Main article: [[Историја СССРа]]''
Историја Русије у периоду између [] и [] је у ствари историја Сједињених Совјетских Социјалистичких Република или историја [[Совјетског Савеза]]. Овај савез који су на идеолошкој основи, децембра 1922 основали лидери Руске Комунистичке партије је често поистовећиван са Руским Царством. У то време, нова нација је укључивала четири конституивне републике : [[ Руска Совјетска Федеративна Социјалистичка Република, или Руска СФСР]], [[ Украјинска ССР]], [[Белоруска ССР]], и [[Транскавкаска Совјетска Федеративна Република или Транскавкаска СФСР]].
===Промене у руском друштву===
While the Russian economy was being transformed, the social life of the people underwent equally drastic changes. From the beginning of the revolution, the government attempted to weaken patriarchal domination of the family. [[Divorce]] no longer required court procedure; and to make women completely free of the responsibilities of childbearing, [[abortion]] was made legal as early as 1920. As a side effect, the emancipation of the women increased the labor market. Girls were encouraged to secure an education and pursue a career in the factory or the office. Communal nurseries were set up for the care of small children and efforts were made to shift the center of people's social life from the home to educational and recreational groups, the soviet clubs.
The regime abandoned the tsarist policy of [[discrimination|discriminating]] against [[national minorities]] in favor of a policy of incorporating the more than two hundred minority groups into Soviet life. Another feature of the regime was the extension of medical services. Campaigns were carried out against [[typhus]], [[cholera]], and [[malaria]]; the number of doctors was increased as rapidly as facilities and training would permit; and [[infant mortality]] rates rapidly decreased while [[life expectancy]] rapidly increased.
The government also promoted [[atheism]] and [[materialism]], which formed the basis of Marxist theory. It opposed organized religion, especially in order to break the power of the Russian Orthodox Church, a former pillar of the old tsarist regime and a major barrier to social change. Many religious leaders were sent to internal exile camps. Members of the party were forbidden to attend religious services. The education system was separated from the Church. Religious teaching was prohibited except in the home and atheist instruction was stressed in the schools.
Magnito.jpg|мини|лево|The construction of steel-producing city of [[Magnitogorsk]] in 1932 appears above. Magnitogorsk was at the forefront of Stalin's Five-Year Plans in the 1930s.]]
The years from [] to [] comprised a tumultuous decade in Russian history—a period of massive industrialization and internal struggles as [[Joseph Stalin]] established near total control over Russian society, wielding unrestrained power unknown to even the most ambitious tsars. Following Lenin's death Stalin wrestled for control of the Soviet Union with rival factions in the Politburo, especially [[Leon Trotsky]]'s. By [], with the [[Trotskyist]]s either exiled or rendered powerless, Stalin was ready to put a radical program of industrialization into action.
In 1928 Stalin proposed the first [[ Five-Year Plan]]. Abolishing the NEP, it was the first of a number of plans aimed at swift accumulation of capital resources though the buildup of heavy industry, the [[Collectivisation in the USSR|collectivization of agriculture]], and the restricted manufacture of [[consumer goods in the Soviet Union|consumer goods]]. With the implementation of the plan, for the first time in history a government controlled all economic activity. While in the capitalist countries factories and mines were idle or running on reduced schedules during the [[Great Depression]] and millions were unemployed, the Soviet people worked many hours a day, six days a week, in a thoroughgoing attempt to revolutionize the Soviet economic structure.
As a part of the plan, the government took control of agriculture through the state and collective farms. By a decree of February [], about one million [[Kulak|"kulaks"]] were forced off their land. Many peasants strongly opposed regimentation by the state, often slaughtering their herds when faced with the loss of their land. In some sections they revolted, and countless peasants deemed "kulaks" by the authorities were executed. The combination of bad weather, deficiencies of the hastily-established collective farms, and massive confiscation of grain precipitated a serious famine, and several million peasants died of starvation, mostly in Ukraine and Kuban. The deteriorating conditions in the countryside drove millions of desperate peasants to the rapidly growing cities, fuelling industrialization, and vastly increasing Russia's urban population in the space of just a few years.