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Zapadni front (Prvi svetski rat)

Рововски рат

Zapadni front bio je najznačajnije bojište tokom Prvog svetskog rata. Front je otvorila Nemačka invazijom na Luksemburg i Belgiju preko kojih je planirala da uspostavi kontrolu nad industrijski značajnim regionima u Francuskoj. Brzo napredovanje nemačkih snaga dramatično se završilo bitkom na Marni u kojoj su savezničke snage odnele pobedu. Nakon ove bitke i savezničke i nemačke trupe su se ukopale formirajući liniju fronta koja se protezala od Severnog mora do švajcarske granice. Značajnijih promena položaja nije bilo sve do kraja rata.

Zapadni front
Deo Prvog svetskog rata
Cheshire Regiment trench Somme 1916.jpg
Saveznički vojnici u rovovima.
Vreme:3. avgust 191411. novembar 1918.
Mesto:Belgija, Francuska
Rezultat: Pobeda antante
pad Nemačkog carstva
Versajski sporazum
Sukobljene strane
Antanta:
 Ujedinjeno Kraljevstvo
 Francuska
 Kraljevina Italija
 Belgija
 SAD[1]
 Portugalija[2]
 Ruska Imperija[3]
Centralne sile:  Nemačko carstvo
 Austrougarska[4]
Komandanti i vođe
Ferdinand Foš do 1918. nije postojala jedinstvena komanda Helmut fon Moltke Mlađi
Erih fon Falkenhajn
Paul fon Hindenburg
Erih Ludendorf
Vilhelm Grener
Žrtve i gubici
7.947.000 poginulih, ranjenih ili zarobljenih[5] 5.603.000 poginulih, ranjenih ili zarobljenih[5]

Između 1915. i 1917. godine bilo je nekoliko velikih ofanziva duž fronta. Pešadijskim napadima je prethodila temeljna artiljerijska priprema. Ipak pešadija nije mogla da postigne značajnije uspehe protiv dobro ukopanog neprijatelja, mitraljeskih gnezda, bodljikave žice.

Kako bi postigli vojnu prednost nad neprijateljskim snagama obe strane su u borbi koristile nove tehnologije kao što su avijacija, bojni otrovi i tenkovi stalno ih usavršavajući tokom rata. Ali ni upotreba novih vrsta oružja nije mogla da dovede do odlučujućeg uspeha.

Do kraja rata nemačka vlada je uvidela da su savezničke snage superiornije zbog većeg demografskog i industrijskog potencijala pa je iscrpljena Nemačka bila prinuđena da 11. novembra 1918. potpiše primirje.

ReferenceUredi

  1. ^ „2nd Battle of the Marne”. Spartacus Educational. Arhivirano iz originala na datum 2. 12. 2008. Pristupljeno 7. 1. 2009. 
  2. ^ Rodrigues, Hugo. „Portugal in World War I”. The First World War. Arhivirano iz originala na datum 29. 9. 2007. Pristupljeno 26. 1. 2007.  See also Portugal in World War I
  3. ^ Cockfield 1999, str. ix.
  4. ^ „Austria-Hungary Goes to War”. The Great War in a Different Light. Pristupljeno 3. 1. 2009. 
  5. 5,0 5,1 McRandle, James H.; Quirk, James (2006). „The Blood Test Revisited: A New Look at German Casualty Counts in World War I”. The Journal of Military History. 70 (3): 667—701. doi:10.1353/jmh.2006.0180. Pristupljeno 28. 7. 2008. —see table 12 for authors conclusion. The author states that the Sanitats were never upgraded after initial reporting and thus did not include wounded who later died nor MIA who later turned out to be KIA. However the Sanitats include lightly wounded, and thus give an accurate overall casualty figure for the German forces on the western front comparable with how the allies recorded casualties, even if the specific's such as KIA and WIA are not reliable in the Sanitats.

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