Televizijska igra (eng: game show, doslovno „predstava igre”) oblik je televizijske emisija čija srha je zabava gledatelja (ili, u slučaju srodne radio-igre, slušatelja) kroz naticanje za to posebno ili slučajno odabranih osoba. Često u njima učestvuju poznate osobe iz javnoga života. Televizijske igre su oblik televizijske zabave za velike mase.

The Money Pump, televizijski kviz.

Postoje različite vrste TV-igara s obzirom na različite vrste naticanja. Jedan od najčešćih i najpopularnijih vrsta je televizijski kviz u kojima takmičari moraju da pokažu znanje ili intelektualne sposobnosti; osim njih postoje televizijske igre u kojima se učesnici nadmeću u fizičkoj snazi, okretnosti i sličnom, najčešće u „pomaknutom” ili humorističkom kontekstu. Najpoznatiji takvi kvizovi su Ko želi da bude milioner?, Potera, Kvizoteka i slično.

Posebna vrsta TV-igre je tzv. show talenata u kome takmićari nastoje da pokažu svoje zabavljačke veštine, a u poslednje vrijeme su se kao poseban oblik TV-igre razvile i takmičarske realnosne emisije. Među njima se ističu pevačka takmičenja između različitih vrsta talenata (pr. Supertalent) ili televizijskih videoigara (najpoznatije Hugo i Dora istražuje).

IstorijaУреди

 
Televizijska igra

1930-te – 1950-teУреди

Emisije igara počele su da se pojavljuju na radiju i televiziji krajem 1930-ih. Prva emisija televizijskih igara, Spelling Bee, kao i prva emisija radijskih igara, Information Please, emitovane su 1938; prvi veći uspeh u žanru predstava igara bio je Dr. I.Q., radio kviz koji je započeo 1939. Truth or Consequences je bila prva emisija koja se emitovala na komercijalno licenciranoj televiziji; nedugo zatim usledio je CBS Television Quiz. Njegova prva epizoda emitovana je 1941. godine kao eksperimentalna emisija. Tokom 1950-ih, kako je televizija počela da prožima popularnu kulturu, igrane emisije su brzo postale ustaljene. Dnevne emisije bi se igrale za manje uloge za domaćice koje ostaju kod kuće. Programi sa većim ulozima emitovani su u udarnom terminu. Tokom kasnih 1950-ih, igre sa visokim ulozima poput Twenty-One i The $64,000 Question započele su da brzo zadobijaju popularnost. Međutim, uspon kviz emisija pokazao se kratkotrajnim. Godine 1959, mnoge emisije sa većim ulozima bile su skandali i pad rejtinga doveo je do toga da je većina igara tokom udarnih termna otkazana.

1960-te – 1970-teУреди

Emisije igara ostale su deo američke dnevne televizije tokom 1960-ih nakon skandala u kviz emisijama. Igre sa nižim nagradama donekle su se vratile u dnevne programe početkom 1960-ih; primeri uključuju Jeopardy! koja je započela 1964. godine, a originalna verzija emisije The Match Game prvi put je emitovana 1962. Emisija Let's Make a Deal je započeta 1963. godine, a 1960-e su takođe obeležile debi emisija Hollywood Squares, Password, The Dating Game, i The Newlywed Game.

1980-te – 1990-teУреди

Emisije igara imale su najniži prioritet televizijskih mreža, i ako bi bile neuspešne, rotirane su svakih trinaest nedelja. Većina snimaka je bivala ubrisana do početka 1980-ih. Tokom 1980-ih i početkom 1990-ih, kako je proizvedeno sve manje novih hitova (npr. Press Your Luck, Sale of the Century, i Card Sharks), emisije igara izgubile su svoje stalno mesto u dnevnoj postavi. ABC je napustio format dnevnih igara sredinom 1980-ih (nakratko se vrativši tom formatu za jednu sezonu 1990. godine sa revizijom emisije Match Game). NBC-ov blok igara takođe je trajao do 1991. godine, ali mreža je pokušala da ih povrati 1993, pre nego što je ponovo otkazala svoj blok igara 1994. CBS je ukinuo većinu svojih igara, osim The Price Is Right, do 1993. U korist žanra, emisija Wheel of Fortune i modernizovani preporod programa Jeopardy! do sindikacije 1983. i 1984, respektivno, bio je i ostaje izuzetno uspešan; ta dva programa su do danas, prisutne u udarnom „pristupnom periodu”.

2000-te - sadašnjostУреди

Točak sreće, Opasnost! i Porodična zavada nastavili su sa sindikacijom. Da bi održali korak sa udarnim kviz emisijama, Jeopardy! je udvostručila vrednost pitanja 2001. godine i podigla ograničenje dobitka 2003. godine, što je godinu dana kasnije omogućilo Kenu Dženingsu da postane prvi pobednik emisije sa višemilionskim dobitkom; takođe su povećani ulozi turnira i stavljen je veći fokus na takmičare jakih ličnosti. Od tada je emisija iznedrila još dva milionera, pobednika turnira Brada Ratera i nedavnog šampiona Džejmesa Holzhauera. Šou Family Feud oživeo je popularnost promenom tona pod voditeljem Stivom Harvijem.

U martu 2020. godine, kao rezultat pandemije kovida-19, privremeno je obustavljena proizvodnja na četiri najdugovečnije revije igara u Severnoj Americi (Family Feud, Jeopardy, The Price Is Right i Wheel of Fortune). Od tada su Family Feud, Jeopardy, i Wheel of Fortune nastavili produkciju; dok program The Price is Right koji zahteva studijsku publiku da bi se pravilno igrala igra, ostaje obustavljen do daljeg.[1][2]

Bonus krugУреди

Bonus krug (poznata i kao bonus igra ili završna igra) obično sledi glavnu igru kao bonus pobedniku te igre. U bonus krugu ulog je veći i smatra se da je igra oštrija.[3]

Do 1960-ih, većina igara nije nudila bonus rundu. U tradicionalnim formatima za dva igrača, pobednik je - ako su to pravila pravila igre predviđala - postao šampion i jednostavno igrao s novim izazivačom, bilo u sledećoj emisiji ili nakon komercijalne pauze.[3]

Jedan od najranijih oblika bonus rundi bio je Džekpot runda originalne serije Beat the Clock. Nakon dva kruga izvođenja vratolomija, supruga takmičarskog para nastupila bi na džekpot tabli za nagradu. Takmičaru je prikazan poznati citat ili uobičajena fraza, i reči su pomešane. Da bi osvojio najavljeni bonus, takmičar je morao da razreši reči u roku od 20 sekundi. Takmičarka bi dobila utešni poklon vredan preko 200 američkih dolara, ako ne bi uspela.

Još jedan rani primer bila je munjevita runda igre reči Lozinka, počev od 1961. Takmičar koji je pobedio u prednjoj igri odigrao je brzu seriju lozinki u roku od 60 sekundi, neto 50 dolara po tačno pretpostavljenoj reči, za maksimalnu bonus nagradu od 250 dolara.[3][4]

ReferenceУреди

  1. ^ White, Peter (2020-07-28). „‘Wheel Of Fortune’ & ‘Jeopardy!’ Head Back To The Studio With Redesigned Wheel & Podium”. Deadline (на језику: енглески). Приступљено 2020-08-14. 
  2. ^ „'Family Feud' to Resume Filming at Its Atlanta Studio in August”. TheWrap (на језику: енглески). 2020-08-01. Приступљено 2020-08-14. 
  3. ^ а б в Graham, Jefferson, "Come on Down!!! The TV Game Show Book," Abbeville Press Publishers, New York, 1988.
  4. ^ Schwartz, David, Steve Ryan and Fred Westbock. "The Encyclopedia of TV Game Shows: 3rd Edition", Checkmark Books, Facts on File Inc., 1999, pg. xviii. ISBN 0-8160-3847-3

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Spoljašnje vezeУреди