генерал]]. У току рата дивизија делује као самостална војна формација у склопу корпуса.
In most armies, a division is composed of several [[regiment]]s or [[brigade]]s; in turn, several divisions typically make up a [[corps]]. Historically, the division has been the default [[combined arms]] unit capable of independent [[Military tactics|operations]]. Smaller combined arms units, such as the American [[regimental combat team]] (RCT) during World War II, were used when conditions favored them. In recent times, modern Western militaries have begun adopting the smaller [[brigade combat team]]<ref>{{cite web |url=https://www.army.mil/info/organization/unitsandcommands/oud/ |title=Archived Document |access-date=2016-10-22 |url-status=dead |archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20161012152355/https://www.army.mil/info/organization/unitsandcommands/oud/ |archive-date=12 October 2016}} ''Organization: Operational Unit Diagrams:Brigade''. Accessed 22 October 2016.</ref> (similar to the RCT) as the default combined arms unit, with the division they belong to being less important.
У току рата дивизија дјелује као самостална војна формација у склопу корпуса.
While the focus of this article is on army divisions, in naval usage "[[division (naval)|division]]" has a completely different meaning, referring to either an administrative/functional sub-unit of a department (e.g., fire control division of the weapons department) aboard naval and coast guard ships, shore commands, and in naval aviation units (including navy, marine corps, and coast guard aviation), to a sub-unit of several ships within a [[flotilla]] or [[Squadron (naval)|squadron]], or to two or three sections of aircraft operating under a designated division leader. Some languages, like Russian, Serbian, Croatian and Polish, also use a similar word, ''[[Divizion|divizion/divizijun/dywizjon]]'', for a [[battalion]]-size artillery or cavalry unit.
== Историја ==
In the West, the first general to think of organising an army into smaller combined-arms units was [[Maurice de Saxe]] (d. 1750), [[Marshal General of France]], in his book ''[[Mes Rêveries]]''. He died at the age of 54, without having implemented his idea. [[Victor-François, 2nd duc de Broglie|Victor-François de Broglie]] put the ideas into practice. He conducted successful practical experiments of the divisional system in the [[Seven Years' War]].
===Early divisions===
The first war in which the divisional system was used systematically was the [[French Revolutionary War]]. [[Lazare Carnot]] of the [[Committee of Public Safety]], who was in charge of military affairs, came to the same conclusion about it as the previous royal government, and the army was organised into divisions.
It made the armies more flexible and easy to maneuver, and it also made the large army of the revolution manageable. Under [[Napoleon]], the divisions were grouped together into [[corps]], because of their increasing size. Napoleon's military success spread the divisional and corps system all over Europe; by the end of the [[Napoleonic Wars]], all armies in Europe had adopted it.
===World War II===
The divisional system reached its numerical height during the [[Second World War]]. The Soviet Union's [[Red Army]] consisted of more than a thousand division-sized units at any one time, and the number of rifle divisions raised during the [[Great Patriotic War]] of 1941–1945 is estimated{{by whom?|date=April 2020}} at 2,000. Nazi Germany had hundreds of numbered and/or named divisions, while the United States employed up to 91 divisions.
A notable change to divisional structures during the war was completion of the shift from [[square division]]s (composed of two brigades each with two regiments) to [[triangular division]]s (composed of three regiments with no brigade level) that many European armies had started using in [[World War I]].<ref name=House>{{cite web |first= Jonathan M. |last= House |url= http://www-cgsc.army.mil/carl/resources/csi/House/House.asp |title= Toward Combined Arms Warfare: a Survey of 20th-Century Tactics, Doctrine, and Organization |date= 30 December 2009 |publisher= U.S. Army Command and General Staff College |url-status= dead |archive-url= https://web.archive.org/web/20091230072014/http://www-cgsc.army.mil/carl/resources/csi/House/House.asp |archive-date= 30 December 2009 }}</ref> This was done to increase flexibility and to pare down chain-of-command overhead. The triangular division structure allowed the tactic of "two forward, one back", where two of the division's regiments could engage the enemy with one regiment in reserve.
===Modern divisions===
In modern times, most military forces have standardized their divisional structures. This does not mean that divisions are equal in size or structure from country to country, but divisions have, in most cases, come to be units of 10,000 to 15,000 soldiers with enough organic support to be capable of independent operations. Usually, the direct organization of the division consists of one to four [[brigade]]s or [[Battlegroup (army)|battle groups]] of its primary combat arm, along with a brigade or regiment of combat support (usually [[artillery]]) and a number of direct-reporting [[battalion]]s for necessary specialized support tasks, such as [[military intelligence|intelligence]], [[logistics]], [[reconnaissance]], and [[combat engineers]]. Most militaries standardize ideal organization strength for each type of division, encapsulated in a [[Table of Organization and Equipment]] (TO&E) which specifies exact assignments of units, personnel, and equipment for a division.
The modern division became the primary identifiable combat unit in many militaries during the second half of the 20th century, supplanting the [[brigade]]; however, the trend started to reverse since the end of the [[Cold War]]. The peak use of the division as the primary combat unit occurred during [[World War II]], when the belligerents deployed over a thousand divisions. With technological advances since then, the combat power of each division has increased.
== Типови ==
Divisions are often formed to organize units of a particular type together with appropriate support units to allow independent operations. In more recent times, divisions have mainly been organized as [[combined arms]] units with [[subordinate]] units representing various combat arms. In this case, the division often retains the name of a more specialized division, and may still be tasked with a primary role suited to that specialization.
===Infantry division===
"Infantry division" refers to a military formation composed primarily of [[infantry]] [[military unit|units]], also supported by units from other [[combat arms]]. In the [[Soviet Union]] and Russia, an infantry division is often referred to as a "rifle division". A "[[motorised infantry]]" division refers to a division with a majority of infantry subunits transported on [[soft-skinned motor vehicle]]s. A "[[mechanized infantry]]" division refers to a division with a majority of infantry subunits transported on [[armored personnel carrier]]s (APCs) or [[infantry fighting vehicle]]s (IFVs) or both, or even some other class of [[armored fighting vehicle]]s designed for the transportation of infantry. Mechanized infantry divisions in Nazi Germany were called "''[[Panzergrenadier]]'' divisions". In Russia, they were known as "motor rifle divisions".
===Cavalry division===
For most nations, [[cavalry]] was deployed in smaller units and was not therefore organized into divisions, but for larger militaries, such as that of the [[British Empire]], United States, [[First French Empire]], France, [[German Empire]], [[Nazi Germany]], [[Russian Empire]], [[Empire of Japan]], [[Second Polish Republic]] and [[Soviet Union]], a number of cavalry divisions were formed. They were most often similar to the nations' infantry divisions in structure, although they usually had fewer and lighter support elements, with cavalry brigades or regiments replacing the infantry units, and supporting units, such as artillery and supply, being horse-drawn. For the most part, large cavalry units did not remain after [[World War II]].
While horse cavalry had been found to be obsolete, the concept of cavalry as a fast force capable of missions traditionally fulfilled by horse cavalry made a return to military thinking during the Cold War. In general, two new types of cavalry were developed: [[air assault|air cavalry]] or airmobile, relying on helicopter mobility, and [[armored cavalry]], based on an autonomous armored formation. The former was pioneered by the [[11th Airborne Division (United States)|11th Air Assault Division (Test)]], formed on 1 February 1963 at [[Fort Benning]], Georgia. On 29 June 1965, the division was renamed the [[1st Cavalry Division (United States)|1st Cavalry Division (Airmobile)]], before its departure for the [[Vietnam War]].
===Armored division{{anchor|Armoured division}}===
[[File:Priest of 3rd Infantry Division in UK, 1944 (H 37994).jpg|thumb|right|A [[M7 Priest|Priest 105mm self-propelled gun]] of British 3rd Infantry Division, 1944]]
The development of the [[tank]] during [[World War I]] prompted some nations to experiment with forming them into division-size units. Many did this the same way as they did cavalry divisions, by merely replacing cavalry with [[armoured fighting vehicles|AFVs]] (including tanks) and motorizing the supporting units. This proved unwieldy in combat, as the units had many tanks but few infantry units. Instead, a more balanced approach was taken by adjusting the number of tank, infantry, artillery, and support units.
===Mountain division===
Mountain divisions are infantry divisions given special training and equipment to [[Mountain warfare|operate in hilly, mountainous or arctic areas]]. Some examples of these formations include the [[10th Mountain Division|US 10th Mountain Division]], the German [[1st Ski Division (Wehrmacht)|1st Ski Division]] or the French [[27th Mountain Infantry Brigade (France)|27th Alpine Infantry Division]].
===Airborne division===
An airborne division is an infantry division given special training and equipment for arrival on the battlefield by air (typically via parachute or glider-borne).
The US, Britain, and Germany experimented during World War II with specialized light infantry divisions capable of being quickly transported by transport aircraft or dropped into an area by parachute or glider. This required both high-quality equipment and training, creating elite units in the process and usually manned by volunteers rather than conscripts.
===Artillery division===
The [[Soviet Union]] developed the concept of the specialized "artillery division" during the [[Eastern Front (World War II)|Eastern Front]] of the [[Second World War]] in 1942, although plans were in place since the later stages of the [[Russian Civil War]]. An artillery division serves as a specialized division using only artillery howitzers, anti-tank guns, rocket artillery (MRLs and tactical missiles) and mortars (both towed and self-propelled) (and historically siege artillery) and are usually tasked with providing concentrated firepower support to higher combined arms formations. They are mainly combat support formations most performing operations in support of the infantry and armor.
===Security division===
Nazi Germany organized Security divisions to operate in captured territory to provide rear-echelon security against [[Partisan (military)|partisans]] and maintain order among civilians. Structured like an infantry division, a security division was more likely to contain lower quality troops and was not intended to serve directly at the front. SS units of this type were called "SS ''Polizei'' divisions".
The Soviet Union's People's Commissariat for Internal Affairs (the [[NKVD]]) organized security divisions. In a few cases, NKVD divisions were employed in front-line combat as rifle divisions.<ref name=zaloga>Zaloga, Steven J. ''The Red Army of the Great Patriotic War, 1941–45'', Osprey Publishing, (1989), pp. 21–22</ref>
== Види још ==
* [[Батерија (војска)]]
== Референце ==
{{нормативна контрола}}
== Литература ==
* {{cite book |last=Van Creveld |first=Martin |title=The Art of War: War and Military Thought |location=London |publisher=Cassell |year=2000 |isbn=0-304-35264-0}}
* {{cite book |last=Grey|first=Jeffrey |author-link=Jeffrey Grey |title=A Military History of Australia| edition=3rd|year=2008|publisher=Cambridge University Press |location=Melbourne |isbn= 978-0-521-69791-0 }}
* {{cite book |last=Johnston |first=Mark |others=Martin Windrow (consultant editor)|title=The Australian Army in World War II |series=Elite |year=2007 |publisher=Osprey Publishing |location=Oxford |isbn=978-1-84603-123-6 }}
* {{cite book |last=Jones |first=Archer |title=The Art of War in the Western World |publisher=University of Illinois Press |year=2000 |isbn=0-252-06966-8}}
* {{cite book | last = Keogh | first = Eustace| author-link = Eustace Graham Keogh | title = South West Pacific 1941–45 | year = 1965 | publisher = Grayflower Publications | location = Melbourne | oclc = 7185705 }}
* {{cite book| last = Palazzo| first = Albert| year = 2002| title = Defenders of Australia: The 3rd Australian Division 1916–1991| publisher = Australian Military Historical Publications| location = Loftus, New South Wales| isbn = 1-876439-03-3}}
* {{cite manual|url=https://armypubs.army.mil/doctrine/DR_pubs/dr_a/pdf/fm3_90x6.pdf|archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20130217175931/http://armypubs.army.mil/doctrine/DR_pubs/dr_a/pdf/fm3_90x6.pdf|archive-date=2013-02-17|title=FM 3-90.6 : Brigade Combat Team|publisher=Department of the Army|date=September 2010|at=Preface ("they can operate as part of a division or independently"), § 1-1 ("[BCTs are] the smallest combined arms units that can be committed independently")}}
* Phisterer, Frederick, ''Statistical Record of the Armies of the United States'', Castle Books, 1883, {{ISBN|0-7858-1585-6}}.
* [[Peter G. Tsouras|Tsouras, P.G.]] ''Changing Orders: The evolution of the World's Armies, 1945 to the Present'' Facts On File, Inc, 1994. {{ISBN|0-8160-3122-3}}
== Спољашње везе ==
{{commons|Division insignia of the United States Army}}
* [https://web.archive.org/web/20140102192416/http://www.britishmilitaryhistory.co.uk/documents.php?aid=166&nid=23&start=5 Infantry Divisions (British Army and British Indian Army) 1930–1956]
* [https://web.archive.org/web/20160303230623/http://www.orbat.com/site/history/historical/nato/warsawpact.html Warsaw Pact June 1989 OOB]
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